Real american pronunciation

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This is real American pronunciation. I was asked to re-upload this so this is the same as the other one.

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Real american pronunciation

  1. 1. American Pronunciation
  2. 2. Real American Pronunciation Word Stress Thought Groups Sounds of English Reduction Phrasal Stress Linking Emphasis Consonants & Vowels American
  3. 3. Word Stress In every word in English, there is one main emphasized syllable. The vowel sound in this syllable sounds higher in pitch, longer, and louder, and this is called stress. This helps create the rhythm of the language, and knowing how to recognize the stressed syllable will help you with comprehension. Placing the stress where it should be when you're speaking helps native speakers understand you better as well. Click on the to hear an example.
  4. 4. What are the patterns? English word stress is not always on the same syllable, like in some languages. Many times, though, it is one of the last three syllables in the word. Here are some examples of stress in different syllables of the word: computer languages pronunciation Could you hear a difference in tone, length, and loudness between the stressed and unstressed syllables?
  5. 5. Sometimes you can predict the stress placement because of the type of word or the ending you put on it. Word type Where is the stress? Examples Two syllables Nouns on the first syllable center object flower Verbs on the last syllable release admit arrange Here are some general rules:
  6. 6. Word type Where is the stress? Examples Compound Nouns (N + N) (Adj. + N) on the first part desktop pencil case bookshelf greenhouse Adjectives (Adj. + P.P.) on the last part (the verb part) well-meant hard-headed old-fashioned Verbs (prep. + verb) understand overlook outperform
  7. 7. Word type Where is the stress? Examples Phrasal Verbs on the particle turn off buckle up hand out Word with added ending -ic the syllable before the ending economic geometric electrical -tion, -cian, -sion technician graduation cohesion -phy, -gy, -try, -cy, - fy, -al the third from the last syllable photography biology geometry -meter parameter thermometer barometer
  8. 8. Listen and Practice Where do you hear the main stress in these words? 1. congratulations 2. darkroom 3. solid 4. magnify 5. sophisticated 6. undergo 7. topical 8. computer desk 9. complete (v) 10. abstract (n) con gra tu la tions dark room so lid mag ni fy so phis ti ca ted un der go to pi cal com pu ter desk com plete ab stract Click to hear the word, then click on the syllable you think is the stressed syllable.
  9. 9. Listen for the word stress of the given words in the sentence. Play the sentences. 1. My teachers really amuse me. 2. That is kept confidential in the file cabinet. 3. The president's family lives in the White House. 4. According to my calendar, we have an appointment at three. 5. I'm going to print out the handouts for the geology class now. Main
  10. 10. Thought Groups In written English, we use punctuation to show where the pauses in the sentences should be. When we speak English, our listeners don't see the punctuation, but we don't generally run all the words together in a stream of equally-emphasized words either; we group words by their meaning, and pause between them. This allows us to speak in phrases or thought groups, and to pause just after important information that we emphasize. If we are speaking slower and clearer, the phrases are shorter, but if we are speaking fast, the phrases are longer and we don't emphasize as many words. It's important to know where to put the pauses in the sentences so that you can sound more like a native-speaker.
  11. 11. What are the patterns? Thought groups are generally formed by the grammar. Here are some examples: Noun phrases: the obsolete software Amy and Peter Short subject and verb: Mary walked The boy smiled
  12. 12. Verb phrases: jogged joyfully seemed correct Prepositional phrases: in the laboratory with the hammer to the mall Relative Clauses: ...woman who wore glasses, was... ...book that I read, is... Parenthetical remarks: phrases (or thought groups) are... this is, in fact, an example.
  13. 13. Between each thought group, the speaker needs to pause. There are some pauses that are longer and more important than others. These would be marked with commas "," semi-colons ";" colons ":" and periods "." in writing, and will ALMOST ALWAYS be pauses, no matter how fast the person is speaking. The other pauses will be there if it's slower speech but might not be if it's faster speech. Sometimes if you can imagine the punctuation that would be there in writing, it helps you know where to pause for a breath. (click on the icon to hear each sentence)
  14. 14. Finally, // each time you prepare the solution, // you should take into account / the temperature of the liquids. // Don't mix these two liquids together / unless they have the same temperature: // room temperature. // After they reach the same temperature, // then you can mix them together / and get the starting temperature. First listen to the whole paragraph and then listen to each sentence.
  15. 15. Where would you put the pauses? 2. Through this analysis, we will be delving into the world of engineering mechanics. 1. The interior element is much more important than the outer elements. 3. When the current price wars have dissipated, the everyday consumer will have more buying power. Check Check Check
  16. 16. 5. Although many people believe that J.S. Bach was a classical composer, he was in fact, a Baroque master. 4. In order to find the non-trivial solution of a linear system, one must find the eigenvalues of the corresponding state-space matrix. Check Check Main
  17. 17. 1. The interior element / is much more important / than the outer elements. The first thought group is a noun phrase, the second is a verb phrase, and the third begins with a particle. The underlined words are the stressed words in each thought group, and the italicized words are emphasized because they are comparing one with another and "element" is old information at the end of the sentence. (See also Phrasal Stress and Emphasis). My answer and reason.
  18. 18. My answer and reason. 2. Through this analysis, //we will be delving /into the world /of engineering mechanics. The first, third, and fourth thought groups are prepositional phrases and the second is a short subject and verb phrase. There is a longer pause after the adverbial "through this analysis", where the comma would be.
  19. 19. My answer and reason. 3. When the current price wars / have dissipated, // the everyday consumer / will have more buying power. Here the first thought group is a long noun phrase starting with an adverb; the second is a verb phrase that is separated from the subject so that the subject can be emphasized more because of the pause; the third is another noun phrase; and the fourth is a verb phrase. There is a longer pause after the second phrase because of the punctuation. Note here also that "price wars" and "buying power" are both compound nouns and so are stressed on the first element. (See Word Stress).
  20. 20. My answer and reason. 4. In order to find /the non-trivial solution / of a linear system, // one must find the eigenvalues / of the corresponding state- space matrix. Here the first thought group is an infinitive (verb) phrase beginning with a subordinator, the second is a noun phrase, the third and the last are prepositional phrases, and the fourth is a short subject and verb. There is a longer pause between the dependent and independent clauses in this sentence (where the comma would be.)
  21. 21. My answer and reason. 5. Although many people believe / that J.S. Bach /was a classical composer, // he was /in fact, / a Baroque master. The first thought group in this sentence begins with a subordinator as it's the beginning of a dependent clause, plus it's a short subject/verb phrase. The second is a relative clause. The third is a predicate verb phrase. The independent clause in this sentence is broken up by a parenthetical remark, "in fact," which necessitates pauses surrounding it and is pronounced in a lower tone to show it's a different part of the sentence. There is a longer pause here between the dependent and independent clauses (where the comma would be).
  22. 22. Sounds of English The purpose of this section is to help learners of English with the pronunciation of specific sounds. On these pages you will find: o Pictures of how your mouth looks when you say sounds. o A description of how to make the sound. o Audio recordings of some words with that sound (real media).
  23. 23. The sounds in "heed" and "hid" We make the sound in "heed" (/i/) with our tongue very close to the top of our mouth. We also spread our lips so it looks like we are smiling. You can see how Laurie looks like she is smiling when she says /i/ in the picture. When we make the sound in "hid" (/I/), we don't look as much like we are smiling, and our tongues are lower in our mouths. Here is a picture of our mouths so that you can compare where the tongue is for these two sounds.
  24. 24. Here is a video clip of this same vowel sound. Notice how the speaker looks like she is smiling when she says 'read.'
  25. 25. Now let's listen to some sounds! /i/ sounds: /I/ sounds: Meat Sheep Leak Mitt Ship Lick
  26. 26. The sounds in "head" and "hate" We make the sound in "head" with our mouth open wider than for /i/ or /I/ and our tongues not as close to the top of our mouths. The sound in "hate" is actually a dipthong, which means it is a combination of the sounds /e/ and /I/. You can feel your tongue moving closer to the roof of your mouth when you say it. "head" sounds: head shepherd leg met "hate" sounds: hate shape lake mate
  27. 27. The sounds in "hot" and "hat" We make the sound in "hot" (/a/) with our mouth open the widest. Pretend you are going to the doctor and saying "ahhhhhhhh". See how open your mouth is and how far back your tongue is.
  28. 28. These two video clips also show the /a/ sound. mom Bob
  29. 29. The sound in "hat" is made with your mouth open not as wide and the sound is not as far back in your throat. Pretend someone is choking you. The sound you will make is this "hat" vowel. Now let's listen to some sounds! "hat" sounds: "hot" sounds: hat lack mat sap hot lock Mott's sop
  30. 30. The sounds of in "hoot" and "hood" We make the sound in "hoot" (/u/) with our really rounded. Sing "ooh, baby, baby" or pretend you are going to kiss someone.
  31. 31. Here is a picture of someone making this sound. See how round her lips are. See here that when she says "hood", her lips are more relaxed. Now let's listen to some sounds! "hoot" sounds: "hood" sounds: who'd pool Luke hood pull look
  32. 32. The sounds in "hoot" and "hut" We make the sound in "hoot" (/u/) with our really rounded. Sing "ooh, baby, baby" or pretend you are going to kiss someone.
  33. 33. Here is a picture of someone making this sound. See how round her lips are. However, when we say "hut" we open our mouths wider and relax our lips. The sound in "hut" is in the center of your mouth. Try to put your tongue in the center of your mouth. Now let's listen to some sounds! "hoot" sounds: "hut" sounds: mute Luke who'd mutt luck hut shut Main
  34. 34. Reduction In each sentence in English, there are words that are more stressed than others, and in each word with more than one syllable, there is one syllable that is more stressed as well. The other words and syllables are made less important by using reduction. This means that they are shorter, quieter, and lower in pitch (tone) than the stressed words and syllables. Stress and reduction in the phrases form the rhythm of the language and this is important to hear in order to have understanding. Listening and discriminating are two very important skills to improve reduction.
  35. 35. What are the patterns? Reduction in words: In multi-syllabic words, there is one main stress, and the other syllables can have a full vowel or a reduced vowel (a schwa --"uh" sound). For example, in the word MIsery there is a stressed syllable 'MI', a reduced syllable 'se', and a full vowel in an unstressed syllable 'ry'. MIsery (mI-zuh-riy) Most of the time, the reduced syllables are around the stressed syllable to make the stressed one more emphasized. aPARTment (uh-PART-muhnt)
  36. 36. Sometimes there is a difference in meaning when full vowels change to reduced vowels because the main stress is shifted to a different syllable. comedy (KA-muh-diy) committee (kuh-MI-diy) object (n) (AB-jEkt) object (v) (uhb-JEKT)
  37. 37. Reduction in sentences: In general, the content words (words that give the meaning) in a sentence are stressed and the structure words (more grammatical words) are unstressed and reduced. Sometimes structure words can be emphasized, or placed where they cannot be reduced. Reduced Not Reduced AUX. VERBS and MODALS He was a friendly person. You should go to the concert. I can do it. Have they finished yet? Yes, he was. Well, you should. She doesn't think so, but I can. I have a cat.
  38. 38. Reduced Not Reduced PREPOSITIONS Are you coming from the store? Do you want to play a game of checkers? Where did you come from? Only if you want to. What are you afraid of? PRONOUNS Give her the mail. Did you see it? She's here. It's for you. ARTICLES The dog is in the yard. A book is a great thing to have. It's the word "the." I don't have two TVs, I have a TV. (emphasized)
  39. 39. Listen and Practice Here we can hear the difference between the stressed words and the reduced words. He WALKED to the STORE to BUY some BREAD and CHEESE. I NEED her to MAKE a GRAPH for me. Is he GOING to (gonna) GIVE it to him?
  40. 40. Discrimination: What sentence do you hear? Click on the sentence you hear to check your answer. d) The book is on a table. 1. a) The book is on the table. b) Book is on the table. c) The book is in the table. d) Give her a ticket. 2. a) Give him the ticket. b) Give them a ticket. c) Give them the ticket.
  41. 41. 3. a) Do you see a rainbow? b) Did you see a rainbow? c) Did he see the rainbow? d) Did you see the rainbow? 4. a) We should've gone with her. b) We should've gone with him. c) You should've gone with them. d) You should've gone with her.
  42. 42. 5. 6. a) He is in class today. b) He was in class a day. c) He is in class a day. d) He was in class today. a) Put it on a board. b) Put it on the board. c) Put her on the board. d) Put her on a board. Main
  43. 43. Phrasal Stress Phrasal Stress is an important part of the rhythm of English. It is a term that refers to the most stressed word in each phrase (thought group) in a sentence. Each sentence that has more than one phrase in it has its most stressed word in the last phrase. This is generally called sentence stress. When we give that word the most stress, we are not only showing that this word is important, but also that the sentence is ending. We use sentence-final intonation patterns with sentence stress. If we emphasize another word in the sentence, however, this may change the phrasal or sentence stress.
  44. 44. What are the patterns? When we read a sentence normally (without giving any word extra emphasis), each thought group (phrase) in a sentence has one word that is most stressed. This word is the last content word in that phrase. The last content word in the last phrase of the sentence is said to be the most stressed in the sentence.
  45. 45. Below you can hear two sentences read slowly and deliberately as if they were said in a presentation. The noisy car / has been parked / in the garAGE. Many people / often read / the business section / of the NEWSpaper. ("business section" and "newspaper" are compound nouns.) When they are said more rapidly, there will be fewer pauses and less stress on the content words. The noisy car has been parked in the garAGE. Many people often read the business section of the NEWSpaper. The more slowly you speak, and the more pauses you use, the easier it is to understand you and to hear the important elements of your sentences.
  46. 46. Listen and Practice Where is the strongest stress? (Click on the correct word.) The computer Please Why is used in conjunction with the textbook. put the glass on top table.of the don't want toyou go with them?
  47. 47. In these longer sentences, the most-stressed word in each phrase (the last content word) comes just before the speaker's pause between phrases. Which words are stressed? Remember to listen for a raise in pitch and a longer and louder sound. (Click on the correct words in each sentence.) The author has created a wonderful the worth of reading to emphasizes children. whichprogram Everyday,people from all over the world, eat dinner with their families.
  48. 48. There will be another delay with the airline, I'm sorry to say. Theassistant will be available to help you in any way hecan, so if you need anything, please call him. Main
  49. 49. Linking You may have noticed that American English speakers don't separate all their words like in some languages, but instead they connect them together. This is called linking, or liason, and it is important for listening comprehension. It is especially crucial when pronouncing the final sounds on words, for example making the plural or the past tense -ed.
  50. 50. What are the patterns? When linking one word to another, the last sound(s) of the first word should feel like it becomes the first sound of the next word, like this: He likesssseverything. She like-dall of it. answerrrrit save a lot rea-doverrrrit laughfffat
  51. 51. If you're linking the same sound, you should simply hold the sound a little longer: with the lamp had difficulties kiss someone make coffee Look out! new dancing vs. nude dancing
  52. 52. If you are linking two vowel sounds together, you need to use y or w. (Sometimes it's present in the spelling.) [iy, ey, ay, oy] [aw, ow, uw] see (y) it kno(w) everything sa(y) a lot amino (w) acids the bo(y) is do (w) all Two uh sounds together don't link with y or w; just hold the uh sound data analysis
  53. 53. T, D, S, and Z before a Y sound: These sounds when linked to a y sound change the pronunciation. t + y = ch won't you not yet virtue d + y = j did you could you cordial s + y = sh sure! sugar z + y = zh visual where's your usually
  54. 54. We don't link across thought groups -- only within them. By the light of the dawn, / we walked to the bus. The dawn is beautiful.vs.
  55. 55. Listen and Practice Listen to these sentences and practice saying them with the speaker. Pay close attention to the sounds that seem to be blended together. What do you hear? (Click on the sentence you hear.) The plane is here. The play is here. We arrive at 9. We arrived at 9. I'm going to bite it. I'm going to buy it. Keep playing. Key playing. Did you know? Do you know? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Main
  56. 56. Emphasis Emphasis is used to show extra emotion in our speech. By giving extra stress to different words in an English sentence, we can actually change the meaning of the sentence. To do this, we give them emphasis with an even higher tone, a longer stressed syllable, and louder sound than a normally-stressed word.
  57. 57. What are the patterns? By raising the tone even more, making the stressed syllable even longer, and increasing the volume, we can show strong emotion with emphasis. How'd you like the art exhibit? -- I LOVED it! Now look at these three sentences. Do they mean the same? I love you. I love you. I love you. Check the meaning. I not him loves you. I think you are sexy. I love you only.
  58. 58. We can change the meaning with emphasis by comparing the emphasized word with it's opposite (either within the sentence or not there). I'm going to the store. (Regular stress on the last content word of the phrase / sentence) I'M going to the store. (Not YOU, but ME!) I AM going to the store. (-You're not going to the store. -I AM!) I'm GOING to the store. (-Have you GONE to the store? -No, I'm GOING to the store.) I'm going TO the store. (not coming FROM it) I'm going to THE store. (THE store=favorite or only store, known to both speaker and listener.) I'm going to the STORE. (not the mall) I'd like a SMALL drink, not a LARGE one.
  59. 59. We also use emphasis to change the focus of the conversation so old information is not emphasized. (Regular stress is underlined, and emphasis is marked in CAPITALS.) Notice how none of the repeated words are emphasized unless they're part of a compound that makes a different word. Andy: I'm going to the store. Kris: What are you going to BUY? Andy: A book. Kris: Oh. So you're going to the BOOKstore. Andy: Yeah. Kris: What KIND of book are you getting? Andy: A COOKbook. Kris: What do you want to cook? Andy: I'm going to cook a pot roast. Kris: Do you HAVE a pot roast? Andy: No, I'll have to go to the store to GET one. When you ask a question using emphasis on only one part of the question phrase, such as "What KIND of book?", think about what answer you want when you choose which word to emphasize. Another example is "-- How MANY books? -- THREE books." (By the way, if you say "HOW many books?" this is after you've heard the answer and didn't believe it so you want to hear it again.)
  60. 60. Another use of emphasis is focusing on structure words instead of content words (see Phrasal Stress for an overview of stressing content words). Again, this can be comparing something to its opposite or near opposite, and old information is not emphasized. It can also be showing strong agreement. With emphasis: As a statement alone, you would hear: -- Do you want pizza or spaghetti? - - I want pizza AND spaghetti! I want pizza and spaghetti. -- You don't know how to swim, do you? -- I DO know how to swim. I know how to swim. -- THAT was a good movie. -- That WAS a good movie That was a good movie. Main
  61. 61. Vowels & Consonants Sounds of American English The vowels and consonants on the next few pages are only a sampling. There are approximately 43 sounds total, so listen carefully.
  62. 62. long vowels Vowel IPA key word long vowels long a /eɪ/ cake long e /i/ keep long i /ɑɪ/ bike long o /oʊ/ home long u /ju/ cute English Vowel Sounds
  63. 63. Vowel IPA key word short vowels short a /æ/ cat short e /ɛ/ bed short i /ɪ/ sit short o /ɑ/ top short u /ʌ/ sun short vowels
  64. 64. Vowel IPA key word other vowels other u /ʊ/ put oo sound /u/ soon aw sound /ɔ/ dog oi sound /ɔɪ/ join ow sound /aʊ/ down other vowels
  65. 65. Vowel IPA key word r-controlled vowels schwa+r /ɚ/ her ar sound /ɑr/ car or sound /ɔr/ more air sound /ɛr/ chair r-controlled vowels
  66. 66. English Consonant Sounds Consonant Sound Chart Consonant sound IPA key word liquid sounds l sound /l/ let r sound /r/ red
  67. 67. Consonant sound IPA key word stop sounds b sound /b/ boy p sound /p/ pen d sound /d/ do t sound /t/ top g sound /ɡ/ go k sound /k/ cat
  68. 68. Consonant sound IPA key word fricative sounds voiced th /ð/ them unvoiced th /θ/ think z sound /z/ zoo s sound /s/ so zh sound /ʒ/ usual sh sound /ʃ/ she v sound /v/ very f sound /f/ face h sound /h/ he
  69. 69. Consonant sound IPA key word affricate sounds j sound /ʤ/ joy ch sound /ʧ/ cheese nasal sounds m sound /m/ me n sound /n/ no ng sound /ŋ/ sing approximants sounds w sound /w/ we y sound /j/ yes Main
  70. 70. American Pronunciation Consonant Sound Voiced r = /ər/ Practice Vowel Reduction Un-stressed vowel + r = vowel not pronounced. pr, br fr, vr tr ... aspirin temperature opera laboratory deliberate adjective only separate adjective only comfortable different every beverage favorable favorite documentary elementary interested interesting honorable miserable
  71. 71. Reduction don't know Pattern Reductions are common in natural speech. Written reduced forms in advertisements, songs, personal writing, reflect natural spoken language. They are not standard written English. reduced form standard written form I dunno I don't know
  72. 72. Reduction + 'have' Pattern reduced form standard written form coulda shoulda woulda mighta musta could have should have would have might have must have
  73. 73. Reduction + 'me' Pattern written form standard written form gimme give me lemme let me
  74. 74. Reduction + 'of' Pattern reduced form standard written form kinda kindsa lotta lotsa kind of kinds of lot of lots of
  75. 75. Reduction + 'to' Pattern reduced form reflects natural spoken language standard written form gotta hafta hasta wanna gonna oughta got to have to has to want to going to ought to
  76. 76. Reduction + 'you' Pattern reduced form standard written form getcha gotcha betcha doncha waddya waddya get you got you bet you don't you What are you...? What do you...?
  77. 77. C’mon! Sko! Come on! Let’s go! Kwee geddit? Can we get it? Jeet? No, joo? Nachet. Did you eat? No, did you? Not yet. Listen to the following sentences as they are spoken normally, then listen again to the correct pronunciation of each Jlaik smore? Would you like some more? I shoulda tol joo. I should have told you. Ledder gedda bedda wader heeder. Let her get a better water heater. How to wreck a nice beach. How to recognize speech. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  78. 78. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hole dana sek’nt! Haeoja ly kuh liddul more Hold on a second! How would you like a little more? They doe neev’n lye kit. Kanai geddalla vum? Summuvum? No, nunnuvum. Zee coming? Wooden eye? Can chew? Diddee? Tayki deezee! They don’t even like it. Can I get all of them? Some of them? No, none of them. Is he coming? Wouldn’t I? Can’t you? Did he? Take it easy!
  79. 79. 16 17 18 19 20 Super salad? He shudn na done it. Fregg zample, frinnstance…… Soda speak…….. Congrajulations! Soup or salad? He shouldn’t have done it. For example, for instance…….. So to speak……. Congratulations. Main
  80. 80. par·en·thet·i·cal (prn-tht-kl) adj. also par·en·thet·ic (-k) 1. Set off within or as if within parentheses; qualifying or explanatory: a parenthetical remark. 2. Using or containing parentheses. n. A parenthetical word, phrase, or remark. Glossary of terms Eigenvalues plural of ei·gen·val·ue (Noun) (Mathematics) Maths Physics one of the particular values of a certain parameter for which a differential equation or matrix equation has an eigenfunction. In wave mechanics an eigenvalue is equivalent to the energy of a quantum state of a system
  81. 81. Liquid sounds liquid, in phonetics, a consonant sound in which the tongue produces a partial closure in the mouth, resulting in a resonant, vowel-like consonant, such as English l and r. Liquids may be either syllabic or non-syllabic; i.e., they may sometimes, like vowels, act as the sound carrier in a syllable. The r in “father” and the l in “rattle” are syllabic; the r in “rim” and the l in “lock” are non-syllabic. Fricative sounds fricative, in phonetics, a consonant sound, such as English f or v, produced by bringing the mouth into position to block the passage of the airstream, but not making complete closure, so that air moving through the mouth generates audible friction.
  82. 82. Affricate sounds affricate, also called semiplosive, a consonant sound that begins as a stop (sound with complete obstruction of the breath stream) and concludes with a fricative (sound with incomplete closure and a sound of friction). Examples of affricates are the ch sound in English chair, which may be represented phonetically as a t sound followed by sh; the j in English jaw (a d followed by the zh sound heard in French jour or in English azure); and the ts sound often heard in German and spelled with z as in zehn, meaning ten. Approximants sounds The four English approximant sounds (the l sound, r sound, w sound and y sound) are created by constricting the vocal tract slightly, but not so much that the air becomes turbulent as it passes through.

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