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Chapter 24:  Section 2 The Inner Planets
II.  The Inner Planets <ul><li>A.  Called  Terrestrial Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  First four planets:  Mercury ,  V...
<ul><li>B.  Mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest planet to the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution time:   88 d...
<ul><li>B.  Mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probed by  Mariner 10 (1974-1975) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very thin atmos...
<ul><li>C.  Venus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second planet from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution: 255 days </l...
<ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 .  Atmosphere: Thick & toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Pressure = 90 times ...
Chapter 23:  Section 2 <ul><li>C.  Venus (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface temperature =  878  o F </li></ul></ul>...
Earth: <ul><li>D.  Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Third Rock from the Sun” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average distance from...
Ch 23:  Section 2 <ul><li>E.  Mars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Planet from the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Red P...
<ul><li>F.  Discoveries on Mars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mariner 9  (1971–1972)   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered d...
<ul><li>F.  Discoveries on Mars (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars’s Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied...
 
<ul><li>Martian Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars’s axis of rotation is tilted 25 degrees, which is close to Earth’s tilt...
<ul><li>Martian Moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars has small, crater riddled moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phobos:  2...
 
Mission to Mars ? <ul><li>How should Mars be explored? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel time to Mars is a consideration </li><...
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Chapter 24 section 2 notes

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Chapter 24
Section 2: The Inner Planets
Minersville Area School District
8th Grade General Science
Mr. Motuk

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Chapter 24 section 2 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 24: Section 2 The Inner Planets
  2. 2. II. The Inner Planets <ul><li>A. Called Terrestrial Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. First four planets: Mercury , Venus , Earth , Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. All have a solid crust surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Most have an atmosphere of some kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Most have at least one moon </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 646 - 650
  3. 3. <ul><li>B. Mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest planet to the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution time: 88 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation time: 59 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third smallest planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probed by Mariner 10 (1974-1975) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imaged 45% of surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface crater riddled (similar to our Moon) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has large cliff lined valleys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a weak magnetic field (indicates iron core) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B. Mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probed by Mariner 10 (1974-1975) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very thin atmosphere: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Hydrogen, Helium, Sodium & Potassium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Temperature: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Daytime: 842 o F </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Night: -274 o F </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>C. Venus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second planet from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution: 255 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation: Retrograde = spins backwards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probed by Venera (Russian) in 1970 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probed by Magellan (US) in 1990 to 1994 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Earth’s Twin Sister” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size, Mass, Gravity similar to Earth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 . Atmosphere: Thick & toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Pressure = 90 times that of Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds: Rain sulfuric acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only allow 2% of sunlight through to surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy trapped = extreme Greenhouse Effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 23: Section 2 <ul><li>C. Venus (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface temperature = 878 o F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface covered by craters, fault lines, & Volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winds = 300 km / hr. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Earth: <ul><li>D. Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Third Rock from the Sun” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average distance from the sun = 93,000,000 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only planet water exists as 3 states of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, Liquid, & Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere protects the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From meteor strikes (most burn up) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense Solar Radiation (UV, X-Rays, Gamma Rays, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ch 23: Section 2 <ul><li>E. Mars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Planet from the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Red Planet ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface mainly iron oxide dust (Rust) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution time: 687 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has polar ice caps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Northern: frozen Water (H 2 O) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern: frozen Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>F. Discoveries on Mars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mariner 9 (1971–1972) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered dried riverbeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olympus Mons: Largest know volcano in the Solar System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rift Zones: Deep crustal tears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viking 1 & 2 (1976) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each consisted of Orbiter & Lander </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographed entire Martian surface (Orbiters ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>F. Discoveries on Mars (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars’s Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied meteorological, chemical, & biological aspects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered barren, rocky, windswept surface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere: very thin; Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen & Argon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Temperatures: 95 o F (day) to -274 o F (night) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature changes create intense winds & dust storms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO evidence of life (past or present) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Martian Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars’s axis of rotation is tilted 25 degrees, which is close to Earth’s tilt of 23.5 degrees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this Mars goes through seasons as it orbits the Sun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As one ice cap grows smaller, the other grows larger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The color of the ice caps and other areas of Mars also changes with the seasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is caused by the movement of dust and sand during dust storms. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Martian Moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars has small, crater riddled moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phobos: 25 km in diameter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly spiraling toward Mars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected impact of surface in 50 million years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deimos: 13 km in diameter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are irregularly shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both orbit Mars several times a day </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Mission to Mars ? <ul><li>How should Mars be explored? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel time to Mars is a consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits at their closest = 1.5 years travel time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits at their farthest = over 5 years travel time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of travel time invites great risks to humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should humans explore Mars? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans do more meticulous & detailed work than probes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero gravity travel weakens muscles & bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body fluids move upward (increase kidney function) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation exposure drastically increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should robots explore Mars? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots aren’t affected by 0 G’s; travel time not a factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots using videotronics can be controlled from Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signals can have up to 20 min. delay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robots cannot improvise & adapt to changing situations </li></ul></ul></ul>

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