Nouns spelling rules

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Another part of the series on Nouns. This is all about spelling nouns correctly. This is good to use in class and at home for yourself. Comes with 2 exercises and exercises that can be downloaded also.

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  • Hi Joel, Welldone, very informative and useful presentaton on the subject, both for teachrs as well as students every body must consult this.
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Nouns spelling rules

  1. 1. Nouns Singular Plural
  2. 2. The Rules Exercises
  3. 3. Most places and teachers will tell you that there are just a few rules for spelling nouns. Well, wait and see.
  4. 4. Spelling Rules -- Making Noun Plurals Rule 1: To form the plural of most English words that don't end in -s,-z, -x, -sh, -ch, or -ss, add an -s to make a plural of most words. 1. star --- stars 2. pencil --- pencils 3. book --- books 4. slab --- slabs 5. step --- steps 6. pad --- pads 7. bra --- bras 8. stem --- stems
  5. 5. Rule 2: To form the plural of most English words that end in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh, and -ss add an -es to the word. 1. bus --- buses 2. buzz --- buzzes 3. box --- boxes 4. match --- matches 5. church --- churches 6. kiss --- kisses Some Exceptions to Rule 2: Note that the -z is doubled 1. quiz -- quizzes 2. fizz -- fizzes 3. whiz -- whizzes
  6. 6. Rule 3: To from a plural of most English words that end in a vowel plus -y add an -s to the word 1. day - days 2. pulley - pulleys 3. boy - boys 4. buy - buys Rule 4: Singular nouns ending in silent "s" do not change their forms in the plural. However, the "s" ending is pronounced when the plural from is used. See below. 1. one corps - two corps 2. one rendezvous -- two rendezvous
  7. 7. Rule 5: To form a plural of most English words that end in a consonant plus a -y, change the y to an i and add an -es. 1. theory -- theories 2. lily -- lilies 3. empty -- empties 4. lady -- ladies 5. candy -- candies 6. penny -- pennies Rule 6: For words that end in -is. change the -is to -es to make the plural 1. thesis -- theses 2. oasis -- oases 3. analysis -- analyses
  8. 8. Rule 7: Some words that end in -f or -fe have plurals that end in -ves. 1. elf - elves 2. calf - calves 3. shelf - shelves 4. wife - wives Some exceptions to rule 7 of words that end in -f that don't follow the rule. 1. oaf - oafs 2. chef - chefs 3. cliff - cliffs 4. belief - beliefs 1. tariff - tariffs 2. bailiff - bailiffs 3. roof - roofs 4. chief - chiefs
  9. 9. Rule 8: Many words that have come into English from other languages follow their original methods of constructing plurals 1.alumnus - alumni 2. analysis - analyses 3. cherub - cherubim 4. diagnosis - diagnoses 5. focus - focuses of foci 6. fungus - fungi or funguses 7. index - indexes or indices 8. radius - radii Rule 9: The plurals of words ending in -o can be formed by adding either -s or -es. Many words can be formed either way. You need to check a dictionary. Three helpful rules with a table can help.
  10. 10. Rule 9A: All words that end in a vowel plus an -o (-ao, -eo, -io, - oo, -uo) have plurals that ends in just -s. 1. studio --- studios 2. duo --- duos 3. trio --- trios 4. stereo --- stereos 5. tattoo --- tattoos Rule 9B: All musical terms ending in -o have plurals in just -s. 1. piano --- pianos 2. cello --- cellos 3. solo --- solos 4. banjo --- banjos 5. alto --- altos 6. soprano --- sopranos
  11. 11. Rule 9C: Some plural forms ending in -o end in -os or -oes. Some may use either. See Table below. Only -os Only -oes Either -os or -oes albinos armadillos autos bravos broncos casinos combos gazebos infernos kimonos logos maraschinos ponchos sombreros tacos torsos tobaccos typos echoes embargoes heroes potatoes tomatoes torpedoes vetoes avocados/oes buffaloes/os cargoes/os desperadoes/os dominoes/os ghettos/oes grottoes/os hoboes/os innuendoes/os lassos/oes mangoes/os mosquitoes/os mottoes/os mulattos/oes noes/os palmettos/oes peccadilloes/os tornadoes/os volcanoes/os zeros/oes
  12. 12. Rule 10: The plurals of single capital letters, acronyms and Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3,) take an 's' without an apostrophe: Z (the capital letter Z) --- Zs POS (Point Of Sale) --- POSs ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) --- ATMs 7 (the Arabic numeral 7) --- 7s Rule 11: Of course you cannot make a plural of an uncountable noun. Some examples are: information blood paint harm cattle
  13. 13. Rule 12: Some nouns by a quirk of fate exist only in the plural. Some examples are: pajamas scissors spectacles Rule 13: Some nouns by a quirk of fate exist only in pairs. Some examples are: a pair of scissors a pair of pants
  14. 14. Rule 14: Some nouns by a quirk of fate are the same for singular and plural. Some examples are: deer sheep moose fish Rule 15: Some nouns by a quirk of fate appear as singular and plural but are actually separate words. Some examples are: due - dues pant - pants spectacle - spectacles
  15. 15. Rule 16: Some nouns exist both as pairs and without pairs. Some examples are: glasses (eye glasses) - pair of glasses spectacles (eye glasses) - pair of spectacles Question: Some people refer to their children as a pair of twins. If twins are two people is a pair of twins four people? And those with two pairs of twins 8 people?
  16. 16. Rule 17: The plurals of some nouns are formed by the change of letters within. woman -- women man -- men foot -- feet tooth -- teeth goose -- geese mouse -- mice Rule 18: A few plurals of some words end in en or ren. ox -- oxen child -- children
  17. 17. Rule 19: When a compound noun is a solid word, pluralize the final element in the compound as if it stood alone. See Table below. printout -- printouts flashback--flashbacks Wineglass-- wineglasses hatbox -- hatboxes eyelash -- eyelashes strawberry-- strawberries bookshelf--bookshelves standby -- standbys birthday -- birthdays photocopy-- photocopies grandchild-- grandchildren foothold -- footholds forefoot -- forefeet toothbrush-- toothbrushes mousetrap-- mousetraps workman -- workmen BUT-passerby-- passersby BUT-talisman-- talismans
  18. 18. Rule 20: The plurals of hyphenated or spaced compounds are formed by pluralizing the chief element of the compound. See Table below. father-in-law -- fathers- in-law senator-elect -- senators-elect looker-on -- lookers-on runner-up -- runners-up grant-in-aid -- grants-in- aid bill of lading -- bills of lading editor in chief -- editors in chief rule of thumb -- rules of thumb letter of credit -- letters of credit leave of absence-- leaves of absence attorney at law -- attorneys of law deputy chief of staff -- deputy chiefs of staff Lieutenant general-- lieutenant generals BUT - time-out -- time- outs BUT - chaise lounge-- chaise lounges
  19. 19. Rule 21: When the hyphenated compound does not contain a noun as one of its elements, simply pluralize the final element. See below. go-between— go betweens get-together – get-togethers hang-up -- hang-ups hand-me-down – hand-me-downs tie-in -- tie-ins fade-out -- fade-outs come-on -- come-ons show-off -- show-offs run-through – run- throughs two-by-four – two-by-fours shoo-in -- shoo-ins has-been -- has-beens have-not -- have-nots know-it-all -- know-it-alls so-and-so -- so-and-sos do-it-yourselfer – do-it-yourselfers shoot-'em-up – shoot-'em-ups no-see-um -- no-see-ums
  20. 20. Rule 22: Some compound have two recognized plural forms. The first plural forms shown below is preferred because it adds the plural sign to the chief element of the compound. See below. court-martial -- courts-martial -- court-martials notary-public -- notaries-public -- notary-publics attorney general -- attorneys general -- attorney generals
  21. 21. Rule 23: When the first element of a compound is a possessive, simply pluralize the final element. See below. collector's item -- collector's items traveler's check -- traveler's checks rabbit's foot -- rabbit's feet proofreaders' mark -- proofreaders' mark s rogues' gallery -- rogues' galleries witches' brew -- witches' brews finder's fee -- finder's fees visitor's permit -- visitor's permits
  22. 22. Rule 24: From the plural of most abbreviations by adding "s" to the singular. See below. bldg. -- bldgs. vol. -- vols. par. - pars. No. -- Nos. Dr. -- Drs. Bro. -- Bros
  23. 23. Rule 25: The abbreviations of many customary units of weights and measure, however, are the same in both the singular and plural. See below. oz -- ounce or ounces deg -- degree or degrees bbl -- barrel or barrels ft -- foot or feet in -- inch or inches mi -- mile or miles km -- kilometer or kilometers ml -- milliliter or milliliters cg -- centigram or centigrams kg -- kilogram or kilograms kl -- kiloliter or kiloliters kW -- kilowatt or kilowatts kt -- knot or knots pt -- pint or pints qt -- quarts or quarts tsp -- teaspoon or teaspoons yd -- yard or yards tbsp -- tablespoon or tablespoons
  24. 24. Rule 26: The plurals of a few single-letter abbreviations (such as p. for page and f. for the following page) consist of the single letter doubled. See below. p. 64 page 64 pp. 64-72 -- pages 64 through 72 pp. 291 f. -- page 291 and following page pp. 291 ff. -- page 291 and following pages l. 23 -- line 23 ll. 23-24 -- lines 23 through 24 n. 3 -- note 3 nn. 3-4 -- notes 3 and 4 Rule 27: Capital letters and abbreviations ending with capital letters are pluralized by adding "s" alone. See below. three Rs four Cs five VIPs six CPUs CEOs IQs PTAs YWCAs V.P.s M.D.s LL.B.s Ph.D.s
  25. 25. Rule 28: For the sake of clarity, uncapitalized letters and uncapitalized abbreviations are pluralized by adding an apostrophe plus "s". See below. doting the i's p's and q's four c.o.d.'s wearing pj's Rule 29: Numbers expressed in figures are pluralized by the addition of "s" alone. See below. in the 1920s sort the W-2s Catch-22s Temperature in the 20s
  26. 26. one - ones two - twos three - threes six - sixes Twenty - twenties twenty-five twenty- fives Numbers expressed in words are pluralized using normal rules. See below.
  27. 27. Put in the correct form of the plural. Example: car - ___ Answer: car - cars Try this simple exercise on plurals. 1) ox - 2) roof - 3) potato - 4) party - Answers 1) ox - oxen 2) roof - roofs 3) potato - potatoes 4) party - parties
  28. 28. 5) deer - 6) chief - 7) photo - 8) series - 9) wife - 10) brother-in-law - 5) deer 6) chiefs 7) photos 8) series 9) wives 10) brothers-in-law Answers
  29. 29. Instructions: Choose the correct plural. Q1 - Child Childs Child's Children Q2 - Half Halfs Halves Q3 - Potato Potatos Potatoes Either Q4 - Fish Fish Fishes Either Q5 - Goose Geeses Geese Gooses Goose Q6 - Aircraft Aircraft Aircrafts Q7 - Church Churchs Church Churches Answers
  30. 30. Q8 - Woman Women Womans Q9 - Fly Flys Flies Q10 - Sheep Sheep Sheep's Sheeps Q11 - Foot Foot Foots Feet Q12 - Ox Ox Oxes Oxen Q13 - Box Box Boxes Boxen Q14 - Mouse Mouse's Mouses Mice Answers
  31. 31. The link below is to some worksheets that you can use for class work, home work, or for yourself. Plural Noun Work Sheets http://www.keepandshare.com/doc5/7714/plural-nouns- worksheet-zip-1-1-meg?da=y http://www.teach- nology.com/worksheets/language_arts/plurals/ http://www.agendaweb.org/grammar/plural-exercises.html
  32. 32. Any questions, comments, advice, and / or wishes – you can email me at amerenglish64@gmail.com

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