Chapter 1: Nature of Science Section 4:Classifying and Diverstiy
A. Why we need to Classify organisms  1. Hundreds of new organisms are discovered and     named each year.  2. Most of the...
B. History of Classification  1. Classify: to group things based on similarities.     a. Example: Grocery aisles are group...
3. Aristotle used two main characteristics (color and   movement) to figure out which kingdom the   organism should be pla...
4. Aristotle’s Plant Kingdom  a. Subgroup Herbs: small plants  b. Subgroup Shrubs: medium plants  c. Subgroup Trees: large...
5. Aristotle’s Animal Kingdoms  a. Subgroup Avian: air animals  b. Subgroup Aquatic: water animals  c. Subgroup Terrestria...
C. Problems with Aristotle’s Classification  1. Some organisms cannot be classified by his     taxonomic characteristics. ...
D. Carolus Linnaeus (Swedish Naturalist)  1. Linnaeus created a better system to classify     organisms.    a. His system ...
2. Linnaeus also created a system for naming   organisms.  a. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE: 2 word naming system     used to name...
E. Rules of Binomial Nomenclature  1. Genus always comes first, is always capitalized, and     either italicized or underl...
4. Examples of Scientific Names   a. Scientific Names   b. Canis familiaris-dog   c. Felis domesticus-cat   d. Homo sapien...
5. Only organisms of the same SPECIES can   successfully reproduce without any problems.  a.   Horse X Donkey= Mule (canno...
F. How Do We Classify today?  1. Based on the following    a.   Presence of a nucleus    b.   How many cells are present. ...
G. Taxonomic Groups (From largest to smallest)  Kingdom    Phylum       Class          Order            Family            ...
H. The Six Kingdoms Used Today  1. Archaebacteria    a. Once celled bacteria that live in extreme       environments, like...
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
2. Eubacteria  a. One celled bacteria that live in normal environments.  b. Prokaryotes (does not have a true nucleus)  c....
4. Fungi  a. Have one or many cells  b. Eukaryotic (has a true nucleus)  c. Examples: Mushrooms, molds, yeasts5. Plants  a...
6. Animal Kingdom  a. Many celled  b. Most advanced kingdom  c. Eukaryotic : has a true nucleus, membrane     surrounds ge...
I. Ways Organisms Obtain Food  1. Producers: can make their own food by     photosynthesis.    a. Example: Plants, green b...
3. Types of Consumers  a. Parasites: Feed off another living thing; usually harsm     the host. (fleas, ticks, leeches) (s...
J. Summary of Classification  1. 1.5 million species have been identified.  2. Scientists believe there are between 5 to 3...
K. Species Diversity  1. Diversity: Great variety of plants, animals, and     other species living in an area.    a. More ...
L. Extinction  1. Extinction: when a species no longer exists.  2. Examples:    a.   Dodo bird    b.   Passenger Pigeon   ...
M. What Does Endangered Mean?  1. Endangered: Animals that are close to becoming     extinct.  2. Examples:    a.   Florid...
N. Common Names 1. Scientists do not use common names because    they can be very confusing; often there are many    names...
O. Tools for Identifying Organisms  1. Field Guide: Book of traits and pictures to     identify organisms.  2. Dichotomous...
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Chapter 1 section 4 (how are living things classified) 2011

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Chapter 1 section 4 (how are living things classified) 2011

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Nature of Science Section 4:Classifying and Diverstiy
  2. 2. A. Why we need to Classify organisms 1. Hundreds of new organisms are discovered and named each year. 2. Most of the new discoveries are INSECTS. 3. Most are found in the tropical rain forest.
  3. 3. B. History of Classification 1. Classify: to group things based on similarities. a. Example: Grocery aisles are grouped by the type of food they stock. b. Libraries: Books are grouped together by type. c. Music Stores: Group CD’s by type of music. 2. Aristotle was the first person to classify living things. a. He developed a science of classifying and naming organisms called TAXONOMY. b. Divided living things into two groups called KINGDOMS. c. KINGDOM: Largest of all the taxonomic categories. d. Two groups were called Plants and Animals.
  4. 4. 3. Aristotle used two main characteristics (color and movement) to figure out which kingdom the organism should be placed. a. If it was green and did not move it was a plant. b. If it wasn’t green and moved it was an animal. DO YOU SEE ANY POSSIBLE PROBLEMS WITH ARISTOTLE’S CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM? (Think about a grasshopper, a frog, red maple trees, etc….)
  5. 5. 4. Aristotle’s Plant Kingdom a. Subgroup Herbs: small plants b. Subgroup Shrubs: medium plants c. Subgroup Trees: large plants.
  6. 6. 5. Aristotle’s Animal Kingdoms a. Subgroup Avian: air animals b. Subgroup Aquatic: water animals c. Subgroup Terrestrial: Land Animals
  7. 7. C. Problems with Aristotle’s Classification 1. Some organisms cannot be classified by his taxonomic characteristics. a. Frogs: They are green and they moved!!! b. Red Maple Trees: They are red and did not move (like people; we know plants do move toward the sun) c. Ducks: fly through the air, float on water, and nest on land. 2. Because of these problems; improvements had to be made.
  8. 8. D. Carolus Linnaeus (Swedish Naturalist) 1. Linnaeus created a better system to classify organisms. a. His system was based on similarities in body structure and systems, size, shape, color, and the method of obtaining food.
  9. 9. 2. Linnaeus also created a system for naming organisms. a. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE: 2 word naming system used to name all organisms. b. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE is still used today c. This is also called the Scientific Name3. Scientific Name has two parts a. First word is called the GENUS. b. The second word is called the SPECIES.
  10. 10. E. Rules of Binomial Nomenclature 1. Genus always comes first, is always capitalized, and either italicized or underlined. 2. The Species always is second, is always lowercase, and either italicized or underlined. 3. Scientific names are always written in Latin; all educated people worldwide used to speak Latin.
  11. 11. 4. Examples of Scientific Names a. Scientific Names b. Canis familiaris-dog c. Felis domesticus-cat d. Homo sapiens-humans e. Canis Lupus- Wolf f. All the different breeds of dogs are all Canis familiaris; therefore they can interbreed (Mutt)
  12. 12. 5. Only organisms of the same SPECIES can successfully reproduce without any problems. a. Horse X Donkey= Mule (cannot reproduce) b. Lion X Tiger= Liger c. Zebra and Donkey= Zedonk d. ***Naming these organisms is tricky, you would use the genus name of the parents then both species names of the parents: Mule (Equus caballus x asinus) Liger Link
  13. 13. F. How Do We Classify today? 1. Based on the following a. Presence of a nucleus b. How many cells are present. c. Ability to make food. d. Ability to move. e. DNA f. Body Structure (how may legs, arm, lungs, etc.) g. Phylogeny 2. Phylogeny is the organism’s evolutionary history.
  14. 14. G. Taxonomic Groups (From largest to smallest) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  15. 15. H. The Six Kingdoms Used Today 1. Archaebacteria a. Once celled bacteria that live in extreme environments, like salt water, volcanoes, and sulfur springs. b. Prokaryotes: does not have a true nucleus, DNA is there bit it is not surrounded by a membrane. c. Some make own food, some do not.
  16. 16. Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
  17. 17. 2. Eubacteria a. One celled bacteria that live in normal environments. b. Prokaryotes (does not have a true nucleus) c. Example: Streptococcus, cyanobacteria (green), E. Coli3. Protista a. 1 or many celled b. Most live in water c. Eukaryotic (has a true nucleus) d. Examples: (paramecium, Amoeba, Euglena)
  18. 18. 4. Fungi a. Have one or many cells b. Eukaryotic (has a true nucleus) c. Examples: Mushrooms, molds, yeasts5. Plants a. Many celled organisms b. Eukaryotic (has a true nuclues) c. Examples: Roses, Grass, Apple Tree, Moss
  19. 19. 6. Animal Kingdom a. Many celled b. Most advanced kingdom c. Eukaryotic : has a true nucleus, membrane surrounds genetic material. d. Examples: Humans, monkeys, sponges, ect.
  20. 20. I. Ways Organisms Obtain Food 1. Producers: can make their own food by photosynthesis. a. Example: Plants, green bacteria, green protists 2. Consumers: Cannot make their own food; must go out and get it from another organism.
  21. 21. 3. Types of Consumers a. Parasites: Feed off another living thing; usually harsm the host. (fleas, ticks, leeches) (see previous slide for pic) b. Decomposer (Saprophyte): Feed off of already dead things. (humans, flies, crows, turkey vultures) c. Predator: Hunts, kills, and eats its prey immediately. (Tigers, Grizzly Bears, Eagles, Red Tailed Hawks)
  22. 22. J. Summary of Classification 1. 1.5 million species have been identified. 2. Scientists believe there are between 5 to 30 million species on Earth. 3. Aristotle started out with 2 (Plant/Animal) 4. Invention of microscope led to a third kingdom (Protist). 5. More studies led to 5 kingdoms (Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protist, and Bacteria {Monera}) 6. Today there are 6; Bacteria is now broken into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. 7. Is there a 7th in the future??? (Viruses????)
  23. 23. K. Species Diversity 1. Diversity: Great variety of plants, animals, and other species living in an area. a. More diverse an area, the more stable it is. 2. In 1 hectare (50 acres) of the Rain Forest there are around 200 species of plants and 1000 species of animals. (Wow!!!!) a. This region has excellent diversity. b. Unfortunately we are cutting down about 1000 acres of rain forest every minute!!!!!
  24. 24. L. Extinction 1. Extinction: when a species no longer exists. 2. Examples: a. Dodo bird b. Passenger Pigeon c. Tasmanian Wolf d. Carolina Parakeet e. Dinosaurs
  25. 25. M. What Does Endangered Mean? 1. Endangered: Animals that are close to becoming extinct. 2. Examples: a. Florida Panther b. Bog Turtle c. Gray Wolf d. Manatee
  26. 26. N. Common Names 1. Scientists do not use common names because they can be very confusing; often there are many names for the same organism. 2. Examples: a. Groundhog and Woodchuck b. Puma, Cougar, and Mountain Lion (depending upon location) 3. Because of this scientists only use scientific names.
  27. 27. O. Tools for Identifying Organisms 1. Field Guide: Book of traits and pictures to identify organisms. 2. Dichotomous Keys: a detailed list of traits used to classify organisms. (we will do an activity on this!!!)

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