DTI Custom Publication, 2009


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This custom publication from Diversified Technology, Inc., marries the marketing objectives of our company along with the information needs of you, our customers. Each issue contains valuable editorial content from our engineers, new product information and marketing insight for the company. Subscriptions are free, but limited to qualified readers.

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DTI Custom Publication, 2009

  1. 1. From a Leading Provider in Embedded Computing and Switch Products for the Government and Military Markets Diversified Technology, Inc. > COTS Gotchas What to Look for When Selecting a COTS Provider > 10G Ethernet - AdvancedTCA Switching An AdvancedTCA Switching and Protocols Primer > COM-onomics The Economics and Use of COM Express in Embedded Applications > Mobile Power for Mobile Forces On-Board Vehicle Power > High Availability Load Balancing With HAProxy on AdvancedTCA Hardware
  2. 2. Embedded Computing Solutions Diversified Technology, Inc. (DTI) designs and manufactures embedded platforms, communication servers, and subsystems for the mission critical and non-critical demands of the government computing market. DTI Solutions, delivered on a variety of form factors, offer long life support for multiple government agencies involved with protecting global and domestic interests. Embedded computing in the military will continue to drive DTI to new COTS and proprietary solutions to support the government's defense initiatives. > Find out more at www.dtims.com AdvancedTCA • VME • CompactPCI • PCI • ETX • COM Express • Custom Design and Manufacturing High Performing Platform Systems • Communication Blade Servers based on Open Architecture Standards such as CompactPCI®, VME and AdvancedTCA®, and featuring the latest processing and switched fabric technologies. • PCI/ISA CPU Boards and Rackmount Systems utilizing high-slot count backplanes for third-party cards in the end solution. • Embedded Computer Modules based on ETX and COM Express provide computing power in reduced physical dimensions. • Outsourcing and Customization Options Available through DTI’s In-House Engineering. Three Decades of Embedded Solutions CPU Boards - Switch Blades - Rackmount Systems - Modular Platforms Computer Modules - System Integration - Custom Designs - Outsourcing Capabilities 1.800.443.2667 • sales@dtims.com • http://www.dtims.com All trademarks and tradenames are the property of their respective owners.
  3. 3. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions Diversified Technology, Inc. 476 Highland Colony Parkway Ridgeland, MS 39157 (800) 443-2667 Inside This Issue marketing@dtims.com www.DiversifiedTechnology.com COTS Gotchas..........................................................05 Key Areas to Consider when Selecting A COTS Provider Pat Busby President 10G Ethernet ............................................................15 Barrie McArthur An AdvancedTCA Switching and Protocols Primer Vice Chairman - Special Projects Steve Craven COM-onomics ..........................................................22 Vice President, Program Management The Economics and Use of COM Express in Embedded Applications Donald Germany Vice President, Systems Engineering Mobile Power for Mobile Forces ............................26 On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) Ken Martin Vice President, Finance The Cohesive Approach Joe McDevitt Chief Technology Officer How to Achieve High Availability............................32 Load Balancing with HAProxy on AdvancedTCA Hardware Gary Smith Vice President, Operations Message from the President ..................................04 Keith Varner Vice President, Solutions Group VME Solutions..........................................................12 Patrick Welzien Vice President, Engineering Custom Designs ......................................................13 Tom Witt Employee Spotlight ................................................13 Vice President, Business Development About Diversified Technology, Inc. ........................45 About Diversified Technology, Inc. Joe Speak ................................................................45 Diversified Technology, Inc. (DTI), an Ergon Company, was founded in 1971 and focuses DTI Tradeshow Schedule ........................................46 on primary markets of Communications, Government / Military, Commercial, Power Electronics, On-Board Vehicle Power and Simultaneous Field Radiation Technology. As No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronics, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, an embedded hardware, software and without the prior permission of Diversified Technology, Inc. systems company, DTI’s strength lies in a DTI Wired is available free of charge to qualified subscribers, by emailing marketing@dtims.com cohesive approach to assisting customers. This cohesive approach means DTI works To be removed from our mailing list, send a removal request via email to marketing@dtims.com hand-in-hand with companies to ensure they Other product and/or company names mentioned in this publication may be trademarks or are getting the best performance, highest registered trademarks of their respective companies and are the sole property of their respective owners. reliability, shortest time-to-market and the Copyright © 2009 Diversified Technology, Inc. - All Rights Reserved most efficient use of computing hardware for their program's embedded application. DTI has a history of design and manufacturing experience with standardized form factors such as PCI, ETX, COM Express, VME, Page 3 CompactPCI and AdvancedTCA. DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  4. 4. Message from the President Pat Busby, President of Diversified Technology, Inc. Given the wide range of business and economic challenges in today’s markets, it’s become vitally important to have experience and staying power. Since 1945, the average recession lasted 10 months, but from 1919 to 1945, the average dragged on for 18 months. The last two recessions - from March to November 2001 and from July 1990 through March 1991 - were shorter than average, lasting only eight months each. This is the 5th recession during DTI’s 38 year history (1971), and the 8th for parent company Ergon (1954). Downturns are a normal part of an economic cycle, but they also provide opportunities for those seasoned and primed to take advantage. Yes, some businesses will go under, but others will emerge stronger. Those desiring to be among the latter need to be careful about many factors, including supplier choices. DTI is the supplier of choice to many customers for design, manufacturing and delivery of rugged embedded computers for their solutions. DTI also provides complete integrated solutions for telecom, medical and military customers. Our CompactPCI and AdvancedTCA portfolio is transitioning well into military applications. Along with our new technologies such as VME, rugged mobile power, RF technology, and energy inversion products, DTI will continue to invest in R&D to innovate and deliver products and value as a long term supplier. In this issue of DTI Wired we offer direction and guidance on compute, switch fabric, rugged mobile power, and wireless technologies integrated into products which improve our customer’s financial return. With the complexity of disparate environments, high performance processing, and balanced resources DTI provides solutions for long term expandability, economic value and operational maturity. I hope you find this publication helps you in navigating through the technology and product acquisition in an ever-changing environment. We look forward to serving you for the next 38 years, too. A. Patrick Busby Page 4 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  5. 5. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions COTS Gotchas What to Look for When Selecting a COTS Provider Introduction The growth in use of COTS (Commercial There are, however, issues that can arise when Off-the-Shelf) hardware and software across moving to a COTS-based platform for your numerous markets, most notably in the organization’s application. We will call these telecommunications, government/ military, and issues “Gotchas” in this text, and explore not commercial sectors has led to discussions over only the financial impact, but also other nega- the benefits a COTS-based platform provides tive results on your organization’s development over a proprietary or completely customized and deployment of your application that will solution. These benefits revolve around occur by you neglecting to investigate these reduced deployment costs, easier maintenance COTS Gotchas. and support, the removal of vendor lock-in, and an increased ease of integration and scalability. COTS Gotchas come in two forms: These aforementioned virtues of COTS Feature Gotchas and Supplier Gotchas. hardware have been well documented and proven to be true for all but the most severe of Feature Gotchas refer to claims made about circumstances. the specifications of a product as it compares to the standard itself and as it will be used within AdvancedTCA has seen an up swing in usage an application, essentially forcing you, as a in classical military COTS recently. As a PICMG potential COTS purchaser, “Does this product specification (3.x), AdvancedTCA (ATCA) actually do what it claims to do?” or “Does this focuses on providing high speed interconnect product have all of the things the datasheet says technologies and improved reliability, it does?”. serviceability, and availability to telecom applications; many military applications demand Supplier Gotchas, however, are more nefari- the exact same needs. Developed as an ‘Open’ ous and insidious in their undermining of your Standard (meaning PICMG member organiza- organization’s success. They typically do not tions all have access to the specs to show themselves until late in the game, typically develop their own boards, chassis, and well after a purchase order has been placed! add-ons), ATCA seeks to provide a true COTS Supplier Gotchas can be summarized as the environment in the traditionally proprietary end results of what a supplier promises versus military industry, and it is seeing growing what the supplier actually delivers. Supplier success in this mission due to many of the Gotchas can be applied to nearly any COTS en- advantages mentioned above that a COTS vironment and are not solely the property of based environment brings to a market. ATCA suppliers. Any organization looking to Page 5 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  6. 6. move to any COTS platform should keep these Before we move into explanations of the above in the front of its mind. For this reason, this Gotchas and discussing the impact they can article will focus primarily on Supplier Gotchas. have on your organization, we must first understand that what follows is by no means an To note: This is by no means an attack on COTS implication of COTS products as a negative. methodology or use. Commercial Off-the-Shelf I fully support the use of COTS products hardware is certainly preferable in nearly every wherever it makes sense to do so and firmly way to proprietary deployments, and I do not believe that the touted benefits of COTS are very intend this as an attack on COTS as a whole. much real and tangible. The following is simply a discussion of key areas of interest that must be planned for and looked at These Gotchas are issues you must be aware of closely when selecting your COTS supplier. when selecting a COTS provider. Overview of the COTS Gotchas Validation and Compliance In discussing COTS Supplier Gotchas, we must aim to stay relevant. Therefore our COTS Validation Supplier Gotchas will revolve around some of Validation refers to a solution being ‘validated the most critical supplier services organizations and tested’ with your application and in a field- desire when looking at a COTS Solution : like environment. One of the main benefits of proprietary solutions is that due to a close • Validation and Compliance relationship with the provider, your organization can be assured that the solution will be validated • Support and Maintenance to integrate with and work in your specific • Deployment Costs and Life Cycle Management application. The concern is that when dealing - Obsolescence/EOL Planning with a COTS product, it has been only generally - Asynchronous Upgrades validated within the scope of similar usage or, even, not validated within any ‘like’ application. • Certification and Training This has been called Black Box Testing, meaning boards are released once basic • Custom Hardware Design application equivalency is demonstrated within - Differentiation the scope of the Supplier’s testing methods. • No Vendor Lock-in (Continued Open Standardization) If a board passes testing, such as environmen- tal, or demonstrates like-application equivalency These six COTS Gotchas are by no means the within the COTS Supplier’s testing facility but only considerations you must make when fails within your deployment, will or can the looking into a COTS Supplier, however they do COTS Supplier provide the support you need to represent some of the more important issues overcome your unique issues, in say a barge that can arise. test? Page 6 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  7. 7. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions I will put forth and state plainly the notion that and is intimately familiar with the process and some COTS Suppliers can provide this sort of testing procedures. Tying in with Validation, be validation and testing, but you must choose sure the supplier will be willing to work very, very wisely. Generally speaking, a more focused closely with you to help you pass your testing. COTS Supplier will be more willing to demon- strate exact application usability with their Support and Maintenance product rather than simple equivalence testing, and you can be assured that this COTS product Simple Support will not only work within your application, but that Once you have deployed your solution with the COTS Supplier will indeed be willing, ready, COTS products, you will be required to maintain and capable of helping you overcome any the application throughout its lifecycle. Will your unique problems that may arise. COTS provider be willing to give you in-depth support and maintenance help? COTS Gotcha Validation: Select a COTS Supplier who can and will devote Many COTS providers will claim global support the time necessary to solve the unique issues in and most of them will charge you for providing your deployment. it. But what is it that these COTS providers are offering? Part-timers following a flowchart with Compliance scripted replies, elevating a problem once critical Many organizations in the United States are status has been reached, your application has trying to achieve compliance to regulatory been down for a week (leaving you losing not standards and testing or to comply with non- only revenue, but the respect of your end user), American standards to supply their product all the while your interaction with the Level 1 overseas . The most common standards being support guys for that time has left you reduced to looked for are MilSpec 810F. begging and pleading to speak to someone who is familiar enough with the product and your Many organizations will claim a product meets application to actually offer you some modicum compliancy. Very rarely, however, does a of actual, real help. supplier actually take their product through the testing. COTS products, when they claim are Realistically the above will be the least of your typically “designed to meet” rather than have worries should you find yourself involved in actually passed testing. For your use, if your “Waiting on Feedback” limbo. Even after Level product needs to meet specific compliancy, you 1 phone support elevates your issue, will it be will have to take, and pay for, the qualifications resolved? Many times, the next level of support yourself. does not involve the COTS provider attempting to solve your issue; rather it involves the COTS COTS Gotcha Compliancy: supplier looking for any slight variation between When selecting a product designed to meet intended and actual board use in your specific compliants, be sure that the supplier has deployment in order to label your issue as ‘not a history of taking products through that testing my problem’. Page 7 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  8. 8. COTS Gotcha Simple Support: leading technologies, solid COTS products Try to talk to other customers of the proposed presently available, and assess technology COTS supplier to get a feel for how they handle trends to determine a plan for your product support requests. Also, evaluate just how close refresh and upgraded COTS insertion. Included of a relationship will be forged between you and in this would be a declaration of expected EOL of your COTS provider, similarly to how you should a product from your preferred COTS vendors. to make sure their Validation procedures will match your needs. You should focus on All products will someday be declared EOL by selecting a COTS supplier who will be dedicated their manufacturer. Reasons may be that their to solving your unique issues swiftly, rather than vendors have stopped producing the necessary simply focused on reading a script. materials, or an upgraded version of the current product is now offered and the manufacturer will not produce more of the older product due to the Deployment Costs & Life Cycle Management costs. By having accurate and thorough EOL One of the key benefits of utilizing COTS planning, your organization will be prepared to products is a lower deployment cost for your deal with last-time buys of a dated technology application. While it is absolutely true that initial and be more ready and able to deploy a next- deployment costs within a COTS platform are generation iteration of your application, while cheaper than a proprietary solution , there are avoiding many pitfalls and headaches. associated Gotchas when looking at the overall lifecycle of a platform, from initial deployment to By thorough obsolescence and EOL planning, product upgrades. your organization can have actual, real life cycle management of your application when using a Obsolescence/End of Life Planning COTS platform. It is not an impossible task – far One of the biggest concerns with using COTS from it. A more frustrating problem exists, and hardware is that of obsolescence and EOL this problem is not generally planned for: Life Planning . For our purposes, we can refer to the cycle asymmetry. Department of Defense’s definitions of obsoles- Every system has a life cycle. A system is cence and End of Life. Obsolescence is merely a set of parts, and each of these diminished manufacturing and material individual parts has its own life cycle, which availability of a COTS product, and End of Life probably will not coincide with one another. (EOL) is a manufacturer’s notice to customers of Upgrades will allow an extension of overall a last time buy of a product. system life time by replacing obsolete or EOL parts of the system. But, given the nature of Obsolescence and End of Life occurrences are development cycles and part availability definite events that must be planned for with schedules, component upgrades can become care and exactitude when developing a COTS out of sync with each other. application. Ideally your organization will conduct market research on its own to survey Page 8 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  9. 9. RUGGED COMPUTING The PlexSys-RP from DTI is a self-contained, rugged CompactPCI based portable computer. This MIL-STD chassis is equipped with 2 handles for easy transport making it a completely portable battlefield workstation. Multiple CPU Blade and Switch configurations are available including Intel’s Core 2 Duo, Dual-Core Xeon, and Low Voltage Pentium M. Call NOW for Immediate Deployment 1-800-443-2667 Even in a simple hypothetical two-board COTS comes to upgrades. Sometimes the vendor’s system, this can be demonstrated. If one board development cycle happens to slip due to un- has a life cycle of 18 months while the 2nd is on foreseen circumstances. Ether way, your appli- a 24 month schedule, the next-generation cation suffers and you have been hit by yet release dates will only align once every six another COTS Gotcha. years. For every board you add on a different schedule, your release alignment probability decreases exponentially. This does not even COTS Gotcha Lifecycle Management: include patches, updates, firmware revisions, You must fully implement an obsolescence and and other changes. lifecycle management program focusing on acquisition instead of problem resolution after Asynchronous life cycles are likely to cause the deployment. Without this in place, a COTS greatest headaches and problems of your COTS system will cause more headaches down the system deployments. line than it will solve. To this, add in the problem of Asynchronous Upgrades. You must plan for Your organization may find that although you the life cycles of the individual boards within your have accounted for your applications life cycle COTS system and plan for implementing the and part EOL situations, your vendor’s develop- future technologies in your application without ment lifecycle can cause you headaches when it loss of uptime. Page 9 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  10. 10. Training/Skill Updating So, when evaluating your potential COTS When developing your new COTS application, it suppliers, you must ask yourself, “How will my is likely that your engineers will be charting new engineers be trained and gain the skills waters. They may be unfamiliar with the form necessary to effectively implement this solution factor, fabric, or any number of other into our application?” components that will be used in your new build. In any case, they are going to have to become COTS Gotcha Training: intimately familiar with the technology in order to Try to find a COTS Supplier that is willing to form successfully develop and deploy your next- a cohesive bond to essentially become an generation COTS-based application. extension of your engineering team to help in the training and skill development of your engineers. There are two ways in which your Engineers can Doing so will give your engineers the ability to learn about this new technology. First, they can fully implement and maintain your COTS read the product documentation (manual) and solution. use their search engine of choice to find discussions, papers, and information relating to the technology. I think it should be fairly obvious Differentiation through Hardware? that this would be a time consuming and You have probably been told that in a COTS wasteful method. To truly understand your new marketplace, your solution differentiation comes COTS deployment, your Engineers will need via software. Let’s extrapolate in case you true training and learning experiences that focus haven’t: on your application. Can software provide you with double or triple Some COTS companies, if they are truly serious (or more) performance increases between two about their technology and YOUR success, will generations of your product? Very unlikely. be willing to invest the time needed to provide These kinds of gains are only obtained through you with evaluation and test units, give online hardware upgrades. If you and your competitors seminars, answer specific questions via are using the same COTS hardware you will not telephone, and a rare few will be willing to hold differentiate yourself from them in terms of workshops at your lab or location to teach your performance – you and your competition will engineers the technology on a near one-to-one have become aligned, attempting to outdo each basis. They will do everything in their power to other via marketing instead of by out perform- train your engineers in the effective and efficient ance. use of their technology and instruct you on how best to implement their COTS solution within Some COTS suppliers can and are willing to your application – not for their own gain but provide not only minor “look and feel” changes rather for your success. but also fully customized features, peripherals, and even boards for your COTS deployment. Sometimes non-recurring efforts are needed to assure future success through differentiation. Page 10 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  11. 11. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions A good COTS provider will be able to give your within their market, you should encounter very application the hardware performance few interoperability problems. But what about differentiation that is needed to ensure your times in which a COTS vendor chooses to take success in the marketplace. After all, to a good a proprietary route of some form while claiming COTS supplier, your success is their success. full adherence to an open marketplace and the interoperability standards therein – something COTS Gotcha Differentiation: like a proprietary switch stack? While we’ve heard time and again that with COTS deployments your differentiation must Using the proprietary switch stack example, occur via software, you should determine the interoperability can become a problem. Want to value of a COTS supplier who will also provide use Switch 1 from Vendor A with a proprietary you with the hardware differentiation you need stack and Switch 2 from Vendor B with a and desire. If you fail to do this, the performance standard stack in the same application? You alignments among you and your competitors can very likely will run into severe interoperability make it difficult to justify your end-solution to problems that will bring your development and prospective customers. deployment schedule to a standstill until the problem is solved. Vendor Lock-In One could make an argument that the COTS Gotcha Vendor Lock-In: abandonment of Vendor Lock In is a ‘Holy Grail’ Just because an organization claims to be a justification for the use of COTS in your COTS supplier does not necessarily mean that deployment – which is a wonderful thing. When their components will be fully interoperable using COTS, gone are the days of jacked-up within your specific application. You should, at hardware, integration, and support prices solely the very least, test the solution before selecting for the reason that the provider can charge what- your COTS supplier. If you have already chosen ever they feel they can. That’s not to say that your supplier and run into the aforementioned hardware, integration, and support prices can’t problem, I hope you have chosen one of the few be exorbitant, but with a COTS ecosystem the suppliers who will be ready, willing, and able to market dictates pricing structures, rather than a devote the time and resources to overcoming single company. COTS vendors have to com- your issues. pete not only on feature set, lead times, support, and capability, but also on price. Key Fact for DTI: Oversight organizations within the COTS One in every five AdvancedTCA Switches being marketplace help ensure interoperability among used today were designed and manufactured manufacturers to maintain an open marketplace by Diversified Technology, Inc. so users of COTS hardware are not forced to purchase from one vendor. If COTS suppliers Ref: VDC Report, 12/3/06 maintain adherence to standards and practices Page 11 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  12. 12. The above six items represent key areas that If you incorporate heavy planning in all of these you must be aware of when developing and areas to your COTS development plan, you can deploying a COTS based system. If your COTS not only be sure of real success, but also of a supplier is lacking in any one of the aforemen- headache-free deployment leading to a much tioned areas, you can be sure that you will have faster time to revenue for your organization. to overcome costly delays and headaches. Article Written by: When planning your COTS system, you must account for all areas of Lifecycle Costs, from initial deployment to planning for obsolescence. Your COTS provider must be willing to work for you to overcome your unique issues, essentially making themselves an extension of your engineering team. You must be aware of vendor lock-in traps while selecting a COTS Joe McDevitt supplier that will be capable and willing to give Chief Technology Officer you the differentiation you need via hardware – not just passing the buck of true differentiation to your software developers. Also, your COTS provider should be willing to train your engineers to get the most out of the hardware, be it via email, telephone, web-based training, or most importantly, on-site training. VME Solutions Due to our increased focus on Military and Governmental applications, Diversified Technology, Inc. is considering bringing our computing and leading switch design expertise into the VME/VPX marketplace. If you have VME/VPX needs, or would like to discuss future plans therein with DTI, please contact Joe. Joe McDevitt Chief Technology Officer Diversified Technology, Inc. joe.mcdevitt@dtims.com 1.800.443.2667 Page 12 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  13. 13. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions Custom Designs Application-Specific Computing Solutions Diversified Technology, Inc. realizes that standard products do not meet the needs of every application. To satisfy these design-specified requirements, DTI routinely develops custom solutions. These designs can be as simple as adding or removing one feature to an existing catalog product, or they may be as complex as a full platform design implementing next generation technology. In either case, the development cycle is simplified by DTI's in-house tools, capabilities, and manufacturing lines. Advanced PCB and mechanical design software combined with libraries of function blocks streamline the initial de- velopment. BIOS source code engineers ensure the functional configuration is optimized to customer needs. Rapid prototyping is achieved on DTI's state-of-the-art SMT assembly lines and in DTI's metal shop. Finally, DTI's verification and validation labs guaranty that the product is fully operational and meets industry standards and can pass certification testing. www.DiversifiedTechnology.com/custom The Employees are DTI’s Most Important Asset Employee Spotlight - Elmer Durrell III Elmer currently serves as the Design Group Manager for DTI and is responsible for the overseeing and coordinating of all hardware design engineers, the mitigation of program roadblocks, and assuring that project milestones and objectives are met. Elmer graduated from Mississippi State University with a BS in Electrical Engineering and a minor in Mathematics. He first joined Diversified Technology, Inc as a Hardware Engineer eight years ago. In his role he enjoys debug efforts, solving tough problems, and growing others to be their best. Elmer and his wife, Wendy, are the proud parents of two children; daughter, Arianna age 5 and Son, Elmer IV age 3. He and his family are active members of Triumph Church in Vicksburg, MS where he servers as a Church Elder, Board of Trustees Member, Teacher, and Former Sunday School Director. Elmer loves spending quality time with his family, playing golf and basketball. Page 13 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  14. 14. BOTTLENECKS SUCK ELIMINATE CONGESTION WITH DTI’S 10 GIGABIT ATCA SWITCH www.diversifiedtechnology.com ATS1936 Flexible 10 Gigabit AdvancedTCA Switch Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions Diversified Technology, Inc. (DTI) 1.800.443.2667 • sales@dtims.com • www.diversifiedtechnology.com/atca Visit us on the web to find out more about DTI’s AdvancedTCA products. All trademarks and tradenames are the property of their respective owners.
  15. 15. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions 10G Ethernet An AdvancedTCA Switching and Protocols Primer processing level but rather at the switch level, where the system cannot keep up with the band- width demanded. With ATCA, the switch drives Traditionally in embedded hardware, specifically not only the overall functionality of a given in blade systems, the host or processing node chassis, but also the overall performance of the slot has been the focal point of chassis application. functionality. The architecture itself lent the CPU node to being the control, managing everything from IP traffic to I/O connectivity. In Ad- Hesitation of ATCA Adoption vancedTCA, the core of the system is no longer Bandwidth Increases from 10GbE the CPU blade. Not only is the IP traffic processed at the switch level with Ad- As the implementation of bandwidth-intensive vancedTCA, but also most of the I/O connectiv- applications continues to grow within the ity will be processed over IP, creating a situation Communications industry, the need for a drastic in which the switch drives the overall chassis increase in throughput becomes not only functionality. obvious, but absolutely necessary in order to provide the kinds of feature-rich and robust battlefield applications that the military requires to remain successful in the evolution of the “connected battlefield.” There is no denying that the AdvancedTCA architecture is gaining tremendous ground within this sector, namely because of the increased processing power and bandwidth it provides. The issue is, however, that although AdvancedTCA offers these increases in performance, the rapid growth of bandwidth- intensive applications means that even this soundness of architecture begins to choke and the available processing power and bandwidth With the development of the next-generation becomes over-saturated. Here is where the battlefield and network-centric warfare, many in Communications industry must look forward the military are finding that bottlenecks of an ap- within the AdvancedTCA offerings to 10G plication’s functionality are not at the traditional Ethernet fabrics. Page 15 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  16. 16. applications, its evolved form of 10G will be the default go-to for the Communications industry. Familiarity with the ‘core’ is key. Ethernet is also a “best effort” fabric. Traffic is processed as best a switch can manage, but, unlike FedEx or UPS, there is no guaranteed “overnight” service. When a “best effort” fabric is in use, the best effort an application architect can make is to over-design their AdvancedTCA platform. DTI’s AdvancedTCA Manufacturing As stated, Ethernet is inexpensive to implement. If an organization were to over-design their Some target engineers have hesitated on the planned 1G solution to 10G, they would find the adoption of AdvancedTCA in the development additional expenditure to do so is merely around and deployment of applications, mainly due to 4% of the overall chassis cost. Yes, four percent. the lack of bandwidth that 1Gb or 2x1Gb This means that for a nearly indistinguishable Ethernet provided in comparison to their increase in cost, a solution can be over-designed proprietary solutions. That argument is now to use 10G Ethernet, providing more assured gone. AdvancedTCA board and system bandwidth within the platform. manufacturers are poised to offer the necessary bandwidth and reduced latency that telecommu- nications applications require (with room for overhead), but can also offer the lower cost of moving to an open-standard architecture with well-designed 10G solutions. Ten-Gigabit Ethernet is the current leader (in terms of actual throughput capabilities) of the Ethernet standards, providing ten times the data transfer rate of the conventional (and most-used) 1GbE solutions provided on most AdvancedTCA processing nodes and switches. Ethernet is a familiar standard, and 10G is the natural evolution, providing tremendously increased throughput and performance over current 1G solutions. Due to the low cost of implementation DTI’s AdvancedTCA Testing and corresponding astronomical use of Ethernet in nearly all data and communication Page 16 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  17. 17. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions ATS1936 : DTI’s AdvancedTCA 10G Switch Blade with 3 AMCs DTI’s ATS1936 is a flagship 10G ATCA Switch The ATS1936 fully supports IPv4 and IPv6 that provides the bandwidth required on today’s routing on both the Base and Fabric networks. networked battlefield, as well as offering the The ATS1936 features 3 AMC mid-size sites, all flexibility to allow for direct customization through of which support telecom linecards for telecom AMC sites. clocking options. The ATS1936 also supports an RTM with 10G Ethernet ingress/egress ports. The ATS1936 is a true ATCA 3.1 Option 9 ATCA Using a fully standardized design approach, DTI Switch, featuring 20-port 10G, wirespeed has enabled the ATS1936 to provide the highest non-blocking fabric powered by Broadcom’s performance at the lowest possible cost in an XGS3 silicon. With the same silicon, the base AdvancedTCA switch for use in telecommunica- switch features 3 10G port, 23 auto-negotiating tion applications such as VoIP, IMS, IPTV, 1G ports, and one 10/100 management port. Wireless, Security, and other solutions. Ethernet management on the ATS1936 is A Closer Look provided through a third party with emphasis on Key Advanced Ethernet Features Enterprise support. DTI utilizes the Full Source Model with the management software, which The advanced Ethernet features of the ATS1936 runs directly out of user memory—negating any make it a truly robust and resilient solution for license exposure issues that are sometimes any military application, and provide the tools found on other ATCA Switches. The Ethernet necessary to satisfy the aggressive need for management functionality fully supports IPv6 bandwidth in today’s military applications. routing, and offers superior performance in certain critical protocols, such as Spanning Tree. Redundancy In utilizing the management software in this The key theme in any AdvancedTCA system manner, Diversified Technology has been able to and, truly, of the ATCA specification as a whole is focus solely on providing superior ATCA redundancy. Within an Ethernet network, two functionality with the ATS1936. key protocols come into play when supporting Page 17 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  18. 18. redundancy: Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol In the presence of a Link Aggregation Group (an extension of Rapid Spanning Tree) and Link (LAG), network designers can combine multiple Aggregation Group. links between many network devices and group them as a single link, providing increased Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol is an extension throughput and redundancy. of Rapid Spanning Tree and Spanning Tree. By combining MSTP and LAG on the ATS1936, Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) allows loops and DTI has allowed for N-way active (all N active) redundant links to exist on a single network by redundancy for higher throughput and allowing only one active path between any two availability between systems and networks. network devices. Rapid STP works to make the network adapt to changes much more quickly Layer 3 Routing & Redundancy than it would without it. Multiple STP is an When Layer 3 routing is used, Virtual Router extension of RSTP that gives VLAN support to Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) works wonders if STP. With hardware that supports STP, RSTP, the switch is acting as a gateway. With VRRP, and MSTP, a network is provided 1+M (1 active, multiple routers can be set to appear as a single M Standbys) redundancy, because only one path router to nodes and other routers, which creates is allowed to be active at a given time. highly available gateways for Layer 3 networks. Page 18 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  19. 19. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions If either switch goes down, the nodes will Multicasting with Layer 2 Networks dynamically failover to use the other switch as Internet Gateway Management Protocol the network gateway. VRRP often does not add Snooping and GARP Multicast Registration much cost to a switch. VRRP should be Protocol bring the power of multicasting to Layer considered a requirement if Layer 3 Routing is 2 networks. Though multicast is not often used, to be used in a network, because it can be so it is critical to some networks. Without multicast, useful. data is ether sent either to a single port or to all ports of a switch. Network Segmentation Virtual Local Area Networks are a simple, but Multicasting is a Layer 3/Layer 4 technology that powerful tool that increases security while allows a router to easily send one set of data to decreasing broadcast traffic via segmenting the multiple recipients. Both IGMP Snooping and network. While nearly every managed switch GMRP extend this technology to Layer 2 supports basic VLANs, there are several networks. IGMP Snooping does so by important extensions to VLANs that are not “snooping” the higher level multicast packets and always supported, including GARP VLAN forwarding the packets only to the ports that Registration Protocol (GVRP) and protocol have members of the multicast group in that based VLANs. GVRP can greatly ease the packet, whereas GMRP works by propagating hassles of the configuration of larger networks multicast settings though a network. Both GMRP by propagating VLANs automatically though the and IGMP Snooping reduce broadcast traffic on network. Protocol-based VLANs allow for networks that use multicast. network segmentation by protocols rather than by physical ports. This is useful for networks that Often unused, port mirroring can be a valuable need to support diverse protocols. tool for addressing network problems. With port mirroring all the data going out of a port, or ports, Data Control can be copied to another port for monitoring. Port With high network traffic, important data should mirroring can be used in traffic analysis, problem be prioritized through what is generically called debugging, and even security monitoring. Quality of Service. QoS can be implemented in many different ways, but two of the more useful Remote Management methods in ATCA are Access Control Lists For large networks Remote Management is a (ACLs) and Differentiated Services (DiffServ), definite requirement. For AdvancedTCA, SNMP both of which are available on the ATS1936. (Simple Network Management Protocol) provides the framework and is the key feature for ACLs are simple rules that define how to remote management. CLI (Command Line prioritize traffic and are based on things such as Interface) does provide a management interface, IP addressing or a Layer-4 port number. but it is difficult to use programmatically. SNMP DiffServ, on the other hand, allows for much provides remote management and monitoring more powerful rules, and in turn, better control that is relatively easy to use in a programmatic of data flow. way. Tools built around SNMP allow for constant Page 19 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  20. 20. monitoring, statistics collection, dynamic Cost-Benefit of Advanced Ethernet reconfiguration, firmware updates, configuration A Visual Cost-Benefit Analysis of Key Features backups, and more on the entire network. SNMPv3 is of particular interest because of the Every AdvancedTCA system has different broad security features it brings to SNMP. The requirements of the Ethernet switches used. end result of SNMP support is less downtime Often the cost-benefit analysis of a feature will because problems can be identified and solved show that the feature is needed, even when the more quickly. cost is high. Problem Analysis Below are examples of features that are very Often unused, Port Mirroring can be a valuable important to certain networks while not used in tool for addressing network problems. With port others. The chart will show that many of the key mirroring all the data going out of a port, or ports, features discussed above that are present on the can be copied to another port for monitoring. Port ATS1936 are of the utmost importance, but are mirroring can be used in traffic analysis, problem only negligible in their impact on the overall cost debugging, and even security monitoring. of the system. GO AHEAD AND JUMP IN Simplify with COTS Small Form Factor Building Blocks Small Form Factors ETX and COM Express CPU Modules Call Today to Get your System “Application Customized” 1-800-443-2667
  21. 21. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions 2 MHz to 2 GHz Bringing it Together What it all means As stated earlier, with AdvancedTCA, the core of the system is no longer the host or system slot housing a processing blade, but rather falls to the capabilities of the switch used in a system to provide the bandwidth and features needed to adequately support an organization’s key applications. The rapid growth of the network- centric battlefield means that even this soundness of the architecture of AdvancedTCA begins to choke and the available processing power and bandwidth becomes over-saturated. Ten Gigabit Ethernet offerings are what the SFRT Antenna Development government and military must look to in order to solve these issues with their next-generation DTI also focuses on high applications, and the ATS1936 10G ATCA Switch performance RF antennas for provides not only the necessary bandwidth but customer-specific applications: also the key features needed on an advanced Ethernet network. Even in solutions that only “require” 1G bandwidth, over-engineering to 10G - Enhanced performance for is an affordable and best effort design when specific bands implementing a fabric that takes a best effort approach to bandwidth. - Reduced coverage gaps - Extended range - Options for power limited platforms Article written by: - Reduced Physical and JP Landry Radar Signature Networking Program Manager www.DTIRFSolutions.com Page 21 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  22. 22. COM-onomics The Economics and Use of COM Express in Embedded Applications Many embedded applications today require not and power management, and power and ground only significant processing performance, but also interfaces, while the second provides SDVO and increased I/O function in a compact form factor: legacy IDE and PCI signals with additional PCI Enter COM Express. In utilizing the COM Express, LAN, and power and ground signals. method of a module containing all of the components for a host computer (offered as an The maximum total I/O support in COM Express COTS component) attached to a carrier board becomes: (COTS-developed or custom per application), 32 PCI Express lanes (80Gbps aggregate) the COM Express form factor is poised to x16 PCI Express graphics become the de facto architecture for balancing 2 LVDS Channels performance, size, I/O and thermals in 2 Serial DVO Channels embedded computing markets. By hardening 4 SATA-150 links (600MBps aggregate) through extending operational temperature 3 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (10G provisions ranges and adding physical strengthening in the future) characteristics, COM Express is also making 8 USB 2.0 ports direct inroads to governmental and military/ aerospace applications. COM Express has also been designed to support future generations of PCI Express and In physical applications, COM Express can be SATA interfaces. utilized as a standalone embedded solution or as a processor mezzanine. To see this, we must The physical dimension requirements of the look closer at the COM Express design standard COM Express CPU modules allows for two and how its specifications allow it to be utilized different sizes: Basic and Extended, measuring within an application setting. 125mm x 95mm and 155mm x 110mm, respectively. The Extended Form Factor has a Function and Design larger power budget, doubles memory capacity, The standard for a COM Express carrier board is utilizes dual-channel RAM configurations, and CPU-agnostic. The architecture allows the allows the use of larger processors and chipsets. embedded industry to adopt LVDS interfaces while maintaining legacy support. The Basic and Extended Form Factors, however, share the same board-to-board The board-to-board connectors in COM Express connections, signaling definitions, and mechan- consist of two rows, in which one row provides ical assemblies. This means that any carrier pins for PCI Express, LPC Bus, SATA, LVDS board can support either a Basic or an Extended LCD Channel, VGA and TV-out, LAN, system CPU Module. Page 22 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  23. 23. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions As can be seen, COM Express is a very flexible As a standalone embedded board, the COM architecture that can be used in a diverse range Express methodology creates a solution in which of applications, due to the significant I/O there is significant processing and I/O bandwidth capabilities, CPU-agnostic design, and the in a small physical footprint. Many applications ability to interchange host CPU modules. So, in the aforementioned markets can take how do these capabilities contribute to promote advantage of these characteristics by utilizing a the use of COM Express as either a standalone standalone embedded board: Interactive kiosks, embedded board or as a processor mezzanine? Self-Checkouts, training simulators, electronic billboards and such can take advantage of the features of COM Express by utilizing a stand- COM Express – The Little Board that Could alone embedded board within their applications. Standards such as AdvancedTCA are focused on a much defined market segment (Telco and Within the same markets and applications, Data) because of three main reasons: First, designers of embedded systems and applica- significant bandwidth processing power. tions may also partition COM Express CPU Second, there is no need, in most cases, for Modules from their own platform base, including significant amounts of I/O within ATCA specialty I/Os and FPGAs, utilizing COM applications. Third is the fact that, in the Express as a processing mezzanine. In doing applications that utilize AdvancedTCA, size is so, these designers can focus on their applica- not a very important issue. It makes sense, in tion-specific I/O on a custom baseboard, without these cases, to utilize a separate processing the need to address high-speed switched fab- node, separate switch nodes, and to create rics, signal reflections and impedance controls, expansion via AMC modules. These three routing, termination placement, etc. points can also be applied to MicroTCA, with lesser implications on necessary size. The COM Express methodology creates an AdvancedTCA and MicroTCA are high-band- architecture that can satisfy the needs of most width, high-power, low I/O solutions mainly for (if not all) applications that require a balance of Telco and Data applications. They suit their performance and I/O in a compact form factor, market very, very well. and the flexibility of the specification allows for the utilization of COM Express as either a stand- COM Express, however, is more flexible. Any alone embedded board or as a processing application in any market that requires high mezzanine within the proprietary building blocks bandwidth, high I/O, and small size can utilize of other applications, allowing designers to focus COM Express. Military/Aerospace, Industrial on their own core engineering competencies. Automation, Test & Measurement, Security, Transportation, and Medical markets all require While not an inherently rugged form factor, the processing power, I/O capabilities, and small efforts are being made across vendors to offer form factor that is present in COM Express. extended temperature variations of their offerings, as well as adding options such as Page 23 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  24. 24. physical hardening characteristics for use in respond to demand fluctuations, competitive embedded military applications, such as forces, and new technologies by quickly and vehicular controls, robotics, and simulator efficiently modifying existing designs, inexpen- control mechanisms. sively broadening their product portfolios, and plug-and-play implementation of new COM All of this is well and good, but the real questions boards. are “How will the adoption COM Express affect the overall bottom-line of an organization?” COM Express represents a safeguard to R&D What is the total cost of ownership, the product investments and a lowering of total ownership life cycle costs, time-to-market, transitional cost, because it allows designers to separate metrics, etc.?” commodity COM Express modules from their proprietary building blocks. Investments into R&D for specific, value-added application Dollars and Cents elements will not have to be reengineered for First and foremost, COM Express represents a successive technology generations. significant reduction in life cycle costs due to the scalability and interoperability of modules. Once It is possible to achieve some of the form-fit- a specific carrier board has been implemented function of COM Express via mini-ITX/nano-ITX to an application, future hardware upgrades can motherboards and the like at a lower cost. be implemented by simply changing the COM However, when dealing with these competing Express Module. This significantly reduces the form factors, an organization loses significantly hardware costs of upgrading, which represent more than it gains, mainly in the realm of life the bulk of expense when a new generation of cycle availability and revision control. COM CPU and RAM technology becomes available. Express manufacturers strive to provide at least five years of availability and revision control of In hand with the quick implementation of their products, allowing critical applications to be upgraded hardware comes the faster time-to- provided with the necessary hardware through- market for deployment and time-to-revenue out their lifespan. after. There is a direct relationship between how fast an organization can deploy and implement hardware upgrades and how quickly said Key Fact for DTI: organization can begin to see ROI. With COM All of the Products designed and manufactured Express, the essential plug-and-play architec- by Diversified Technology, Inc. are done so in ture of the standard means that next-generation the United States of America. We do not processor and RAM technology can be outsource overseas in an effort to cut costs. deployed, implemented, and working much faster than previously, quickly generating a revenue stream. Simply stated, the COM methodology allows an organization to rapidly Page 24 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  25. 25. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions COM Express improves form-fit-function in ability to harden COM Express by extending specific applications, and helps to reduce design operational temperature ranges and adding risks by cutting development time and costs, physical strengthening characteristics is also and, at the same time, providing the scalability extending COM Express into the realms of and flexibility needed over a multi-year life cycle government and military/aerospace applications. of an embedded application. By reducing life cycle costs, protecting R&D Finally, being a PICMG embedded standard, investments, and reducing time-to-market and COM Express has no ‘proprietary’ builds. time-to-revenue metrics for any organization, Standards-based COTS products have already COM Express makes a very compelling been shown to reduce initial investment costs, argument for its economy within the embedded as well as life cycle maintenance costs, due to industry. the inherent competition among suppliers to produce cost-effective solutions. Article written by: As of now, COM Express represents the highest performance available in small form factor modules. The scalability, flexibility, throughput, support for legacy and non-legacy standards, and low cost of ownership make COM Express a very viable choice for a host of embedded Doug Mays, Field Application Engineer applications across many different markets. The CMXLX45 Module Baseboard CMXLX45 : DTI’s COM Express Module with Custom Baseboard Page 25 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  26. 26. Mobile Power for Mobile Forces On-Board Vehicle Power Current threats on our military forces have So what's changed? The truth is the U.S. has created a tremendous requirement for mobility come through a long dormant period, nearly 30 as it relates to mission specifications. The years following the end of the cold war, where objectives of OBVP are to develop, demonstrate we as a nation got complacent while the events and transition electronic technologies that in the world were changing rapidly around us. In enable lighter, physically smaller, more efficient defense of our military, the need to change was and more reliable electronics, which are easier recognized much sooner by them, than we as a to operate and maintain. This in turn will enable nation through our elected officials. An apathetic current and emerging electronic systems to view of our vulnerability developed that has increase performance, have improved physical resulted in our current state of military readiness. characteristics, be more reliable and require The events of 9/11 and in Iraq were a shock and significantly less lifecycle resources. Further an unfortunate wake-up-call. Since that time development of these programs will also there has been a major shift in military strategy. maximize the advantages of increased DC The primary emphasis is no longer on watching supply voltage inherent in the HMMWV, FMTV our borders for approaching missiles or and HEMTT for delivery of a power solution for bombers. We now are faced with a new enemy, multiple military platforms in excess of today’s terrorists, who scatter like roaches, hide in the available 10KW. dark and pop up anywhere and everywhere on a global basis. Sometimes OBVP is referred to as "Under the Hood Power", but whatever the vernacular, it Our military is now in a rapid transformation to simply refers to providing an alternative source become a lighter, more agile, mobile and an of AC power on the battlefield that is generated extremely more lethal force. To accomplish this from the vehicle itself, as opposed to hauling a many technical and logistic problems must be large, heavy, diesel generator around on a trailer. solved; however, simply throwing money at a What's the big deal with this concept you may problem doesn't always produce results. Even ask. Well the military has been hauling today the old engineering adage, "the generators around for decades and quite probability of obtaining an answer to an successfully. When the enemy was confronted undefined problem, is zero" still applies. at well defined lines and occupied a specific theater of operation, that may have worked; but Within the realm of this "military transformation" even then it was just barely adequate enough to problem definition there are opposing, or accomplish the mission. divergent forces, i.e., to become more lethal and better networked involves new weapons Page 26 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  27. 27. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions systems and more sophisticated electronic HMMWV's in operation by the joint military systems, both of which demand more DC and services. The large majority of the rolling stock AC power. How do you get more power?...ah of HMMWV's today contain a 28vdc electrical yes...larger, heavier generators. That makes the system. "lighter" and "more agile" components of the "transformation" equation harder to achieve. True, there is a move to possibly increase this to 42vdc, 100+ vdc and beyond in new-to-market The demand for fuel on the battlefield has models currently being designed and tested. doubled in the past ten years and the demand However, a nice, clean, simple retrofit could for tactical power has quadrupled during that result in an upgrade of the existing fleet to same time period. include On-Board Vehicle Power in the range of 8 to 10 KW. While if we had our druthers we Should that be a surprise to us? Well no. Isn't would want 30KW, it has been estimated that it logical that one might conclude that the between 70 and 80 percent of the diesel demands of the war effort have resulted in generators in the military inventory today are in advanced technology, in the form of sophisti- the 10KW power range. So addressing this cated electronic systems, improved weapons segment of the HMMWV installed base provides systems, state-of-the-art field medical equipment an interim step on the way to the more powerful and elaborate networked Tactical Operations systems planned for tomorrow. Centers (TOC's). These all put a strain on the power systems currently deployable to the By providing the HMMWV with a 7 to 8 KW battlefield. In looking forward at what might be On-Board-Vehicle-Power system supplying another 20 to 40 years of anti-terrorist, military continuous AC power, the need to trailer a diesel engagement, its easy to say that the fuel and generator is reduced significantly. In addition, power requirements on the battlefield will now the HMMWV can negotiate terrain that it experience the same levels of increase over the could not previously engage while towing a next ten years. generator thus leading back to the more agile concept. So how does this monumental problem get solved? The best way is to break it up into What kind of AC power is required? Since the smaller pieces. Identify the chunks that can be missions vary between the branches of service addressed with today's technology and begin to and even within the same branch of service, the deploy, not all, but some portion to the battlefield. AC power requirements vary considerably. In Then as technology allows, focus on tomorrow’s many cases a simple conversion from the solutions. vehicle's 28vdc source to single phase 120vac, 60hz is adequate. In that regard, a number of The first thing that can be done to lead to companies are providing this inverter tomorrow’s solutions is to focus current efforts technology; however, the demands for power on on the largest installed base of wheeled the battlefield, more often than not, exceed this vehicles, that being the different variants of level of sophistication. Therefore, the challenge Page 27 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  28. 28. is designing an On-Board Vehicle Power system As one reviews the specifications for an OBVP that meets multiple mission demands, system, to be installed on 28 vdc vehicles, there regardless of the branch of service. This is by no are certain performance minimums that become means a minor task. There are simply times evident, as it relates to the Output Power, Output when the little ole lady from the television Voltage, Input Voltage, Total Harmonic Distortion commercials says, "Where's the beef?", i.e., and Output Frequency. Physical characteristics 120/208, 3 phase VAC. and mechanical dimensions tend to vary from vendor to vendor such as length, width, height, weight and efficiency (heat dissipation) of the chassis. Listing of parameter requirements: Power Level 10kw peak,7 Kw continuous Output Voltage 120/208 vac ( single phase and 3 phase ) Input Voltage 24 - 28 vdc THD Less than 5% Extreme Power Requirements in the Military Output Frequency 50,60 or 400 hz (selectable) Dimensions Now, regardless of whether the soldier is Small as possible needing single phase 120 vac or 3 phase, 208 Weight vac, in Europe where 50hz is prevalent, or if he's Light as possible on the flight line, or a radar installation where power at 400hz is the frequency of choice, the Efficiency OBVP system should be able to provide all of the High as possible frequency options. With sophisticated commu- nications, computers and other specialty Among the major challenges in developing a 10 electronic systems, Total Harmonic Distortion KW OBVP system, especially a 208 vac, 3 (THD) becomes important since harmonic phase version, from a vehicles 28 vdc electrical distortion emitted by the AC power source can system, is the internal power dissipation of the render this type of equipment inoperable. converter itself, without creating a heat problem Therefore, a low THD is essential to completing within the enclosure. Therefore, cooling is a the desired operation. major challenge, especially if the goal is to conductive cool the system so as not to require forced air through fans. Page 28 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  29. 29. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions To obtain the necessary 28 vdc, 400 amps the solutions, the optimum solution to the 28 vdc to HMMWV must either already be equipped with a high ac voltage, multi-phase requirements of 400 amp alternator or be retrofitted with one. today's OBVP system involves a variant of these While most HMMWV's today are equipped with existing technologies. 200 amp alternators, this is easily resolved since the Army has 400 amp, retrofittable, alternators Through a series of events, that spanned a in their inventory. Once the 28 vdc, 400 amp number of years of research in the field of alternator power source is installed in On-Board Vehicle Power, Diversified Technology conjunction with the 10 KW OBVP Power has introduced an OBVP system concept that Converter system, there is the problem of meets the specifications addressed in this keeping the alternator running at an rpm that is article. The system includes a power conversion adequate to supply the current to the Power electronics chassis that is shock-mounted inside Converter system, which in turn will satisfy the a ruggedized, waterproof enclosure. AC electrical load, as well as, provide a continu- ous positive charge to the array of batteries. To accomplish this, an engine speed control system must become an integral part of the overall OBVP solution by increasing the engine rpm's as the output load demand increases. Likewise, as the load is removed the engine rpm's must return to idle. Once the alternator, battery package and speed control have been defined the actual design concept or method of converting the 28 vdc to 120/208 vac (single phase or 3 phase), 50, 60, or 400 hz selectable power can be addressed. Some methods of solving the dc to ac conver- Power Conversion Electronics Unit, VPS-10K sion involve dc-link or high-frequency ac-link technology. The most common form of switch- Description of OBVP Application mode dc to ac conversion is characterized by a The original system definition for DTI’s OBVP dc link; however, the use of the dc-link has program targeted the creation of compact, limitations imposed by the dc-link itself. Another mobile power generation to be used for the method involves high-frequency ac-links that Sentinel Radar System in stationary mode directly convert a higher frequency ac voltage to applications. As our development continued, a lower frequency ac voltage. This involves the additional applications were realized due to the rectification and impulse excitation of a low-pass system’s functionality and multiple mounting filter with integral half-cycle sinusoidal or quasi- platforms. Mobile power became even more of sinusoidal, voltages originating from a source of a desire therefore the ability to produce power high-frequency ac voltage. While both represent on-the-move was incorporated in to the unit. Page 29 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  30. 30. More urgent applications arose for OBVP with now can operate under preferred mission the recent aftermaths of hurricane Katrina and requirements without having to modify its 2008’s Gustav. These include the capability of mission due to limitations of equipment deploy- supplying power to ravished areas in dire need ment. This provides the soldier with more as it relates to first responders, health care options in accomplishing objectives without facilities, water purification centers, communica- having to jeopardize safety based on limits tions centers, gas / fueling centers, etc. Using imposed by the previous solutions. Flexibility, the capabilities of the OBVP system, instant mobility, portability and durability were the main power could be realized in any area where a points of design during development. With the HMMWV could maneuver. National Guard first VPS-10K from DTI, those objectives are responders would have the tools necessary to achieved. provide instant relief to those needing it most. The military hierarchy is moving to become a More and more programs require additional lighter, more agile, mobile, networked, lethal power generation capabilities. Future develop- force through a modernization effort within the ment of the OBVP program will target higher Pentagon, known as "transformation". The power generation capabilities. Using the 10KW profile of our enemy has changed from the more system as the framework, higher power levels traditional adversaries to those threats imposed can be achieved by utilizing additional DC by the far more elusive terrorist movement that is generating techniques for tactical wheeled global in nature. vehicles. The focus is to make this technology available for already established vehicles This article is an effort to divide the technological currently in use as well as for new programs challenges of providing tactical On-Board under development as part of the vehicle Vehicle Power to the battlefield into levels of integration package to power more advanced difficulty. Thereby resulting in a "real-time technology for immediate requirements in the solution" for the 10kw and under systems, while war against terrorism. acknowledging that there is intense research being conducted to attain the higher power The development work for DTI’s program demands of the future. focused all its efforts in providing a new solution, never before seen by the armed forces, and supplying a modular approach of power genera- tion in a smaller, smarter and durable concept. This method of power generation provides the capability of achieving power levels only seen in the past by the utilization of a trailer towed approach. The compact nature of this design allows for installation that does not affect cargo Article written by: space needed for mission requirements. Being Barrie McArthur waterproof and not trailer towed, the HMMWV Vice Chairman Special Projects Page 30 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  31. 31. MOBILE POWER For Mobile Forces On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) What is OBVP? Three Phase and Single Phase Operation Available OBVP provides 3-Phase AC Power for Rugged Environments for Mobile or Stationary Power OBVP offers Electronic Power that is: ••••• • Solid State Electronics (No Moving Parts) Hassle Free, Trailer Free • Physically Lighter 7KW Continuous, 10KW Peak Power • Smaller Dimensions • Easily Mountable ••••• • More Efficient and More Reliable • Easier to Operate and Maintain 50Hz, 60Hz and 400Hz Selectable from One Power Inverter ••••• - DTI’s VPS-10K is Now Being Deployed - Minimizes Logistic Space Requirements Aboard Aircraft or Watercraft ••••• Simple Retro-fit for Vehicle Integration and Multiple Mounting Options ••••• Provides Power to Teams, Patrols, Convoys, During Unexpected Delays ••••• Offers Simplified Fuel Logistics for Mission Planning and Deployment ••••• Back-up Power for Mission-Critical Equipment www.DTIRuggedPower.com
  32. 32. The Cohesive Approach How to Achieve High Availability Load Balancing with HAProxy on ATCA Defining Load Balancing Simply Load Balancing is a fairly simple concept: work that would normally be performed by one system is dis- tributed amongst many systems based on some predetermined criteria in a transparent fashion such that the client or end user is unaware of the separation of services. This is not what is traditionally thought of as Clustering, although Load Balancing is usually a feature of clusters. Typically load balancing is used by Internet service provides to distribute the computational and bandwidth loads of applications across many servers in a server farm. In this type of setup, the load balancer distributes requests to the backend servers, who reply to the load balancer. The load balancer is the “point of contact” to the client. The client or user cannot contact and is unaware of the presence of the backend servers and the separation of the services amongst them: Basic Load Balancing Diagram Layer 4 and Load Balancing When the term “Load Balancing” is used, what is typically meant is Layer 4/7 Load Balancing. This refers to the fourth and seventh layers of the OSI Model of networking abstraction, called the Transport Layer and Application Layer, respectively. In the OSI Model, the Transport Layer is where we find TCP and UDP protocols, segmentation of the data stream, error correction, and flow control. TCP (Trans- mission Control Protocol) provides, among other things, reliable end-to-end communication (is “con- nection-oriented”) via virtual circuits, error detection and congestion avoidance at Layer 4, whereas UDP (User/Universal Datagram Protocol) does not, and therefore has a much lower overhead than TCP. UDP is used at Layer 4 for application services that do not require guaranteed delivery of datagrams. Page 32 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  33. 33. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions TCP and UDP use port numbers to keep track of multiple application connections to the same location, essentially keeping track of connections to higher level protocols. What are called “well-known” ports are reserved for 1 – 1023. For example, TCP uses port 80 when initializing HTTP connections to a server, port(s) 20/21 for FTP connections, and UDP uses port 69 for TFTP (Trivial FTP) connections. Some protocols may use both TCP and UDP to form a connection, but will only use one port, such as DNS, which uses both TCP and UDP to transmit data but only uses port 53. The Application Layer (Layer 7) interfaces directly with and defines application processes and services, such as FTP, TFTP, HTTP, DNS, DHCP, SSH, SIP, and TELNET. The Application layer should not be confused with desktop or user applications – these applications, such as a web browser, use the processes and services of Layer 7, but they do not reside in this layer themselves. Layer 4/7 load balancing involves making distribution decisions based on the port number of an in- coming connection, which indicates the application level process or service that is using the transport level protocol. For example, one may choose to load balance incoming connections to a web server. In this case, the load balancer would be told something akin to “incoming connections to port 21, or FTP connections, should be distributed among Servers 1, 2, and 3.” The load balancer then does just that, transparently balancing the bandwidth and computational load of the user connection. Basic Load Balancer Distribution to Backend Application Servers There are various methods of connection scheduling within a load balancing implementation. The most basic, and most common, is called Round Robin Load Balancing (which is what is pictured above). If a fifth connection were to be made above, that connection would go to Server 1, a sixth would go to Server 2, and so on. The connections are distributed in a round-robin fashion among the four applica- tion servers. Some load balancing solutions may use destination or source hashing, shortest expected delay scheduling, least-connection scheduling, or any of a variety of other methods for scheduling the distribution of connections. Page 33 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  34. 34. AdvancedTCA What is AdvancedTCA? For high availability and high bandwidth needs in telecommunications, commercial and industrial sec- tors, and in government/military applications, there is little doubt that AdvancedTCA (ATCA) presents one of the most robust and powerful architectures available. Combining the performance and high availability with the ease of scalability and upgrades, ATCA should be a strong contender for most applications in such sectors. For the uninitiated, AdvancedTCA is the largest specification effort in the history of the PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturer’s Group (PICMG) and is targeted to requirements for next-generation com- munications equipment, and AdvancedTCA is finding homes in military, commercial, and industrial ap- plications. This series of specifications incorporates the latest trends in high speed interconnect technologies, next-generation processors, and improved reliability, high availability, and ease of serv- iceability and focuses on key benefits of a COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) methodology. ATCA was created with six key goals in mind: • Enable interoperability among manufacturers’ components • High Availability (.99999 Uptime) • Reduce Time to Market/Revenue • Reduce development costs • Reduce the length of development cycles • Create an open, standards-based scalable, flexible platform architecture As of today, ATCA has achieved these goals. In using the ATCA architecture, organizations will achieve not only a demonstrably reduced Time to Revenue, but lower overall development and deployment costs compared to traditional 1U or 2U deployments and proprietary solutions. Interoperability is a hall- mark of ATCA, allowing the choice of best-in-breed components for any application – preventing lock- in with one vendor whose proprietary solution may not meet all of an application’s unique needs. As a bladed architecture, ATCA offers many benefits over traditional 1U and 2U solutions, namely in re- duced integration and cabling costs, as well as being extraordinarily scalable and flexible. A shelf can be adapted to fulfill nearly any need via AMC expansion sites on most blades (or on a carrier blade) or through specialized full-sized blades fitted for one specific purpose. The achieved interoperability allows the selection of the best components to fit the needs of an appli- cation. One vendor’s CPU node will work just fine with another’s switch in a third vendor’s chassis. ATCA offers the freedom of choice, the freedom of flexibility, and the freedom from vendor-enforced up- grades. Page 34 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  35. 35. Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Solutions AdvancedTCA Switching & Networking Basics An ATCA system is designed around a redundant dual star topology of communication among blades in a chassis. A typical 5-Slot chassis will house two switches and three computing nodes, as well as a Shelf Manager (ShMM) for system-level management. The blades may have AMC or RTM capabilities for board-level I/O expansion and to allow for customization of board and system capabilities. A 5-Slot chassis fully loaded resembles the following: 5 Slot ATCA Chassis with 2 ShMMs, 2 Switches, and 3 CPU Nodes As stated, the intra-chassis communication links are routed through the chassis backplane among the boards in a redundant, dual-star topology. Since each blade has a “base” and a “fabric” interconnect, each CPU node has two connections to each switch – one base interface and one fabric interface. The Base interconnect is treated as a “control plane”, while the Fabric interconnect is called the “data plane.” Some ATCA backplanes support a full mesh architecture, in which every node (any endpoint) is con- nected to every other node. It is still possible to implement a simple dual star, but the expanded con- nectivity is available. Redundant Dual Star Topology Page 35 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.
  36. 36. In the above diagram, the red 1GbE connections are the base interconnects, while the blue 10G con- nections represent the fabric interconnects. All of the shown connectivity is intra-chassis, meaning it is routed through the backplane of the chassis itself; there is no external cabling needed to connect the nodes and switches to one another. As one may guess, the above diagram, when implemented “naked,” would result in a whole host of networking problems like loops, congestion, and broadcast storms. How- ever, ATCA switches support a great many protocols to solve these issues, such as M/R/STP, Flow Control, VLANs, QoS/CoS, etc. Representation of Full Mesh Topology Most ATCA switches are Layer 2 switches and support hundreds of protocols. This allows for clean, ef- ficient, and effective networking at the Data Link layer of the OSI model and aides in developing flat net- work design. Some ATCA switches, like DTI’s ATS1936, support many Layer 3 (Network Layer) routing functions like RIP/v2, OSPF/v2, static routing, VLAN routing, VRRP, etc. While we still refer to these as Layer 2 switches, they do have greatly expanded and robust routing functionality. Even fewer switches support the aforementioned Layer 4 functionality that Load Balancing requires. That is not to say they do not exist – one could find a very few ATCA switches that have Layer 4 Load Balancing functionality integrated. However, these switches will typically break the bank when it comes to affordability! Page 36 DTI Wired : Get Connected with Diversified Technology, Inc.