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Nokia LTA Web 20 Legal Issues


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Conferencia imartida para NOKIA en Miami, FL.

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Nokia LTA Web 20 Legal Issues

  1. 1. Joel Gómez, LL.B., LL.M. NCR Mexico Country Counsel @JoelGomezMX
  2. 2. Past and present legal issues @JoelGomezMX
  3. 3. Latin American government regulation efforts… <ul><li>eContracts enabling regulation </li></ul><ul><li>eSignatures laws </li></ul><ul><li>eRecords retention </li></ul><ul><li> Minimal regulation of web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments to current criminal codes to add basic online criminal conducts: hacking & cracking. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations to enable electronic communications and filing between citizens and governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Several regulations enacted for eInvoicing and eSignatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Banking & finance laws were amended to enable bank-customer interaction & eTransactions. </li></ul> Minimal privacy protection.  Several data protection bills are being analyzed in Congress (US v EU approaches ; in stand by + 3 years). @JoelGomezMX
  4. 4. Laws amended in Mexico to enable e-commerce and internet use <ul><li>Código Penal Federal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley de Adquisiciones, Arrendamientos y Servicios del Sector Público. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley de Obra Pública. </li></ul><ul><li>Código Civil Federal, </li></ul><ul><li>Código Federal de Procedimientos Civiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Código de Comercio. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley Federal de Protección al Consumidor. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley Federal de Procedimiento Administrativo. </li></ul><ul><li>Convenio SECOFI – Colegios de Fedatarios. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil para el Estado de Nuevo León. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley de Instituciones de Crédito. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley de Sociedades de Inversión. </li></ul><ul><li>Infraestructura de Seguridad Extendida (Banco de México </li></ul><ul><li>NOM 151-SCFI 2002, Requisitos para la Conservación de Mensajes de Datos. </li></ul><ul><li>Modificaciones al Código de Comercio para regular la firma electrónica. </li></ul><ul><li>Código Fiscal de la Federación. </li></ul><ul><li>Acuerdo IMSS. </li></ul><ul><li>Reglamento del CC sobre Prestadores de Servicios de Certificación). </li></ul><ul><li>Reglas Generales a las que deberán sujetarse los Prestadores de Servicios de Certificación. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconocimiento como AR y AC del BdeM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenio para la utilización de la IES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firma Electrónica Avanzada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformas al CFF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regla 2.22.1 a la 2.22.5 RMF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regla 2.11.1 sobre comercio exterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilidades del Uso de la FEA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprobantes Fiscales Digitales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art. 29 en CFF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regla 2.22.5 a la 2.22.11 RMF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anexo 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regla 2.22.12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modificación al Anexo 20 </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  5. 5. Our weaknesses … <ul><li>Most of the laws have been amended just to enable ecommerce transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many laws have been amended just to modify “documents” by “electronic documents” and “signatures” by “electronic signatures”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not have a “one model law” approach; every law is being amended with the same purpose. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  6. 6. Our weaknesses … <ul><li>Judiciary and prosecutors are still reluctant to apply new e-laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Important legal areas have not been studied nor regulated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other areas are poorly regulated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy and cibercrime </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  7. 7. New “ technology ” and trends… <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>behind Web 2.0: </li></ul><ul><li>XHTML </li></ul><ul><li>CSS </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Ajax </li></ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  8. 8. What’s different in Web 2.0? <ul><li>Content is generated and distributed ( viral marketing ) by internet users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos (flickr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music (napster, kazaa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos (youtube, metacafe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities (Hi5, MySpace, FaceBook, Linked In) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big portals built 100% by web users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Blogs </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  9. 9. New legal challenges in LTA? <ul><li>Liability for Web Content users (authors), providers & enablers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims for libel or defamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademark infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberstalking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims for publishing/hosting information that may be considered a crime, child pornography, xenophobic activities, terrorism, counterfeited goods, etc. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  10. 10. Web Content potential liability <ul><ul><li>Claims for libel or defamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico has 34 criminal codes (33 State Criminal Codes and 1 Federal Criminal Code). The Criminal Code for the Federal District (DF) has been amended recently to delete libel and defamation as crimes, and these concepts were passed to D.F. Civil Code. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such crimes were removed to avoid its use in bad faith to punish and severely restrict the freedoms of expression of ideas and publishing writings. These are the freedoms keys for the media, journalists, television, radio and in newspapers… And now, also for the internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Except to fight against gossip journalists of tv magazines and newspapers, libel and defamation claims are not very common in Mexico. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of expression is a Constitutional Guarantee in Mexico and several other Latin American countries. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  11. 11. Web Content potential liability <ul><li>Copyright Infringement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico doesn’t have a DMCA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, some recent amendments to the Federal Criminal Code could consider a crime to circumvent anti-piracy measures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The copyright infringement liability of ISPs that simply transmit information over the Internet is not regulated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPs are not obligated by law to remove material from users' Web sites that appears to constitute copyright infringement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some popular web sites (youtube, mercadolibre) have adopted self-regulatory approaches to remove materials that constitute copyright infringement. </li></ul></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  12. 12. Web Content potential liability <ul><li>Trademark infringement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican trademark law has not been amended to confront any special digital age issue. Any trademark infringement claim shall be settled through regular and traditional proceedings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDRP has been proved to be the most efficient way to deal with cybersquatting issues in Mexico and Latin-American countries. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  13. 13. Web Content potential liability <ul><li>Privacy Infringement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is only one privacy provision in Mexican law: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art. 76 - I, of Federal Code for the Protection of Consumers: The on-line vendor will use the information provided by the consumer on a confidential basis, it may not disclose or share it to other suppliers (third parties), except where expressly authorized by the consumer or by a special request of an authority . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctions: USD$4.00 to USD$11,364.00 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico does not have a Data Protection Law or any Safe Harbor Agreements. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  14. 14. Web Content potential liability <ul><li>Claims for publishing/hosting information that may be considered a crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child pornography is a crime in Mexico. Most of the time, Cybercrime Police only investigates these kind of “e-crimes”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no regulation that could help to take down sites that sell counterfeited goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some big auction sites ( have adopted a self-regulatory mechanisms to take down posts of sellers promoting counterfeited merchandise. </li></ul></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  15. 15. Information privacy and security <ul><li>Art. 76 - II, of Federal Code for the Protection of Consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The on-line supplier shall use some of the technical elements available to provide security and confidentiality of information provided by the consumer and report to him, prior to the conclusion of the transaction, the general characteristics of these elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctions: USD$4.00 to USD$11,364.00 </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  16. 16. Information privacy and security <ul><li>Since information privacy and security is a weak area of Mexican law, the best way to deal with these issues is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft and publish a good privacy policy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow international well known data protection principles . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always respect consumer privacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take preventive measures to avoid security breaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File a criminal lawsuit if someone has hacked your web site. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  17. 17. 7 OECD principles for protection of personal data <ul><li>Notice ; data subjects should be given notice when their data is being collected; </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose ; data should only be used for the purpose stated and not for any other purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>Consent ; data should not be disclosed without the data subject’s consent; </li></ul><ul><li>Security ; collected data should be kept secure from any potential abuses; </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure ; data subjects should be informed as to who is collecting their data; </li></ul><ul><li>Access ; data subjects should be allowed to access their data and make corrections to any inaccurate data; and </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability ; data subjects should have a method available to them to hold data collectors accountable for following the above principles. </li></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  18. 18. UK Data Protection Principles <ul><li>Data may only be used for the specific purposes for which it was collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Data must not be disclosed to other parties without the consent of the individual whom it is about, unless there is legislation or other overriding legitimate reason to share the information (prevention or detection of crime). </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have a right of access to the information held about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal information may be kept for no longer than is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal information may not be transmitted outside the EEA unless the individual whom it is about has consented or adequate protection is in place, for example by the use of a prescribed form of contract to govern the transmission of the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Entities holding personal information are required to have adequate security measures in place. Those include technical measures (such as firewalls) and organizational measures (such as staff training). </li></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  19. 19. Children’s privacy <ul><li>Art. 76 - VII, of Federal Code for the Protection of Consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The supplier must refrain from using or selling advertising strategies that fail to provide consumers clear and adequate information on the services offered, and ensure the marketing practices targeting vulnerable populations such as children, elderly and sick people, incorporating alerting mechanisms where information it is not suitable for this population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctions: USD$4.00 to USD$11,364.00 </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  20. 20. Electronic Contracting <ul><li>Mexico as well as many other Latin American countries have been successful in enabling ecommerce through laws and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico has amended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Civil Code and several State Civil Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling civil e-contracting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Code for Civil Proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing electronic evidence in courts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling commercial e-contracting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>However, Mexico doesn’t have any law or case law regulating click wrap agreements. </li></ul><ul><li>No litigation has raised out of these reforms. </li></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  21. 21. Electronic Recordkeeping <ul><li>On 2002 the Mexican government created a complex standard ( NOM-151-SCFI-2002 ) on conservation of electronic data messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Just a few companies are following this standard, probably due its complexity and unawareness. </li></ul> @JoelGomezMX
  22. 22. Strategies and trends for Web 2.0 Legal Issues in LTA <ul><li>Anticipate government regulation through self-regulatory approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms and conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclaimers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy Policies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect everything “protectable”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights and trademarks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>React positively to consumer and third party claims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop notice & takedown mechanisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw the line between content regulation and freedom of expression. </li></ul></ul> @JoelGomezMX