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Chapter 19 notes (Complete)


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Chapter 19: Our Impact on Land
Conservation, Recycling, and Hazardous Waste

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Chapter 19 notes (Complete)

  1. 1. Chapter 19<br />Section 1: Population Impact on the Environment<br />
  2. 2. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Population:<br />What is Population?<br />All of the individuals of one species occupying a particular area. <br />Can population size vary?<br />A population could be the residents of Minersville or all of the residents of Pennsylvania. <br />The area defined could be small or large. <br />
  3. 3. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Population Growth<br />What is our current population?<br />The Global Population is approximately 6.8 billion (May 1, 2010). <br />Does our population change?<br />Each day the population increases between 200,000 to 300,000 people per day. <br />What is currently happening to our population?<br />Earth is currently experiencing a population explosion. <br />Explosion is used because the rate at which the population is growing has increased rapidly in recent history. <br />
  4. 4. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Figure2: <br />Human Population growth remained relatively steady until the beginning of the nineteenth century. The growth rate then began to increase rapidly. <br />Why do you think this occurred?<br />
  5. 5. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Why the population growth?<br />Many years ago few people lived on Earth. <br />Took thousands of years for the population to reach 1 billion. <br />After mid 1800’s population increased much faster. <br />Changes in society and the advances in civilization helped create the population explosion. <br />
  6. 6. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Three Major Reasons for Population Explosion <br />Modern Medicine (Better Medicine)<br />Reduced infant deaths dramatically.<br />Increased the ability to reproduce (fertility drugs).<br />Allows people to live longer. <br />Modern Sanitation<br />Drinking water cleaned before use. <br />Wastes disposed of more safely. <br />People have better hygiene. (cleaner)<br />
  7. 7. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Three Major Reasons for Population Explosion <br />Better Nutrition<br />Food better distributed and more readily available. <br />Aid given to areas in famine. (3rd world countries)<br />
  8. 8. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Future Predictions About Population<br />How fast will the population grow?<br />By the year 2050 there will be 9 Billion people on Earth. <br />About 1.5 times more than today. <br />What is the biggest problem facing the planet today?<br />Biggest question is will Earth have enough resources to support such a large population? <br />Not if we continue at our current pace of pollution and wasting resources. <br />
  9. 9. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Population Limits<br />Population size depends upon the amount of available resources and how members of the population use them. <br />If resources become scarce or if the environment is damaged, members of the population can suffer and population size can decrease. <br />
  10. 10. I. Earth’s Increasing Population<br />Population Limits<br />Earth An Endless Supply of Resources?<br />People once believed that Earth had an endless supply of resources such as fossil fuels, metals, rich and fertile soils, and clean water. <br />We now know that is NOT TRUE!<br />Earth’s resources are LIMITED. <br />What is Carrying Capacity?<br />Carrying Capacity is the largest number of individuals of a particular species that the environment can support. <br />Unless Earth’s resources are treated with care, they could disappear and the human population might reach its carrying capacity!!<br />
  11. 11. II. People and the Environment<br />How will you affect the environment over your lifetime? <br />How much Garbage will you produce?<br />By the time you are 75 years old, you will have produced enough garbage to equal the mass of eleven African Elephants. <br />53,000 kg or 116,600 pounds<br />How much water will you use?<br />You will have consumed enough water to fill 68,000 bathtubs. <br />18 million Liters. <br />How much energy will you use?<br />United States Citizens use 5X more energy than anyone else. <br />
  12. 12. II. People and the Environment<br />Daily Activities that affect the Environment<br />Electricity<br />May be created by burning fossil fuels; polluting the environment. <br />Fossil Fuels<br />Fossil Fuels are mined causing damage to the environment. <br />Fossil Fuels are burned, polluting the environment. <br />Water: Drinking and Waste Water<br />Many people waste water; a valuable resource. <br />Water must be treated correctly before it is put back into rivers/streams. <br />Raw sewage used to be released directly into rivers and streams without being treated. <br />
  13. 13. II. People and the Environment<br />Daily Activities that affect the Environment<br />Food We Eat<br />Grown in soil, using valuable nutrients and minerals. <br />Pesticides and Herbicides used to kill insects and weeds; these chemicals can get into water supplies and threaten health of living things if the chemicals become too concentrated. <br />Plastics/Paper Products<br />Plastics begin as oil; the process of refining oil can cause pollutants that contaminate the environment. <br />Paper; products come from the foresting of trees, oil is used to transport the materials to paper mills, and water and air pollutants are given off in the papermaking process. <br />
  14. 14. II. People and the Environment<br />Packaging Produces Waste<br />Packaging foods for single servings uses more paper and plastic than buying food in bulk. <br />After the products are consumed the packaging must be discarded using up valuable land resources. <br />The land is changed when resources are removed from it, then further damaged when they must be discarded.<br />
  15. 15. II. People and the Environment<br />Our Future?<br />Greater Population means more resources will be used. <br />Greater population means more waste will be created. <br />Greater population means more environmental problems for our planet. <br />People need to conserve more resources, recycle more materials, and help lessen the negative impact our current society places on our environment.<br />
  16. 16. CHAPTER 19: SECTION 1 REVIEW<br />
  17. 17. Chapter 19<br />Section 2:Using Land<br />
  18. 18. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Land is Used<br />Land is a natural resource used by man. <br />Used for agriculture, logging, garbage disposal, urban development, and as a fuel source. <br />These activities often impact Earth’s land resources. <br />How Agriculture affects our environment<br />How much land can be used for agriculture?<br />About 16 million square kilometers of Earth’s total land surface is used as farmland.<br />The Earth has about 145 million square kilometers of land.<br />Only about 11% is used for food. <br />
  19. 19. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Does Agriculture Affect Our Environment?<br />Feeding the growing population. <br />Farmers use higher yielding seeds and chemical fertilizers. <br />These methods help increase the amount of food grown on each square kilometer. <br />The use of these chemicals can contaminate the soil and local drinking water. <br />The use of Herbicides and Pesticides. <br />These chemicals help reduce weeds, insects, and other pests that can damage the crops. <br />The use of these chemicals can damage the crops and the water table. <br />
  20. 20. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Does Agriculture Affect Our Environment?<br />Organic Farming<br />Use of natural fertilizers, crop rotation, and biological pest control methods. <br />Help farmers grow crops without using chemicals. <br />Unfortunately this type of farming CANNOT currently produce enough food to feed all of Earth’s people. <br />
  21. 21. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Does Agriculture Affect Our Environment?<br />Removing Vegetation for Crops<br />Exposes soil to wind, water, and gravitational erosion forces. <br />In some areas it can take up to 1000 years for topsoil to be replaced. <br />
  22. 22. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Can We Reduce Erosion?<br />No-Till Farming, Cover Cropping, and Strip Cropping. <br />Terracing, Retaining Walls, Planting Vegetation. <br />Windbreaks and Shelter Beds.<br />a. All of these are a review!!<br />
  23. 23. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />Does the Land Affect Livestock?<br />Land used for feeding livestock. <br />Livestock used as source of food for humans. <br />Farmers use corn and hay as livestock crops. <br />Used to feed their cattle/livestock. <br />These crops provide nutrients for cattle and improve the quality of the meat. <br />
  24. 24. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />What are Forest Resources?<br />Resources found in forests for medicine, fuel, and other materials. <br />¼ of land on earth is covered with forests.<br />55% in developing countries; 45% in developed countries. <br />
  25. 25. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />What is Deforestation?<br />Deforestation is the clearing of forests for agriculture, grazing, development, or logging. <br />Amount of forested land in the world decreased by 0.24% (94,000 km2) each year between 1990 and 2000.<br />a. Most of this deforestation has occurred in tropical climates. <br />
  26. 26. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />Why the Concerns about Deforestation?<br />Tropical rain forests contain diverse populations of plants and animals that don’t live in other places. <br />Many of these plants might be important for developing new medicines. <br />Some worry that removing too much of these forests could lead to the extinction of some animals. <br />Cutting too many trees down could have a regional affect on climate. <br />Water from tree leaves evaporates into the atmosphere where it can condense to form rain. <br />If too many trees are cut down, less water enters the atmosphere and the region receives less rainfall. <br />
  27. 27. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Does Development of Land Change Our World?<br />From 1990 to 2000 the amount of urban roadways in the United States increased by more than 13%<br />Paving land prevents water from soaking into the soil. <br />Instead it runs off into sewers or streams. <br />This increases the STREAMS DISCHARGE. <br />Stream Discharge is the volume of water flowing past a point per unit of time. <br />During heavy rainstorms in paved areas, rainwater flows directly into streams, increasing stream discharge and the risk of flooding. <br />
  28. 28. Chapter 19 Section 2: Blog Question #1<br />
  29. 29. Chapter 19 Section 2: Blog Question #2 <br />
  30. 30. Chapter 19 Section 2: Blog Question #3 and #4<br />
  31. 31. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Does Development of Land Change Our World?<br />Many communities use underground water supplies for drinking. <br />Covering land with roads, sidewalks, and parking lots reduces the amount of rainwater that soaks into the ground to refill underground water supplies. <br />a. This increases the chance and rate of flooding. <br />
  32. 32. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How Does Development of Land Change Our World?<br />Some businesses, communities, and private groups now preserve areas rather than pave them. <br />Preserving space beautifies the environment, increases area into which water can soak, and provides space for recreation and other outdoor activities. <br />See Figure 8<br />
  33. 33. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />Sanitary Landfills<br />A waste-disposal area that is excavated and lined with plastic, concrete, or clay; and filled with layers of waste and dirt.<br />Because of this design, the landfill is able to prevent liquid wastes from draining into ground water below. <br />About 60% of our garbage goes into Sanitary Landfills<br />Since many materials do not decompose in landfills, or they decompose slowly, landfills fill with garbage and new ones must be built. <br />Type of soil, depth of groundwater, and neighborhood concerns must be considered when choosing an acceptable location for a landfill. <br />
  34. 34. I. Using Land (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />
  35. 35. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />Hazardous Wastes<br />Wastes that are poisonous, cause cancer, or that can catch fire. <br />Previously, everyone-Industries and individuals-put hazardous wastes into landfills along with household garbage.<br />EPA passed laws banning hazardous wastes into sanitary landfills. <br />
  36. 36. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How are some Household Wastes Hazardous?<br />Unlike Industries, individuals discard hazardous wastes in the trash. <br />Insect Sprays, batteries, drain cleaners, bleaches, medicines etc. <br />This garbage remains unchanged for many years and pollutes the land and water. <br />Hazardous wastes can also cause cancer and other disorders. <br />a. Affects humans and animals that interact with the land. <br />
  37. 37. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />What is Phytoremediation?<br />Hazardous substances can contaminate the soil. <br />These contaminants may come from nearby industries or leaking landfills, <br />Water filters into the ground and leaves toxic substances in the soil. <br />Some plants can help fix this problem in a method called PHYTO-REMEDIATION.<br />Phyto- means plant<br />Remediation- means to fix or remedy a problem. <br />
  38. 38. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />What is Phytoremediation?<br />During phytoremediation, roots of certain plants such as alfalfa, grasses, and pine trees can absorb metals, including copper, lead and zinc from contaminated soil just as they absorb other nutrients.<br />
  39. 39. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />What is Phytoremediation?<br />What happens to these plants after they absorb metals? <br />If livestock were to eat the contaminated alfalfa, the harmful metals could end up in your milk or meat. <br />Contaminated plants must be harvested and either composted to recycle the metals or burned. <br />If the plants are destroyed by burning, the ash residue contains the hazardous waste that was in the plant tissue and must be disposed of at a hazardous waste site. <br />
  40. 40. Figure 10: <br />Phyto-remediation<br />
  41. 41. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How are organic pollutants broken down?<br />Living things also can clean up pollutants other than metal. <br />Substances that contain carbon and other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are called organic compounds. <br />Examples include gasoline, oil, and solvents. <br />
  42. 42. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />How are organic pollutants broken down?. <br />Organic pollutants can be broken down into simpler, harmless substances, some of which plants use for growth. <br />Some plants release enzymes into the soil. <br />Enzymes are substances that make chemical reactions go faster. <br />Enzymes from plant roots increase the rate at which organic pollutants are broken down into simpler substances used by plants for growth. <br />
  43. 43. II. Hazardous Waste (Ch 19: Section 2)<br />Natural Preserves<br />Not all land is used to produce materials or for storing wastes. <br />Some land remains mostly uninhabited by people. <br />National Forestlands, Grasslands, and National Parks in the United States are protected from many problems stated in this chapter. <br />Many other countries also have Nature Preserves. <br />
  44. 44. Chapter 19 Section 2 Review<br />
  45. 45. III. Conserving Resources<br />Resource Use<br />Petroleum and metals are important for making the products you use every day at home and in school. <br />Petroleum is used to make plastics and fuel. <br />Minerals are used to make automobiles and bicycles. <br />If these resources are not used carefully, the environment can be damaged. <br />
  46. 46. III. Conserving Resources<br />Resource Use<br />Conservation is the careful use of earth materials to reduce damage to the environment. <br />a. Conservation can prevent future shortages of some materials, such as certain metals. <br />
  47. 47. III. Conserving Resources<br />Reduce, Reuse, Recycle<br />U.S. uses more natural resources than other regions. <br />Ways to conserve resources include reducing the use of materials, and reusing and recycling materials. <br />Ways to reduce the consumption of materials. <br />Use both sides of notebook paper. <br />Take lunch in a non-disposable container. <br />
  48. 48. III. Conserving Resources<br />Reduce, Reuse, Recycle<br />Ways to reduce the consumption of materials. <br />Use both sides of notebook paper. <br />Take lunch in a reusable container. <br />Reuse old clothes by giving them to someone else. <br />Reuse old clothes as rags for cleaning jobs. <br />
  49. 49. III. Conserving Resources<br />Yearly Consumption of Resources<br />a. A person in the US uses more resources than the average person elsewhere.<br />Figure 12<br />
  50. 50. III. Conserving Resources<br />Reusing Yard Waste<br />Composting: piling yard wastes where they can decompose gradually. <br />Grass, Leaves, any other yard debris. <br />Decomposed material provides needed nutrients for your garden, grass, or flower bed. <br />Some cities no longer take yard waste to landfills, they take them to large compost piles. <br />If everyone in the US composted, it would reduce the trash put into landfills by 20%. <br />
  51. 51. III. Conserving Resources<br />Recycling Materials<br />Using material again is called recycling. <br />Recycling helps conserve Earth’s resources, energy and landfill space. <br />a. Wastes that can be recycled: Glass, paper, plastic, steel, or tires. <br />
  52. 52. III. Conserving Resources<br />Recycling Materials<br />Recycling Paper<br />Paper makes up about 40% of the mass of trash. <br />Recycling paper in the US would use 58% less water and generate 74% less air pollution than producing more paper from trees. <br />Figure 13 (next slide) does not even include newspapers. <br />More than 500,000 trees are cut every week just to print newspaper. <br />
  53. 53. III. Conserving Resources<br />Recycling Materials<br />Recycling Paper<br />
  54. 54. III. Conserving Resources<br />
  55. 55. III. Conserving Resources<br />
  56. 56. III. Conserving Resources<br />
  57. 57. III. Conserving Resources<br />Recycling Methods<br />Many states or cities now have some form of recycling laws. <br />Some places people who recycle pay lower trash collection fees. <br />Other places refundable deposit is made on all beverage containers. <br />This means paying extra money at the store for a drink, but your get the money back if you return the container to the store for recycling. <br />
  58. 58. E. Recycling Methods<br />
  59. 59. III. Conserving Resources<br />Recycling Methods<br />Several disadvantages to recycling<br />More trucks are needed to haul materials separately from your trash. <br />Materials must then by separated at special facilities like the one in figure 15. <br />Demand for things made from recycled materials must exist, and items made from recycled materials often cost more. <br />
  60. 60. III. Conserving Resources<br />Population Outlook<br />Human population explosion already has had an effect on the environment and the organism that inhabit Earth. <br />It is unlikely that the population will begin to decline in the near future. <br />To make up for this, resources must be used wisely. <br />Conserving resources by reducing, reusing, and recycling is an important way that every person can make a difference. <br />
  61. 61. III. Conserving Resources<br />