DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGYProviding a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutions Lossless Ethernet Advancements in Next Generation Networks AdvancedTCA Switching Layer 2 Failover Feature CompactPCI, PICMG 2.16 Continues to Fight the Battles and Win Wind Power Power Inverters Developed Specifically for Small Wind Turbines Up to 30kW of Mobile Power On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) Beyond 10 Kilowatts SHB Express Moving Your Program from PICMG 1.0 to PICMG 1.3
Message from the PresidentKen Martin, President of Diversified Technology, Inc.At Diversified Technology, Inc. we have always strived to provide a quality product that not only fills the current needs of our customersbut also those of their future advancements. This requires forward thinking about the challenges that DTI will face, as well as theend-customers program. Trying to predict what market changes various industries will face while ensuring your current deliverables arecompleted on time, proves oftentimes to be a complicated task.Some of the future changes DTI is focusing on are covered in this issue of our custom publication. Two of the articles coverAdvancedTCA and the transitional challenges facing the move from 1G and 10G to 40G. As with most things, our product line onlydictates a very minor part of the global changes that are needed to make 40G implementations both practical and functional in Telecomand other industries. How these challenges are addressed shows the level at which DTI strives to understand and implement the needsof its customers into a design, and demonstrates that we dont just pass on hardware built to spec to them. We actually put many hoursof consideration into developing a real solution for their application—not just hardware and software.A second development mentioned is within our On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) program. The 10kW system is currently beingmodified through EMI (electromagnetic interference) testing as well as having numerous hardware and software changes to allowincreased output of 30kW mobile power to our soldiers. Being an embedded computer provider, DTI knows first-hand that with increasedprocessing and computing performance comes the need for even more raw power. Thats why we had a plan in place from day one tomove this product line on to 30kW and beyond.I also want to point out a new product line that is growing at a rapid pace for us at Diversified Technology: our Gale Series of Wind PowerInverters. These inverters were developed for a single customer through the knowledge we acquired dealing with the OBVPinverters, and our efforts have since grown to multiple customers throughout numerous countries. The first unit is a 12kW inverter thatperforms in a NEMA 1 enclosure. The second is a smaller 6kW inverter that performs in a NEMA 3R enclosure, and is designed tohandle a smaller class of wind turbines. Both of these systems are firsts for us in the growing wind power and alternative energymarket. We are having great successes and, through these successes we are learning many things that we feel could enhance ourproduct line even further. Through customer feedback on these products and market studies, DTI is now in development of a thirdsystem that will offer more functionality and features than our current generation of inverters.All of our embedded computing products and power inverters can be enclosed in chassis that are designed and manufactured in-house.DTI is constantly updating our systems approach to provide our customers with not only subcomponents, but with a fully integratedsolution that gets them ahead of their competition.Throughout its 39 year existence, Diversified Technology, Inc. has designed everything from industrial control boards, Ethernet switches,hex-core processing blades, and integrated suitcase laptops to ruggedized mobile power systems, UHF and VHF antennas, and nowwind inverters. As a company we aim to use all of these engineering experiences in serving our customers and to truly offer themdiversified product solutions.Ken MartinPage 4DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsLossless EthernetAdvancements in Next Generation NetworksThe Ethernet technology family has grown and evolved Rbridgessignificantly over its 35 year history. Every few years a set of Today’s L2 Ethernet networks use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)changes comes along that revolutionizes the way Ethernet for loop prevention. STP blocks links that create loops, and itnetworks are used. Bandwidth increases are the most noticeable takes several seconds to recover from topology changes.changes, but they are not always the most important. Even with Rbridges address these shortcomings of STP.40G (and 100G) Ethernet at our door step, there are otherimportant changes coming to Ethernet in next generation Rbridges are Routing bridges. Rbridges bring some routingdevices. For the first time a group of new technologies can be functionality to bridges (switches), as the name suggests.combined to make Ethernet lossless, which greatly extends the Rbridges use the IETF TRILL (Transparent Interconnect of Lotsnumber of applications suitable for Ethernet. of Links) protocol to discover the network topology and provide optimal pair-wise forwarding paths. The most radical changeLayer 2 Ethernet networks are best-effort networks and can lose rbridges bring to L2 networks is multipathing. A TRILL networkframes for 3 main reasons: They can lose frames due to clock is not limited to a single tree like an STP network. TRILLdifferences between two devices, they can loose frames due to supports any arbitrary network - from a simple tree to aa topology changes in the network, and finally, they can lose complex mesh and all links in the network can be active. Forframes due to congestion in the network. All of these reasons for AdvancedTCA networks and high availability networks indropped frames need to be addressed in order for Ethernet to be general, rbridges allow for much better utilization of resourceslossless. Luckily for us, all of these problems have been solved because all redundant links can be active at the same time.with the technologies outlined below. Rbridges with TRILL have several advantages over traditional switches with STP, including instant recovery from topologyTiming changes, shorter paths, greater bandwidth, and lower latency.Ethernet devices are required to have local clocks with anaccuracy of 100 parts per million or better. That means twoperfectly compliant line-rate, wire-seed 1G Ethernet devices can ATS7160drop up to 298 frames a second due to clock differences between Next Generation 40G Ethernet Switchthem. In order to assure no frames are dropped due to clocktolerance differences the end points need a synchronized clock. Line rate, wire speed performance L2 switching and L3 routingThere are two new technologies that address clock synchro- • ES3 Software Support (see Page 12)nization in Ethernet networks. IEEE-1588v2 is a protocol layer Lossless Ethernettechnology with support for frequency and time of daysynchronization and sub-microsecond accuracy. Synchronous Advanced timing featuresEthernet (SyncE) is a physical layer frequency synchronization • IEEE-1588v2 and Synchronous Ethernettechnology with 10 parts per trillion accuracy. By using IEEE- L2 multipathing with TRILL (Rbridge)1588v2 or SyncE to synchronize the clocks between the endpoints, lossless delivery of frames can be assured. In Data Center BridgingAdvancedTCA it may even be possible for certain applications • Priority Flow Control, Congestion Notification, andto replace the synchronization clock interface with IEEE-1588v2 Enhanced Transmission Selectionor SyncE. FCoE support (with NPIV) VM Aware switching Lower latency Page 5 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
With spanning-tree (A) redundant links are blocked but with TRILL (B) all links can be active at one time.Data Center Bridging traffic classes. Taken together the DCB suite provides a moreNetwork congestion is an issue in all data networks that needs intelligent way of dealing with congestion that is both priorityto be addressed. Today’s networks rely on device level QoS to and network aware.police and shape network flows by dropping frames to reducecongestion. This solution is limited because the devices work Lossless Ethernetalone rather than in a group where they could be sharing Lossless Ethernet is a goal that the Ethernet community has beeninformation. Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a network level working towards for a number of years, and with IEEE-1588v2technology that allows network devices to work together to or SyncE, TRILL, and DCB, Lossless Ethernet is a reality. Itmitigate congestion. provides guaranteed frame delivery and guaranteed performance levels. It can replace more expensive lossless fabrics and evenDCB is made up of 3 new protocols that work together to external clock networks while still remaining cheap. It providescontrol congestion (and a 4th protocol that encapsulates the better support for virtual machine migration and allows the LANinformation from the other three). First, there is IEEE 802.1Qbb and SAN to converge onto a single network. Lossless EthernetPriority-Base Flow Control (PFC). Ethernet flow control has is a major update to the Ethernet suite you will need to have inbeen around for some time in the form of IEEE 802.3x. 802.3x your next generation network.flow control is too heavy handed, and it’s all or nothing approachoften causes more problems than it fixes in most networks. PFC Article Written by:extends 802.3x such that pauses can be issued per class ofservice. This allows network devices to pause only lowerpriority classes when there is congestion. The second and thirdprotocols work closely together. IEEE 802.1Qau CongestionNotification (QCN) allows network devices to communicatecongestion status throughout the network. IEEE 802.1QazEnhanced Transmission Selection (ETS) allows network devices JP Landryto communicate and synchronize bandwidth allocations to Networking Program ManagerPage 6DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsWith 802.3x flow control if any priority queue fills up, ALL traffic is blocked. With 802.1Qbb Priority-based Flow Control (B) if a priority queue fills up, only traffic of that particular priority is blocked. Page 7 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
COTS COMPUTING SYSTEMS Fully Integrated with Custom Design Capabilities Portable Computing System • Standard Off-the-Shelf Systems PCS-001 Designed to PICMG Specifications • AdvancedTCA/AMC Rackmount • CompactPCI Rackmount • CompactPCI Portable • PCI Express Slot Card • PCI and ISA Rackmount • Small Form Factor Portable PROCESSOR • Full In-House System Integration BOARD • Full In-House Custom Capabilities + NETWORK SWITCH +REAR TRANSITION MODULES + PERIPHERAL CARDS + OPERATING SYSTEM + SOFTWARE SUPPORT + RUGGEDIZED CHASSIS + INTEGRATION = CUSTOMIZEDEND-SOLUTION JUST FOR YOU 1-800-443-2667 | email@example.com
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsAdvancedTCA SwitchingLayer 2 Failover Feature R AdvancedTCAToday’s data center environments demand performance andreliability at much greater levels than even 5 years ago. Uptimefor application and network resources reaching 99.999%availability is becoming a more common requirement and notjust the rare case.Application and web server redundancy can be achieved by theuse of high performance load balancers, server clustering andvirtual host control applications. Resiliency in the network isprovided by routing protocols such as OSPF and BGP forrouting at layer 3 in conjunction with non-stop forwarding andredundant hardware features. Protocols such as VRRP providefor host IP gateway redundancy.Layer 2 Network RedundancyIn the past, multiple paths within the VLAN or broadcastdomains were also needed in the case of link or device failures. With multiple paths to the same points in these networks, loopsare formed which left unchecked create broadcast storms thatcan bring networks to a standstill. The spanning-tree protocol(IEEE 802.1D) is implemented in layer 2 networks to automat-ically block these loops so only one path exists eliminating loopsin the topology. As a result of link failures, spanning-tree will With just one connection to the host, path redundancy can onlyun-block previously blocked ports to provide for path be achieved by installing the link between switch C & D. Moreredundancy. These operations can take as long as 30 seconds than one physical connection can be configured to the host butand can impact traffic in other parts of the network and not just traditionally host IP stacks had no way of automaticallylocal to the device on which the failure occurred. Diagram 1 is changing which NIC owned an IP address during failures. Ina standard network topology used with spanning-tree (SPT) this case, a host with two different NIC connections to twoproviding loop prevention in a multi-access layer 2 network. different access switches could still not achieve redundancy as access to the primary IP address would be lost when failing overThe diagram displays what happens when the uplink between to the second NIC. New host protocols have been developedswitch A and C fails causing SPT to re-converge and determine that give servers the ability to move IP address ownershipthe new topology. The link between C and D will still be in the between NIC’s in the event of pre-defined failure conditions.blocking state until SPT can determine the new loop-free Two of these are IPMP (IP Multipath) in Solaris and NICtopology and start accepting data packets through the D Bonding in Linux. We will use IPMP as a reference for thisinterface. This process can take up to 30 seconds during which article.connectivity between the hosts and the IP default gateway willbe lost. Page 9 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
IPMP Operation ExampleIPMP can be configured to monitor failures in 3 different ways. To monitor remote path failures, the IP gateway can be pinged atspecified intervals or ARP requests for the IP gateway can also be sent. The link state of the host NIC itself can also be monitored. Inthe event of a failure condition, IPMP will move the owner of the IP address to the secondary NIC card and generate a gratuitous ARPrequest from that NIC to enable MAC address learning on the new path to the IP gateway. When using IPMP, the redundant link betweenswitch C and D can now be removed eliminating the spanning-tree blocked port from the topology.Page 10DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsWhile the failover times have been reduced there are still host interface that is tied to this track (CLI configurable) willdisadvantages to using IPMP’s ping to monitor upstream path also have its’ line protocol status forced down. The host IPMPintegrity. As the number of hosts behind the access switches NIC monitor on this link will force the failover to the secondarygrow, ICMP traffic to the gateway IP will become quite large. NIC connected to a separate switch creating a new path to theSome layer 3 devices will de-prioritize ICMP traffic destined to primary host IP address. Below is an example using only onethe device itself (L3 gateway IP) and responses to the hosts may host and one uplink port similar to the previous example ofbe dropped during times of heavy load. IPMP monitoring of the IPMP ping monitoring failover.host NIC link state will produce fast failovers (normally lessthan a second), but they do not check the upstream path to the IP The big difference between using the ICMP monitoring featuregateway. of IPMP and L2FO is time to failover (TTF). While the defaultDTI’s Layer 2 Failover Feature (L2FO) setting for IPMP path failure detection is 10 seconds whichDiversified Technology, Inc. has developed a new feature for translates to missing 5 ICMP replies from the IP gateway, L2FOboth of our ATS1160 and ATS1936 switches that takes TTF is less than 500 milliseconds from tracked interface failure.advantage of the IPMP or NIC Bonding behaviors to provide This TTF only takes into account the time between tracked linkfast failover times while monitoring the upstream path to the failure and when the host port is shutdown. IPMP can be tunednext hop switch. This is accomplished by the use of line to failover in as low as 100 milliseconds but this creates anprotocol monitoring (referred to as a “track” on the DTI switch) overly large amount of ICMP traffic even from just one host andof a specified interface and tying this monitor to the link state of would be impractical to implement in a production scenario. Athe switch host port or ports. If the line protocol of the tracked more reasonable setting for IPMP would be a 5 second failurelink goes down, the track status will also change to down. Any detection time but this is still much slower than using the L2FO. Page 11 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Another important feature of L2FO is the ability to track the state 3 ES Software Support of port-channels (or Link Aggregation Group - LAG) as well as individual interfaces. The number of links currently active in Diversified Technology, Inc. announces the release of the LAG as well as the line-protocol state can be monitored and ES3 (Enhanced Switch Software Suite) for used to trigger failover. The “minimum links” feature simply AdvancedTCA and CompactPCI Switch Blades. put sets the required number of interfaces that need to be active in the LAG for the track to be considered in the up state. Primary L2FO Features Features Included with ES3 • Up to 254 individual tracks VRRP Object Tracking • Multiple failover tracks per host port interface VRRP object tracking is an extension of VRRP that allows • Track port-channel interfaces customers to define more robust failover conditions for VRRP • Track number of active interfaces within a port-channel including link failures and route reachability • Track route prefixes in the route table • Can be used on any interface type L2 Failover with LAG Support (Fiber or Copper Gigabit or 10 Gigabit) L2 failover is similar to VRRP object tracking but instead of • Failover times less the 500ms working at the protocol level works at the interface level. (from tracked link failure to failover action) Customers can achieve sub 50ms failover times in the cases of • Available on the ATS1936 and ATS1160 from link failures, route failures, and switch failures Diversified Technology, Inc. • Works independently of the connected host protocol Significantly Updated Multicast Module The multicast module has been revamped to support an updated This new Layer 2 Failover feature provides networks with the set of multicast RFCs and includes significant new features such as MLD support, simultaneous IGMP snooping and ability to rapidly replace failed links – far faster than ICMP multicast routing, a IGMP querier, and SSM support monitoring via IPMP and NIC Bonding in Linux and its far easier to configure as well. As we discussed in this article, while Multiple Serviceability Enhancements Including using IPMP can suffice for some networks, too low of a TTF Utilization Statistics, Persistent Loggings, and setting results in an overabundance of ICMP traffic, and Packet Traces reasonable settings are far slower than utilizing switches designed with this L2FO feature. sFlow Support Improved Security Article Written by: IPv6 Management and IPv6 Support in QoS Module Significant more User Control over Protocol Options such as LAG Hash Algorithm Updated LLDP and CDP Interoperability John Ray STP Enhancements Including Root Guard Network Engineer iSCSI Flow AccelerationPage 12DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
COMPACTPCI SOLUTIONS The PlexSys-4D, 4U general purpose CompactPCI PSB System Platform, is part of DTI’s CompactPCI family of building blocks. It provides telecom, datacom, and military customers an open standards ecosystem for application solutions development. • 1U, 2U, 4U, 6U and 8U CompactPCI Industrial Strength Chassis • CPU Blades based on Intel® Processor Technology • PICMG 2.16 Compliant Ethernet Switch • Full Suite of Rear Transition Modules to Compliment your Needs • Custom Development Capabilities for Application-Specific WantsDTI Offers Full System Design and Integration Capabilities with Your Program Requirements. PLEXSYS-4D : DTI’S 4U COMPACTPCI SYSTEM PLATFORM Rear Transition Module (2) Removable Support for Extra I/O Hard Drives 19” Wide Rackmount Slim DVD 7” Tall (4U) Dual 300W CompactPCI Power Supplies (8) 6U slots 64-bit/33MHz PCI, PICMG 2.16 (1) PSB Switch Slot www.dtims.com/cpci The CSB4624 from Diversified Technology, Inc. is a PICMG 2.16 compliant Call NOW CompactPCI managed Ethernet switch. This 6U board has full IPv6 support, for Immediate Deployment twenty-four 1GbE link ports and three 10GbE connections. (5) RTM Options 1-800-443-2667
CompactPCI, PICMG 2.16 Continues to Fight the Battles and WinCompactPCI has come a long way since it was first introduced Over the years, DTI has designed approximately 50 products15 years ago. DTI’s first two CPU boards designed around this based on CompactPCI specifications. This list includes CPUform factor were based on Intel’s Pentium and Pentium PRO boards, Switches, RTM Modules, Mezzanine cards for addedprocessors with a maximum speed of 233MHz. Oddly enough performance, and fully integrated chassis with support for up towe still get support calls from time to time on these 2 products. 18 slots for CPU Boards. The orientation of the boards designThis illustrates the longevity of CompactPCI as well as the provides good cooling through the chassis and allows it toquality of design the specification has provided for so many handle shock and vibration levels beyond the normal slot cardyears. and motherboard systems.The PICMG 2.0 Specification, CompactPCI, was developed in CompactPCI uses inexpensive fabrics, such as 1G Ethernet, to1995 by PICMG, which is a consortium of companies who create an interconnect environment through the backplane of thecollaboratively develop open specifications for high perform- chassis. As newer standards like 10G and 40G come to market,ance, leading edge products utilized in embedded computing more and more users of CompactPCI look to move towardsindustries. PICMG 2.0 is electrically a superset of desktop PCI AdvancedTCA and other form factors that are designed towith a different physical form factor. CompactPCI utilizes the support those higher technologies. However, CompactPCI stillEurocard blade form factor popularized by the VME bus. provides a fit for many applications whose vendors utilize theDefined for both 3U (100mm by 160 mm) and 6U (160mm by low cost platform along with processor upgrades to continue233 mm) card sizes, CompactPCI has grown in to a major their programs well in to the future.computing form factor in numerous markets including areas itwasn’t originally intended for, such as military applications. Diagram 1 above displays a front view of DTI’s PlexSys-4D Platform and the 8 Board Slots for this CompactPCI Chassis. Diagram 2 to the left displays a breakdown of how the seven individual computers within the PlexSys-4D Platform are connected together through the PICMG 2.16 compliant backplane and how they communicate to each other via the Ethernet bus.Page 14DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsEmerging Markets extend communication and data throughput capabilities for theDTI has noticed a decided uptick in Military/Aerospace network. This means L2/L3, CoS/QoS, and other networkCompactPCI deployments over the past 5 years. For some management features are now available over the 1GbE networkapplications, VME is long in the tooth and OpenVPX is not within the CompactPCI platform.market ready. Plus these, along with AdvancedTCA, can bemuch more expensive technologies than CompactPCI. Many A few of the growing CompactPCI Markets that we see are:military applications simply need a proven COTS technology 1. Avionics and Flightthat can perform, not the cutting edge. • Includes Naval based Control Systems • In-flight Entertainment (Video, Messaging, Internet, etc)Within CompactPCI there is an increasing need for powerful 2. Medicalswitching technologies as PICMG 2.16 deployments continue. • Records Systems, Real-Time Imaging, Patient Care SystemsFor those of you that are unfamiliar with 2.16, it employs a 3. Militarypacket-switching backplane for the system. This extends the • Fairly easy to “harden” or ruggedize for militaryCompactPCI family of products to overlaying based switching • Submarines, Ships, Air, Ground vehiclesarchitectures on top of the existing CompactPCI. This will • Non-combat locations COMPACTPCI SYSTEM PLATFORMS • PICMG 2.16 • 1U, 2U, 4U, Compliant 6U and 8U Ethernet Switch CompactPCI Industrial • Full Suite of Strength Rear Transition Chassis Modules to compliment • CPU Blades your needs based on Intel Processor • Custom Technology Development Capabilities Page 15 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Advancements to CompactPCIPICMG recently announced the adoption of the PICMG 2.30 CompactPCI Platform Offeringsspecification, called CompactPCI® PlusIO. The specificationwill add PCI Express, Ethernet, SATA, SAS and USBextensions to the CompactPCI family of specifications while PlexSys-1preserving the existing PCI bus connectivity. The 2.30 spec 19” Rackmountdefines the use of previously reserved rear I/O pins for the 1U Chassis Height32-bit CompactPCI system slot with new high-speed (1) System Master Slot (1) 64-bit/33MHz Node Slotserial signals while still maintaining interoperability withexisting CompactPCI standards.CompactPCI Serial, PICMG 2.31, will be a new industrial PlexSys-2standard from PICMG for modular computer systems. 19” Rackmount 2U Chassis HeightCompactPCI Serial uses only serial point-to-point connections (1) System Master Slotand its mechanical concept is based on the proven standards of (3) 64-bit/33MHz PeripheralIEEE. CompactPCI Serial includes different connectors that Slotspermit very high data rates throughput but lacks somebackwards compatibility. The standard adds USB and SATAconnections while requiring no bridges, switch fabrics or PlexSys-4 19” Rackmountcustom backplanes. There is a dedicated PCIe lane for high 4U Chassis Heightspeed needs. (1) System Master Slot (1) PSB Switch Slot (6) 64-bit/33MHz Peripheral SlotsConclusionThe CompactPCI Marketplace is still growing in places such asmedical, military command centers and avionics. It providesmany COTS features that make it ideal for most any applica- PlexSys-RP Rugged Portable Systemtions due to the design and robust switch management features (1) System Master Slotwhich are needed for network deployments. DTI’s commitment (1) PSB Switch Slotto this standard and its future additions and upgrades will help (2) 64-bit/33MHz Peripheralto continue the growth of the CompactPCI market. SlotsArticle written by:Patrick WelzienSenior Software Engineering Manager CompactPCI Single Board Computers CPU Blades based on Intel® Processing Technology Switch Blades with 1G and 10G Ethernet ports Rear Transition Modules and Mezzanine CardsPage 16DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
WIND POWER INVERTERS GALE-12 GALE-6 Power Output NEMA 3R of 60Hz for Enclosure Domestic (USA) Designed for Installations Indoor or and 50Hz for Outdoor European Installations 12kW Inverter 6kW Inverter The Gale Series of Inverters Diversified Technology, Inc.’s Gale Series of wind turbine inverters are variable power, high frequency power inverters developed specifically to serve the wind power market. When combined with a tower-mount wind turbine, Gale Series inverters take the variable electric power generated and create manageable, smooth current that can be sold to the utility. Managed by DTIs Green Power Technology, the Gale Series inverters allow a wide input voltage range with energy-saving low speed power mode to allow for smooth operation at minimal turbine revolutions, and other features designed to meet specific needs of the wind power market. DTI’s Soft Grid Technology allows the inverter to produce power during wind gusts that would otherwise cause over voltage on the grid. This is ind useful in rural locations during light local loading conditions. This maximizes profits for the operator while preventing annoying system resets. m/w .co The Gale Series of Wind Turbine Inverters tims are designed to comply with UL 1741 w.d The Gale Series of Interactive Inverters wasww designed specifically for the Wind Power Market 1-800-443-2667 | firstname.lastname@example.org www.dtims.com/wind
Wind PowerPower Inverters Developed Specifically for Small Wind TurbinesHarnessing the power of wind was a major factor in the compared to today’s wind turbines, with maximum output powerevolution of human civilization. From sailing to milling, wind reaching only 20 to 30kW. Since then, wind turbines havehas played a vital role in human lives, and has helped shape the increased greatly in size and power output, with some units nowworld throughout history. Today the impact of wind power on capable of 7MW of output. Energy production from wind hasour daily lives has dwindled, as industrialization and the expanded in use to many countries throughout the world.increasing use of fossil fuels has moved wind power generationto the margin of energy production methods. However, as non The amount of world energy produced by wind has beenrenewable energy sources deplete and the search for renewable, spiking recently and doubled in the past three years. Manymaintainable, and efficient energy sources increase, the use of governments have pushed for increased renewable energywind is undergoing a rebirth as an important energy source for production and usage of wind power, which has helped severalhumanity. countries achieve relatively high levels of wind energy generation. Countries at the forefront of wind energy utilizationPower generation with wind occurs via the conversion of wind include Denmark, Spain, Portugal, Germany, the Republic ofenergy into a useful form, such as using wind turbines to Ireland, and the USA. As of May 2009, eighty countries aroundgenerate electricity. The first modern wind turbines were small the world were using wind power on a commercial basis. Graph shown from American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) 2009 Small Wind Turbine Global Market StudyPage 18DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsWind Farms Big Wind versus Small WindWind Farms are groups of turbines that are interconnected via a The overall wind turbine market can be divided in to 3 classes:power collection system and communications network used in 1. Small Wind Turbinesaggregate to generate power. Wind farms may be located in These turbines have power ratings of 100kW and belowopen farmland or on off-shore platforms that take advantage of and are generally for residential and small businesses.coastal winds. 2. Community Wind Turbines These turbines have power ratings between 200kW and 1MW. 3. Large Wind Turbines These turbines have power ratings above 1MW. DTI’s Focus on the Small Wind Turbine Market Small Wind Turbines are turbines whose production capability is roughly 100kW or less. Typically used to power homes, businesses, farms, and other single-site units, these turbines may be set up as stand-alone systems or interconnected to the grid. The Small Wind Market has drastically increased growth, in part due to lower installation costs. There were an estimated 19,000 Small Wind turbines installed during 2009, amounting to a 78% increase in total kW power output and adding 17.3MW of installed energy capacity. The total Small Wind capacity for theLarge scale wind farms may be directly connected to the power United States is estimated to be 80MW.grid in order to supplement traditional energy production forms.Smaller turbine applications are typically used to provideelectricity to isolated or remote locations or to provide powergeneration for a small facility. Electric utility companies will“buy back” energy surpluses produced by smaller domesticturbines, which is a process known as “Net Metering.” Thevalue of the energy surplus produced by a small-scale, grid-tiedturbine is credited to the turbine’s owner. Net metering and theclean, renewable, and sustainable aspects of wind make it anattractive primary or secondary energy source for manyapplications.The amount of energy generated by a wind turbine is a functionof the frequency and speed of wind a given location receivesover time. A consequence is that wind energy is variable and is 10kW Turbine from Bergey Windpower Co.often generated in short bursts – thus wind is an inconsistentmechanism for energy production when compared to other Some wind turbine manufacturers design their turbines with anpower generation methods. Technologies such as shaping and induction generator rather than a power inverter. Their mainsmoothing, grid energy or battery storage methods, and energy reason for doing so is that power inverters add technicaldemand management are used to address the variability and complexity and cost while induction generators allow for aninconsistencies related to wind power generation. easier, cheaper method to interconnect with the utility grid. This, however, is generally not the best method, because the induction generator does not contain key attributes that an inverter provides, such as higher quality output power and usability with a wider range of wind velocities. Page 19 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Inverters Serving the Wind Power Market Many wind inverters on the market are simply modified solarDiversified Technology, Inc.’s Gale Series of wind turbine in- inverters. These units are very similar in construction andverters are variable power, high frequency power inverters de- features regardless of their application, so inverter manufactur-veloped specifically to serve the wind power market. Combined ers slightly modified their designs so that they would fit for awith a tower-mount wind turbine, the inverter takes the variable wind turbine application. The Gale Series of wind inverters waselectric power generated and creates a manageable, smooth cur- designed from the start for wind applications. This includes builtrent that can be sold directly to the utility. in rectification for the AC input, so no external rectifier box is needed. DTI designed its Gale Series to comply with standards set for grid-tied operation, safety and electromagnetic compatibility including: UL 1741 and CSA C22.2 No. 107.1-01. The Gale series also accepts a wide range of input voltages from 85 to 400VAC. Once the 85VAC input is reached and the inverter initializes, the input voltage can then drop to 50VAC input before the inverter can no longer produce power. This allows the inverter to produce power even during light wind velocities. NEMA 1 (12kW) and NEMA 3R (6kW) enclosures provide operation in controlled elements that protect the internal components of the inverter. The inverter also includes built-in disconnect for utility grid interaction which is isolates the inverter from the grid during any faults. The unit also has built- in thermal sensing, and will reduce output power or shutdown automatically if temperatures exceed safe operating conditions. Gale-12 DTI’s Wind Turbine Inverter with up to 12kW of Power OutputThe Gale Series is managed by DTIs Green Power Technology,which allows the inverters to accept a wide input voltage rangewith energy-saving low speed power mode that in turn providesfor smooth operation even at minimal turbine revolutions.DTI provides Soft Grid Technology which allows the inverterto continue to operate even during wind gusts that wouldotherwise cause over voltage on the grid. Soft Grid Technologydynamically lowers to the output power if the grid voltageapproaches the over-voltage fault limit. This is useful in rurallocations during light local loading conditions. This technologyallows the operator to maximize profits while also preventingthose annoying system resets. Graph shown from American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) 2009 Small Wind Turbine Global Market StudyPage 20DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsThe Future of the Small Wind Turbine Market eventual push to full commercialization and deployment of windIsolated residences and businesses situated in good wind technology is very near. Companies are taking advantage oflocations continue to purchase smaller turbine systems to reduce public interest, the political and economic climate, andor eliminate their dependence on grid electricity for economic marketing factors to position wind energy for its next rounds ofreasons. Wind turbines have been used over these many decades deployment.in remote areas for household electricity generation in conjunc-tion with battery storage and this is only going to increase as Article written by:turbines become cheaper with a lower cost to install and morewidespread availability.In time, wind energy could be the most cost-effective source forelectrical power. In fact, there’s a good case to be made forsaying that it already has achieved this status. Major technologydevelopments enabling the use of wind power commercializa- Brian Robertstion are being made daily. There will be infinite refinements and Power Software Engineerimprovements and one can make the assumption that the At the state, utility, and local levels, policies continue to be fragmented and changing – but generally improving – across regions and even communities, as illustrated in the map. Top state, utility, and local policy goals for the industry continue to be to: • Streamline zoning ordinances at the local and especially state levels, • Increase the availability and size of financial incentives, • Standardize grid interconnection rules and procedures, and • Implement or improve state/utility net metering policies. Map prepared by Trudy Forsyth of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Data source: DSIREUSA Graph shown from American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) 2009 Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study Page 21 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Up to 30kW of Mobile PowerOn-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) Beyond 10 KilowattsThe militarys demand for tactical power on the battlefield has Yesterday, and to a large extent today, tactical power was and isquadrupled in the past ten years and the best estimates are that supplied by diesel generators. The down side of this isit will quadruple again this decade. logistics. The larger the AC load demand, then the larger the generator required. The larger and heavier the generator, theWhat is tactical power? larger and heavier the required trailer becomes for towing themTactical power refers to mobile power used on short term around. The larger the trailer becomes, the less agile, or mobile,military missions in support of a strategic objective. This the vehicle becomes that is towing the load.suggests a system that highly maneuverable and very rugged.How much tactical power is needed?Thats like asking a computer engineer how much memory hewants on his system. What ever you give him today, hell wanttwice that amount tomorrow. There are a myriad of uses for,and numerous types of, AC power on the battlefield used insupport of the overall mission. For example, having access to120 vac, 60 Hz in a remote location to power up communica-tions, computers, and other specialized equipment is needed.Mobile power must also be provided for the vast array ofcomputer and communication equipment assembled in aTactical Operating Center (TOC). Mobile power can also beused to run advanced laser weapons. Why can’t someone develop a means to provide AC power by utilizing the vehicles engine as the primary source? Thats exactly what the concept of On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) addresses. However, the laws of physics apply and to develop a 10kW OBVP system for installation on a vehicle, such as a HMMWV with a 28 VDC alternator, that alternator must put out 400 to 450 amps. The fact is that these alternators are already in the Armys inventory today. While the military has aggressive programs in place to move toward Hybrid Electric HMMWVs there is a sizeable base of existing vehicles that are candidates to be retrofitted with 10kWThe examples above will require different levels of power. The On-Board Vehicle Power today. That brings us to applyinggeneral purpose application can typically be satisfied with a todays technology toward the application of a 10kW OBVP10kW source, the TOC will likely require 30kW to 60kW, system for retrofit into a portion of the more than 100,000depending on its configuration. Advanced laser weapons of the HMMWVs currently in use. Providing these vehicles with anfuture will require upwards of 100kW. As the power level OBVP system that can supply continuous AC power eliminatesdemands increase for the various applications, challenges to the need to trailer diesel generators. Consequently, the vehiclemeet those power levels with a rugged and highly portable AC can now negotiate terrain that it could not previously take onpower source increase. while towing a trailer.Page 22DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsThe different types of AC powered equipment used on various Previously, commanders have dealt with defined combat linesmissions, necessitates a variety of voltage levels and operating and specific operational theaters and occupation directives. Infrequencies of AC power. Due to the laws of physics mentioned the modern theater this is no longer the case, and powerearlier, this provision is no simple task. generators and techniques of the past cannot adequately power the military and its systems of the future. While technology hasRegardless of whether the soldier needs single phase 120 vac or improved, certain characteristics of Tactical Quiet Generators3 phase 208 vac, and at 50Hz prevalent in Europe, or in a radar such as noise, lack of mobility, serviceability constraints, theinstallation where power at 400Hz is the frequency of choice, need for extra vehicles to carry fuel and generators, and otherthe OBVP system must be able to provide all of the frequency logistical issues that are inherent to the design and use of theseand voltage options. Additionally, Total Harmonic Distortion Tactical Quiet Generators has created battlefield nightmares for(THD) is critically important to sophisticated communications, the operators, not to mention increased costs and swollencomputers and other specialty electronic systems. High THD budgets for commanders to accommodate these logisticalcan render this type of equipment inoperable. Therefore low shortcomings. All of these issues are in direct opposition to theTHD is essential to completing the mission. current military desire to be “lighter, faster, stronger, and smarter.” These logistical issues must be overcome to maintain U.S. military dominance in active combat theaters. Page 23 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
To mitigate these shortcomings inherent in current power solu- A throttle control, that is part of the OBVP system, monitors andtions, there has been a drive to develop on-board vehicle power controls the speed of the engine and hence the alternator tosystems. These power systems are compact, lightweight, and match the alternators output to the load the inverter is powering.provide the military with the mobility desired and the robust (This is true in stationary mode only.) The vehicle throttlepower needed by the next generation of computer systems. control system monitors the condition of the load and the power supplied by the inverter and communicates this to the operatorAdvances in the inverter technology used in on-board vehicle via an interface that shows the operator graphically the status ofpower systems, such as the increasing use of high power FETs the vehicle electrical system and of the inverter. The VPS10Kand IGBTs to design high powered inverters, have spurred key can additionally interface with alternate controllers allowingdevelopments in these modern power units. A simple conversion flexibility of operation.from the 28VDC source to single phase, 120VAC/60Hz is notenough. Systems must also be designed for mobility, servicea- The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the operator tobility, environmental ruggedness and accommodate space con- quickly determine the frequency of the power the inverter isstraints as well. To this end, OBVP units do not require an delivering to the load. It also displays the charge condition ofexternal fuel source and can be mounted directly to the the vehicles batteries. The GUI allows the operator to turn theHMMWV without decreasing needed cargo space. OBVP units entire system ON and OFF and also allows the operator toalso provide a wide range of output power and frequency com- enable and disable the inverter itself.binations to the end application.OBVP Systems: Solving the Deployable Power CrisisModern OBVP units are designed for use in rugged environ-ments and to be highly mobile. Taking power from the hostvehicles 28VDC electrical system, output power levels canrange from 2kW to 10kW. To provide inverter system security,the VPS10K system employs pre-charge circuitry to limitcurrent inrush, transient protection circuitry, feedback monitor-ing, under voltage protection and over current protection. TheVPS10K can interface with alternate controllers allowingflexibility of operation. The OBVP inverter is mounted onto the HMMWV in a space that does not affect the cargo capacity or function of the vehicle and allows instant availability to power in any area to which the HMMWV can maneuver. The modular design method of the inverters main components and the method of connecting the peripheral components means that the OBVP system can easily be removed from one HMMWV, returning the vehicle to its original configuration, and quickly and readily installed on other vehicle platforms as needed. This provides the ability to deliver critical power to areas of the battlefield, under harsh environ- mental conditions, ensuring that critical systems are operational VPS10K at all times. DTI’s 10kW On-Board Vehicle PowerPage 24DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsThe Challenges in Gaining 30kW of Mobile Power Realizing Tactical Goals with OBVP SystemsAs mentioned previously, the laws of physics apply and As advances in battlefield technology force the requirements ofgenerating 30 kilowatts of AC power from the engine and higher and more mobile power solutions, On-Board Vehicleelectrical system of a HMMWV is not an easy task. Power units will find their way into many deployments. The military’s focus on faster, lighter, and stronger requires the use of new technology to power the next the generation of computer and communication systems. These systems and where they will be deployed will all require new mobile, rugged, power solutions. Trailer-towed and Skid-mounted power generators fail in these regards, as they add bulk, reduce mobility, and require external fuel (diesel) to operate, which further reduces the cargo capability of a military vehicle. Mobile Vehicle Power systems, like Diversified Technology’s VPS10K, that draw power directly from the alternator and do not impede much-needed cargo space will be the go-to solution for the deployment of on-battlefield systems in the 21st centuryThere are three main challenges to address in designing military.a 30kW On-Board Vehicle Power system: Article written by:1) The transfer of power from the prime mover, which is the HMMWVs engine, to the alternator that develops the voltage necessary for input to the inverter. All of the mechanical losses must be taken into account, as well as the needs of the vehicle itself and the power needed to be supplied to the inverter. To this end, the design of the system to transfer power from the engine to the alternator is very rigorous. Various systems have been examined and Rich Prescott the most efficient method will be adapted. Power Applications Engineer2) +28VDC is not enough to generate 30kW of AC power. A new alternator is needed that converts the engines power to a voltage high enough to allow the inverter to output 30kW of AC power. This new alternator has been designed and tested and has shown that it is possible to generated 30kW of power with an OBVP system as opposed to pulling a heavy diesel behind the HMMWV.3) The electronics necessary for such a high power level generates a lot of heat. Clever packaging techniques must be used to make the inverter fit in the allotted space and to function well under all conditions. Cooling the electronics cannot be accomplished with convection cooling due to size and weight constraints. This task is possible with liquid cooling and that creates it own set of challenges to the OBVP system designer. Among them are primary heat transfer, circulating the coolant and the critical heat exchanger interface with the inverters electronics. Page 25 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
MOBILE POWERFor Mobile Forces On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP)What is OBVP? Three Phase and Single Phase Operation AvailableOBVP provides 3-Phase AC Power for Rugged Environments for Mobile or Stationary PowerOBVP offers Electronic Power that is: •••••• Solid State Electronics (No Moving Parts) Hassle Free, Trailer Free• Physically Lighter 7kW Continuous, 10kW Peak Power, 30kW Coming• Smaller Dimensions• Easily Mountable •••••• More Efficient and More Reliable• Easier to Operate and Maintain 50Hz, 60Hz and 400Hz Selectable from One Power Inverter ••••• - DTI’s VPS10K is Now Being Deployed - Minimizes Logistic Space Requirements Aboard Aircraft or Watercraft ••••• Simple Retro-fit for Vehicle Integration and Multiple Mounting Options ••••• Provides Power to Teams, Patrols, Convoys, During Unexpected Delays ••••• Offers Simplified Fuel Logistics for Mission Planning and Deployment ••••• Back-up Power for Mission-Critical Equipment www.DTIRuggedPower.com
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsCTO Cornerby Joe McDevitt, Chief Technology Officer I like to joke that at times the position of CTO requires predicting the future, so let’s see how accurate I am at this. The Economy There will be no overnight turn around, but more of a slow gain akin to the long recovery seen in 1990s Japan. We have not seen the price declines and deflation that Japan saw, but everything about this economy, from an Engineer’s view, looks as though there is a similarity between now and Japan’s economic problems of the 1990s. I am naturally a technology bigot, believing that it can heal everything. Technology developed for World War I helped the boom of the 1920s. I consider the boom of the 1980s fueled by personal computers. We now need a technology shift to recover, and the best bet I have is switching to a hydrogen/natural gas economy instead of an oil-dependent one, and technology would be needed to make that shift. Solar, biomass and wind will help, but we need something revolutionary like the airplane. My dark horse pick for that technologyis Artificial Intelligence, but not your father’s AI. I am thinking of the AI of Jeff Hawkins “On Intelligence.” I believe we will see a deployment ofthat in the 1st half of this decade on a system that will be “taught” more than “programmed”.AdvancedTCAThe jump from 10G to 40G Ethernet will likely see a 4x increase in AdvancedTCA usage. With nearly all of the interoperability problems solved,AdvancedTCA will also become a “Best-In-Breed” shop for users. Those users need not choose stovepipe and vendor locked-in models from someplayers. AdvancedTCA is already entrenched in Telecom and will not be replaced, but AdvancedTCA’s growth will come via the Military, and it willsee more success in that market than its original Telecom market – making it the Tang of the 2010s.PICMG 2.30 and PICMG 1.3CPU performance via many cores and multithreading is growing quickly. The PCI-Express bus is well supported in both current and future chipsets.This will drive some users away from 1U/2U motherboard systems and back to systems with larger slot count chassis. Use of large slot count chassiswas a mainstay of the late 1990s, but much of that was lost to the 1U/2U systems of the world in the 2000s. Some will come back in the 2010s, andthis positions PICMG 2.30 and PICMG 1.3 very well.Now that my predictions have been made, we just have to sit back and see how accurate I am.The Employees are DTI’s Most Important AssetEmployee Spotlight - Marcelo DeSouza Marcelo works in DTI’s Network Division as a Software Engineer, and is responsible for designing new features for DTI’s Ethernet switching software. Marcelo has more than 20 years experience in designing software for telecommunication systems. He graduated from Parana Federal University in Brazil, with a BS in Electrical Engineering in 1988 and started with Nokia Siemens Brazil (formerly Siemens) that same year. Marcelo was transferred to Nokia Siemens in the U.S. ten years later. He joined DTI in 2008 as part of a new engineering network division located in Dallas, TX that is focused on switch technologies within PICMG specifications such as AdvancedTCA and CompactPCI. Marcelo and his wife, Cristina, are the proud parents of three daughters: Leticia age 17, Natalia age 16, and Juliana age 12. He is an active member of Saint Francis of Assisi Society in Dallas, where he serves teaching gospel studies, and in fundraisers for charity. Marcelo loves to travel with his family, playing tennis, and sailing. Page 27 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Moving Your Program from PICMG 1.0 to PICMG 1.3SHB ExpressWhen a program takes the single board, passive backplane PICMG 1.3 Specificationsystem in to the next decade and beyond, there are many SHB (System Host Board) Express (aka PICMG 1.3) covers aobstacles that must be faced. They range from components technology that is packaged with a host board using PCIgoing EOL to new software requirements that demand increased Express as the primary interface to the backplane. The samehardware performance. PICMG 1.3, which is also known as board dimensions apply to PICMG 1.3 that apply to PICMG 1.0SHB Express, was created to offer PCI Express specifications (PCI/ISA) and PICMG 1.2 (PCI-X/PCI), however the backplanefor the slot card computer. The demanding environments of must be completely changed to support the higher speeds of PCIindustrial automation, military, medical and telecom will require Express.full upgrades to PCI Express from PCI/ISA to compete in thefuture. Why would I want to migrate from PICMG 1.0 to PICMG 1.3? The first response is to avoid End of Life issues with your components. Cards that are easily available today will become harder and harder to find. It is best to make that full system change now rather than to continue updating part by part until you no longer have any options. It’s best to avoid that finality by planning ahead and migrating your program to a new technology that is ideal and well thought out for your application. Many feel that the PCI bus is set to end sooner rather than later, and will go the way of the EISA and ISAWhat is the difference between PCI and PCI Express? busses.PCI and PCI Express are both types of peripheral card expansionslots. PCI was created in 1993 by Intel and became the standard The second reason would be for performance. The increasedin peripheral expansion. Network interface cards, video cards, data transfer rates will help you get more bang for your buckI/O expansion cards, and sound cards were all PCI-based. As the and allow your end-customer to grow their feature set.amount of data pushed through the PCI bus increased, PCI-Xbecame popular in servers. PCI-X was a “double-wide” PCI Article written by:interconnect that allowed data transfer rates of up to 133MB/s.As technology advanced, interconnect bandwidth demands andrequirements of very fast throughput rates from expansion cardsincreased substantially. In 2004 PCI Express was created, whichoffers data transfer rates to 16GB/s (up from 32MB/s of PCI -a 500-fold increase in data throughput). Doug MaysPCI and PCI Express slots are not compatible; therefore you Field Application Engineercan’t interchange cards between these two slot types, but mustupdate the full backplane of your system.Page 28DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
Rackmount Computing Systems for PICMG 1.3 TreXpress Systems 2U/4U Chassis Heights 19” Wide Rackmount Full PICMG 1.3 Compliance de! 1) Keep your existing chassis gra Up PICMG 1.3 Board 2) Select your new PCI Express Backplane 3) Select your new PCI Express Single Board Computer (Built to same dimensions as PCI Slot Card) PCI Express Bus L 4) Fully integrate your new system EO I= PICMG 1.0 Board for your application PC 5) Your System is now Ready for Current and Future Customers PCI Bus ISA Bus 1-800-443-2667 | email@example.com | www.dtims.com/pcie
A Commitment to QualityDiversified Technology, Inc. (DTI) is committed to providing complete product solutions and support to our customers. Investmentshave been made to a state-of-the-art design/production facility equipping it with the latest board placement solutions and PCBmanufacturing technology. DTIs employees undergo extensive training on a routine basis, which helps to maximize the quality andperformance of our end products and services.Our Customer FocusDTI believes a satisfied customer is a repeat customer, so the focus is placed on delivering a complete product on time, every time. Ourtradition of supporting customers at every level is based on a technical staff dedicated to providing quick and complete solutions tocustomer issues, while the service department is committed to fast turn times on any RMA repairs that may occur. Using a formalprogram to monitor and analyze all customer satisfaction results, Diversifieds management ensures that all customer needs are met.Our ProgramsUsing industry recognized programs, DTI reaffirms its commitment to the ISO 9001 registration it has maintained since 1996. TheSupplier Management program practiced here at DTI emphasizes relationship building, early involvement of suppliers in our designcycle, and periodic auditing of suppliers to ensure the highest quality parts and materials are provided to customers. Our formalContinuous Improvement Program cultivates projects that will reap both short and long term rewards for the customer and is complimentedby our Reliability Program that tests products beyond their normal use, promoting their longevity in the application field.Our EmployeesDiversified Technology, a designer and manufacturer of high end technology products, recognizes a business success depends largelyon the quality of its people. DTIs employees are its greatest assets, which is why the greatest investment is placed on them throughcontinuous training and technical demonstrations. DTI believes that the growth of a company is largely promoted by the growth of itsemployees.Our ToolsDTI continues to invest in the latest technology innovations to advance the effectiveness of our employees and to promote qualityend-user products. Equipment acquisitions and upgrades such as Automated 3-D Solder Paste Inspection, Automated Optical Inspection(AOI), Automated X-RAY Inspection (AXI), and In-Circuit Test (ICT) are just some examples of our effort to maintain a first-in-classmanufacturing facility. DTI has also cultivated internal software development teams to create database driven utilities to improve theefficiency of production and service for our products by allowing real time quality data analysis and quick response to customer requests.Our MissionDTI has been in business for over thirty-six years providing high quality computer solutions to the embedded marketplace. As we moveforward, our mission is to provide a complete solution that still maintains the quality standard associated with our company.Page 30DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
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