Modal verbs


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Learn all about "Modal Verbs" and their uses.

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Modal verbs

  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free
  2. 2. Exercises 7, 8, Introduction 9, & 10 What are the Exercises 4, Modal Verbs 5, & 6 Modal VerbsExercises 1, for Ability2, & 3Can, Could, Modal VerbsMay & Might, for AdviceMust, Should,Would Modal verbs Modal verbs are used to to show make polite obligation or requests. Modal verbs necessity Modal verbs used to show are used to possibility ask for permission.
  3. 3. IntroductionWhat are Modal Verbs?First of all, what does MODAL mean? modal= expressing mood. mood= a way to express the attitude of the speaker to what is being said.Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normalverbs. Here are some important differences: 1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person. Examples: He can speak Chinese. She should be here by 9:00.
  4. 4. 2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present andSimple Past. Examples: He should not be late. They might not come to the party.3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. Examples: He will can go with us. Not Correct She musted study very hard. Not Correct Modal Verbs are an important part of learning English. They are important because they are very common in writing and conversation. Also, they are used in all verb tenses. All the auxiliary verbs except be, do and have are called modals. Unlike other auxiliary verbs modals only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone as the main verb in a sentence. Be, do, and have also differ from the other auxiliaries in that they can also serve as ordinary verbs in a given sentence.
  5. 5. What are they?Heres a list of the modal verbs in English: can could may might will would must shall should ought toModals are different from normal verbs: 1: They dont use an s for the third person singular. 2: They make questions by inversion (she can go becomes can she go?). 3: They are followed directly by the infinitive of another verb (without to). For the purposes of this presentation, I have included some expressions which are not modal verbs including had better, have to, and have got to. These expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often interchanged with them.
  6. 6. ExamplesWhat is special about the modal verbs? They are special because they behave differently from other verbs in English: 1. English modal verbs are used together with the base form of another verb. Examples: "He might come late." "You may leave if you wish." "We must finish this on time."
  7. 7. 2. English modal verbs have only one form. You dont add "-ing", "-ed" or "-s" to them. Examples: Correct: "We must go now." Incorrect:"We are musting go now." Correct:"They said we could park here." Incorrect:"They said we coulded park here." Correct:"She can help us." Incorrect: "She cans help us."
  8. 8. 3. To form questions use the modal verb itself, but change the order. Examples: "He can fix the car tomorrow." Correct: "Can he fix the car tomorrow?" Incorrect:"Does he can fix the car tomorrow?" "We should start packing our things." Correct:"Should we start packing our things?" Incorrect:"Do we should start packing our things?" "She will be ten years old next month" Correct:"Will she be ten years old next month?" Incorrect:"Does she will be ten years old next month?"
  9. 9. 4. To form negative sentences use the modal verb itself and add "not" or"nt" to it. Examples: "He can run fast enough." Correct:"He cant run fast enough." Incorrect: "He doesnt can run fast enough." "She could lift a feather." Correct:"She could not lift a feather." Incorrect:"She did not could lift a feather." "I thought he would come." Correct:"I thought he wouldnt come." Incorrect: "I thought he did not would come."
  10. 10. Modal Verbs for AbilityThere are three modal verbs used to show ability: Can Could Be Able To Examples: Present I can play the guitar. She can speak German. *Can is always followed by a base verb.
  11. 11. Past I could sing very well when I was young. She could read when she was 2 years old. Future I will be able to drive a car in 2 years. He will be able to buy a house next year."Able to" is used with many other verb tenses. Take a look at these examples: I have been able to visit many countries in my life. I used to be able to dance the Tango. I will have been able to finish by tomorrow.
  12. 12. Negatives Negatives are formed by using "not". I can not play piano. She cant play piano. She could not finish her homework last night. They couldnt finish their homework last night. I will not be able to go to the party tonight. Susan wont be able to go to the party tonight.
  13. 13. Questions Questions are formed by changing the order of the words. Can you drive a car? Could he swim? Will Doug be able to bring his boots? Notice that "will be able to" is separated when used in a question: Will he be able to finish on time?
  14. 14. Modal Verbs for AdviceModal Verbs are used to give advice or suggestions. Thereare two modal verbs used for advice: Should and Would.Should Should is used for advice in the present. The structure is as follows: Subject + Should + Base Verb You should eat healthy food. You should exercise every day.
  15. 15. Should is used for advice in the past. Here is the structure: Should + Have + Past Participle You should have gone to the party. She should have studied more often.It is common to use "should" to give negative advice. In this case, add "not". You should not smoke. You should not eat too much candy. The contraction is "shouldnt". You shouldnt drive too fast.
  16. 16. WouldThe modal verb "would" is used to give advice. In this situation, thespeaker is giving hypothetical advice as if he/she were the listener.Here are some examples: If I were you, I would return the book. If I were you, I would not wear that jacket. It is not always necessary to include "If I were you". I wouldnt eat that. I would choose the red shoes.
  17. 17. Normally, would is used to talk about yourself, and should is used totalk about someone else. Example: I would study tonight if I were you. You should study tonight. It is also common to ask for advice using these modal verbs: What should I do? What would you do?
  18. 18. Modal verbs to show obligation or necessityThere are two modal verbs to show obligation or necessity. Must Have toMust Must is for simple present and usually shows general obligations. Travelers must show their passport before boarding a plane. You must use a pencil on the test. It is formal and normally used only in writing. All employees must wear proper safety equipment.
  19. 19. Have to “Have to” is not an actual modal verb, but it is used like a modal. You must conjugate the verb "have" depending on the time and subject. I have to work tomorrow. She has to work tomorrow. It is used in all tenses. I had to work last night. She has had to work every day this week. "Have to" is less formal than Must and is common in conversation.
  20. 20. Must not and Dont have to"Must not" and "dont have to" are completely different, and their meaningsare often confused. Must not" is a negative obligation and shows something that is prohibited.Example: You must not eat in the computer room. (Food in the computer room is prohibited.) "Dont have to" shows something that is not necessary.Example: I dont have to work today. (Working is not necessary.)
  21. 21. Modal verbs are used to ask for permission.The two verbs used are May, Could, and Can. May May is a polite modal verb used to ask for permission. Here are some examples: May I use a calculator on the test? May I have another piece of cake? The polite answers using may are as follows: Yes, you may. No, you may not.
  22. 22. Could Could is also used to ask for permission. It is less formal than using may. Here are some examples with could: Could I have some more juice? Could I bring a friend to the party?Can Can is the least formal of the modal verbs used to ask permission. Here are some examples with can: Can I play music? Can I wear shorts?
  23. 23. The examples above are all with "I". This is because it is most common toask permission for yourself. However, it is possible to ask permission foranother person: May she bring a friend? Could he try again? Can they sleep here? The examples are also all questions. These are very common. But you can also give permission. Here are some examples: You may sleep on the sofa. You can wear my jacket.
  24. 24. Modal verbs used to show possibilityThere are several modal verbs used to show possibility. Theyare Might, May, Could, and Must. All of these are differentways to say maybe. STRUCTURE Modal Verb + Base Verb Examples: I may eat dinner at 7:00pm. She might work late tonight. They must be tired.
  25. 25. May May shows possibility in the present or the future. Present: Where are my keys? They may be in the car. Future: I may go to the party tonight. May is formal and is often found in writing. Side effects of this medication may include an upset stomach or fever.Might Might shows possibility in the present or future. Where are my keys? They might be in the car. I might go to the party tonight. Might is less formal than may, and is more common in conversation.
  26. 26. Could Could shows that something is possible in the present or future. Present: Where are my keys? They could be in the car. Future: We could go to the party tonight. Could shows options or possibility. If I won the lottery I could buy a house. I could also buy a car.Must Must shows certainty, or the belief of certainty, from the speaker. Certain: Everyone is wearing a jacket. It must be cold. Belief of certainty: He was running for 2 hours. He must be tired. (Although it seems obvious, it is not a fact that the runner is tired.)
  27. 27. Have to Have to shows certainty, or the belief of certainty, from the speaker. Certain: Everyone is wearing a jacket. It has to be cold. Belief of certainty: He was running for 2 hours. He has to be tired. (Although it seems obvious, it is not a fact that the runner is tired.) Have to is much less formal than must, and is common in conversation.
  28. 28. Past Possibility May, Might, and Could are all used to show possibility in the past. Here is the structure: Modal Verb + Have + Past Participle He might have brought the cake. She may have gone home early. They could have worked late. Must can be used in the same way to show certainty in the past. He must have won the game.
  29. 29. Might Not vs. Could Not Although Might and Could express possibility in a similar way, the negative forms of Might and Could are different.Might not shows that something probably is not true. These books might not be the teachers. Might not shows that something probably will not happen in the future. I might not go to the party tonight. Could not shows that something is impossible. This could not be the only book available. She could not know who my friend is. They have never met.
  30. 30. Modal verbs are used to make polite requestsCan & Could Can and Could are modal verbs used with other verbs to make requests. Can/Could + Subject + Verb Can you help me? Could you open the door? Can is used to make a basic request. Can you pass me the salt? Can you turn off the radio?
  31. 31. Could is more polite than can, but has the same function. Could you pass me the salt? Could you turn off the radio?Can/Could are used to turn basic orders into questions. This is a muchmore polite way of asking for something rather than making animperative command. Give me the salt => Can you pass me the salt? Turn off the radio => Could you turn off the radio?
  32. 32. Would Would is used with the verb like. It is a polite way to say want. I want a drink. (Direct) I would like a drink. (Polite) Would you like is used to make offers. Would you like something to drink? Would you like another coffee? I would like is used to make polite requests. I would like another glass of water please. We can also use I would love, I would really like, I would enjoy, etc.
  33. 33. Can, Could, May & Might, Must, Should, Would Could ShouldCan M&M Must Would
  34. 34. Can Can is used to show ability. Can is a modal verb, and it conjugates as follows: Present Past Future Can Could Will be able to Can is used to show ability Can is used to make requests:I can play the piano. Can you pass the salt please?I could play the piano 10 years ago. Can you turn off the music?I will be able to play the piano when Ifinish my piano class.
  35. 35. Could Could is an important modal verb in English. It is used for ability, possibility, and requests. Could for Ability "Could" is the past tense of "can." These modals are used to show ability. Examples: Present: I can play guitar. Past: I could play guitar when I was younger. As a negative, it is "could not", and is contracted as "couldnt". Examples: I could not finish my work yesterday. I couldnt swim when I was a child.
  36. 36. Could for Requests "Could" is used to make polite requests. Examples: Could you please pass the salt? Could you turn down the music?Could for Possibility Often, "could" is used to express a degree of possibility. For example: It could rain today, but I am not sure. That could be Toms brother. He looks like Tom.
  37. 37. "Could" is also used in the 2nd conditional and 3rd conditional toshow possibility and ability. Examples: If I had more money, I could buy a new car. Or….I could buy a house; I could buy a boat, etc. If I were older I could drive. (Have the ability)
  38. 38. May & Might May and Might are modal verbs that are used to show possibility. They act like the word "maybe". This means the speaker is not sure of the outcome. Example: Tom: Will you go to the party tonight? Kathy: Maybe. OR Tom: Will you go to the party tonight? Kathy: I might go to the party tonight.
  39. 39. May and Might are used in conditional sentences, especially the 2ndConditional and the 3rd Conditional. Example: If I won the lottery, I might travel. However, I don’t know for sure. I might also buy a house.The difference between may and might is that may is more formal.
  40. 40. Must Must is a modal verb used to show obligation. Like all modal verbs, must is followed by a base verb: MUST + BASE VERB Examples: He must go to class today. They must work tomorrow. Must is also used to show possibility, and is used in situations where the speaker is very certain. Examples: He ate 3 pieces of cake. He must like cake. They worked for 12 hours today. They must be tired.
  41. 41. Should Should is one of the most important modal verbs in English. STRUCTURE Present Subject + Should + Base Verb She should study more often. They should go inside. Past Subject + Should + Have + Past Participle She should have studied more often. We should be quiet.
  42. 42. USESRecommendations You should see the new Spiderman movie. You should try this ice cream.Advice You should eat less sugar. You should not smoke.Obligation I should get back to work. We shouldnt be here.
  43. 43. Questions Reverse should and the verb to ask questions: Advice Should I study chapter 1 or chapter 2? How should I invest my money? Expectations Should the dog be allowed in the house? Should is commonly found in English conditionals.
  44. 44. Would Would is an important modal verb in English. It is one of the most commonly used modals. Here are some of its uses: Polite form of Want "Want" is often too direct, and can sometimes be rude. "Would" is more indirect and also more polite. Instead of "Do you want...?", say "Would you like...?" Examples: Do you want a drink? Would you like a drink? Do you want to go? Would you like to go?
  45. 45. Invitations "Would you like" is used for polite invitations: Would you like to go to a party tonight? Would you like to watch a movie with me?Offers "Would you like" is used for polite offers: Would you like a drink of water? Would you like another piece of cake?
  46. 46. Hypothetical Situations Would is used to show situations or actions that are not real. This includes using would in the 2nd conditional and the 3rd conditional. Examples: I would buy a car if I had more money. I would have bought a car if I had had more money. In these situations, "would" is normally the decision you make. If I found a wallet, I could return it or keep it. I should return it. However, I would keep the money and return the wallet.
  47. 47. 1.Choose the correct modal verb for these statements of ability. 1. 8 years ago, I __________ play the piano. a) can b) could Could c) will be able to 2. In 3 years I __________ drive. a) can Will be able to b) could c) will be able to 3. __________ you hear the music right now? a) Can Can b) Could c) Could not Check Answers
  48. 48. 4. I __________ swim.a) cantb) cant Can’tc) cant5. _________ go to the party tomorrow?a) Can youb) Could you Will be able toc) Will you be able to6. She __________ finish the homework last night.a) could nob) couldnt Couldn’tc) not could7. The singer __________ dance very well.a) canb) can no Canc) could no Check Answers
  49. 49. 8. The teacher __________ see the books right now.a) cantb) couldnt Can’tc) can nod) could no9. I __________ vote in the election next year.a) couldb) wasnt able to Will be able toc) will be able to10. I __________ hear you. Could you please speak louder?a) cant Can ‘tb) can Check Answers
  50. 50. 2. Choose the correct modal verbs for these pieces of advice.1. You __________ eat more vegetables.a) would Shouldb) should2. I __________ buy those shoes if I were you.a) wouldnt Wouldn’tb) shouldnt3. She __________ pay attention in class.a) would Shouldb) should4. The students __________ arrive on time for class.a) would Shouldb) should Check Answers
  51. 51. 5. If I were you, I __________ take a differentcourse.a) would Wouldb) should6. I __________ wear those pants if I were her.a) wouldnt Wouldn’tb) shouldnt7. The children __________ play soccer in thehouse. They may break something.a) wouldnt Shouldn’tb) shouldnt8. How _________ make the cake?a) I should Should Ib) should I Check Answers
  52. 52. 9. You __________ change your shoes.a) would Shouldb) should x10. My car is broken. I ________ take it to amechanic.a) wouldb) should x Should Check Answers
  53. 53. 3. Fill in the spaces with the correct modal verb: Could, Would, Should, Must, Can, or Might.1. you lend me $10 please? Could2. I go to the party tonight, but I am not Mightsure.3. She play the piano. She is a very good Canplayer.4. Julie like to visit Kyoto when she is in WouldJapan.5. You take your passport when you go Muston an airplane. Check Answers
  54. 54. 6. You eat many vegetables if you want to Shouldbe healthy. should7. Keith not go to school tomorrow. He Mightdoes not know for sure. Might8. you like another glass of juice? would Would9. You not smoke inside a hospital. must Must10. You visit Niagara Falls when you go to ShouldCanada. should Check Answers
  55. 55. 4. Should and Must are used differently, depending on the sentence.Should is for advice, and Must is for obligations. Choose the correctoptions to complete the sentences about travelling. 1. You ___________ bring your passport to travel to another country. a) should b) should not Must c) must d) must not 2. You ___________ bring a camera. a) should b) should not Should c) must d) must not 3. You __________ bring plants, food, or animals to other countries. a) should b) should not Must not c) must d) must not Check Answers
  56. 56. 4. You __________ go through customs when you enter a new Mustcountry.a) shouldb) should notc) mustd) must not5. You ___________ have a ticket to go on an airplane. Musta) shouldb) should notc) mustd) must not6. You ___________ bring a bathing suit if you are going to the Shouldbeach.a) shouldb) should notc) mustd) must not7. You _________ take much cash with you. Should nota) shouldb) should notc) mustd) must not Check Answers
  57. 57. 8. You __________ research the places you plan to visit.a) should Shouldb) should notc) mustd) must not9. You __________ check in before you get on the airplane.a) should Mustb) should notc) mustd) must not10. You __________ be at least 2 hours early for your flight.a) shouldb) should not Shouldc) mustd) must not Check Answers
  58. 58. 5. Choose the correct modal verb. 1. _________ I have more cheese on my sandwich? a) MustB b) Could c) Would d) Have to 2. You _________ eat more vegetables. a) shouldA b) might c) may d) could 3. I _________ like to buy the same television for my house. a) couldC b) must c) would d) have to Check Answers
  59. 59. 4. _________ I have a coffee please? a) MustC b) Have to c) May d) Would 5. You _________ smoke near children. a) have to b) mayC c) shouldnt d) couldnt 6. The passengers _________wear their seatbelts at all times. a) could b) mustB c) can d) may 7. We _________ go to the concert if the rain stops. We dont know for sure. a) mustnt Check Answers b) mightB c) have to c) wouldnt
  60. 60. 8. I _________ ice skate very well. a) canA b) may c) must d) should 9. The boys _________wake up earlier than 7:30 am. They have class at 8:00 am. a) would b) cantD c) could d) have to 10. The rock band _________play very well last year. Now they are much better. a) must b) couldntB c) can c) should Check Answers
  61. 61. 6. Choose the correct sentence. 1.A a) May I go to the mall? b) May I goes to the mall? 2.A a) Can she try again? b) Can she tries again? 3.B a) She can has another glass. b) She can have another glass. 4.B a) Can drive they the car? b) Can they drive the car? Check Answers
  62. 62. 5. a) May I borrowing your bike?B b) May I borrow your bike? 6. a) Yes, she cans.B b) Yes, she can. 7. a) Could I speak with Fred please?A b) Could I speaked with Fred please? Check Answers
  63. 63. 8. a) May the children play in the garden?A b) May the children plays in the garden? 9. a) You may stay here?B b) You may stay here. 10. a) May I say something?A b) May I say something. Check Answers
  64. 64. 7. Choose the correct option for these modal verbs of possibility. 1. He left the party early.A a) He must have to work tomorrow. b) He must to have to work tomorrow. 2. He has to be finished the test by now.A a) He must be finished the test. b) He might be finished the test. 3. There is new snow outside. a) It might have snowed last night.B b) It must have snowed last night. 4. He didnt finish the exam on time. a) He might not had studied.B b) He might not have studied. 5. She doesnt know if she will cook dinner tonight.A a) She might cook dinner. b) She has to cook dinner. Check Answers
  65. 65. 6. Everyone is smoking outside.B a) You could not be able to smoke in here. b) You must not be able to smoke in here. 7. He looks very tired.A a) He must have stayed up late last night. b) He might had to stay up late last night. 8. Everyone received 100% on the math exam.A a) It must have been easy. b) It could have been easy. 9. That book has her name on it.A a) It has to be hers. b) It might be hers. 10. Who fixed the chair? a) It couldnt been Jim. He was at work.B b) It couldnt have been Jim. He was at work. Check Answers
  66. 66. 8. Fill in the spaces with Would or Could1. you like another drink? Would2. you pass me the salt? Could3. you mind turning off theradio? Would4. you like to go to the movie Wouldtheatre tonight?5. you tell me where the bus Couldstation is? Check Answers
  67. 67. 6. she like to come with us? Would7. you please lend me $100? Could8. you like something to eat? Would9. you like to go to the park? Would10. you bring me another glass of Couldwater? Check Answers
  68. 68. 9. Fill in the spaces with must or might and the correct form of the same verb as the sentence before. For example: He may go to the baseball game. Might He might go to the baseball game.1. Perhaps she will go to the party tonight. She . Might go2. He worked all day. He tired. Must be3. Maybe she is at work. She at work. Might be4. He definitely knows how to fix my bike. He how Must knowto fix it. Check Answers
  69. 69. 5. They are not sure if they will come. They Might cometo class tomorrow.6. They know my teacher for sure. They my Must knowteacher.7. I dont know if I will go to see a movie tonight. I Might goto see one.8. Everyone is wearing a thick jacket. It cold Must beoutside.9. She might be at home, or she at the Might beoffice.10. Maybe I will have dinner late tonight. I Might havedinner late. Check Answers
  70. 70. 10. Choose the correct modal verbs for these pieces of advice. 1. I cant decide. __________ a) What would I do? B b) What would you do? 2. That was a mistake. You __________ a) wouldnt have done that. B b) shouldnt have done that. 3. How __________ fix this problem? a) I should B b) should I Check Answers
  71. 71. 4. I returned the shoes for a refund. What __________ .A a) would you have done? b) should you have done? 5. You __________B a) should no smoke. b) should not smoke. 6. Should she __________ anything?A a) bring b) brings 7. What __________ a) would I have done?B b) would you have done? Check Answers
  72. 72. 8. I __________ gone to the meeting If I had been you. a) would haveA b) should have 9. You __________ studied for your final exam. a) would haveB b) should have 10. I __________ do that if I were you. a) wouldntA b) would no Check Answers