If & main clauses

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Learn how to use If cluases correctly.

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If & main clauses

  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free
  2. 2. Conditional sentences in English Conditional sentences (if-clauses, main clauses)
  3. 3. 1. Summary 2. Types Type 0 Type I1 2 Type II Type III 3. Special types Mixed Conditionals If I were you Will and would Others 3 4 4. Exercises
  4. 4. Summary Conditional sentencesThe conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English.Watch out:1) Which type of the conditional sentences is used?2) Where is the if-clause (e.g. at the beginning or at the end of theconditional sentence)?
  5. 5. There are three types of the if-clauses. type condition I condition possible to fulfill II condition in theory possible to fulfill III condition not possible to fulfill (too late) Form type if clause main clause I Simple Present will-future (or Modal + infinitive) II Simple Past would + infinitive * III Past Perfect would + have + past participle *
  6. 6. Examples (if-clause at the beginning) type if clause main clause I If I study, I will pass the exam. II If I studied, I would pass the exam. III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.Examples (if-clause at the end) type main clause if-clause I I will pass the exam if I study. II I would pass the exam if I studied. III I would have passed the exam if I had studied.
  7. 7. Examples (affirmative and negative sentences)type Examples long forms short/contracted forms If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, Ill pass the exam. I If I study, I will not fail the exam. If I study, I wont fail the exam. - If I do not study, I will fail the exam. If I dont study, Ill fail the exam. If I studied, I would pass the exam. If I studied, Id pass the exam. If I studied, I would not fail the II exam. If I studied, I wouldnt fail the exam. - If I did not study, I would fail the If I didnt study, Id fail the exam. exam. If I had studied, I would have If Id studied, Id have passed the exam. passed the exam. If I had studied, I would not have If Id studied, I wouldnt have failed the III failed the exam. exam. - If I had not studied, I would have If I hadnt studied, Id have failed the failed the exam. exam.
  8. 8. * We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or mustare sometimes possible, too). I would pass the exam. I could pass the exam. I might pass the exam. I may pass the exam. I should pass the exam. I must pass the exam.
  9. 9. Conditional sentence - types Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
  10. 10. Conditional Sentence Type 0 Conditional type zero is used to talk about general truths, scientific facts or things which always happen under certain conditions.Form: If + Simple Present, + Simple PresentUse: The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, scientific facts, general truths:Examples: If you cross an international date line, the time changes. Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. If I wake up early, I go jogging.NOTE: you can use "when" instead of "if".
  11. 11. Conditional sentence - type IUse It is possible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if-clause.Form if clause main clause will-future or Simple Present infinitive or Modal + infinitive
  12. 12. Examples If I study, I will pass the exams. If you see John tonight, tell him to e-mail me. If Ben gets up early, he can catch the bus. The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I study, I will pass the exams. I will pass the exams if I study.
  13. 13. Conditional sentences - type IIUse It is theoretically possible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if- clause.Form if clause main clause would + infinitive or Simple Past could + infinitive or might + infinitive
  14. 14. Examples If I studied, I would pass the exams. If I studied, I could pass the exams. If I studied, I might pass the exams.The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I studied, I would pass the exams. I would pass the exams if I studied.
  15. 15. Conditional sentences - type III Use It is impossible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if-clause. Form if clause main clause would + have + past participle or Past Perfect could + have + past participle or might + have + past participle
  16. 16. Examples If I had studied, I would have passed the exams. If I had studied, I could have passed the exams. If I had studied, I might have passed the exams.The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I had studied, I would have passed the exams. I would have passed the exams if I had studied.
  17. 17. Special Mixed will and Replacing if -types and Conditionals would in Omitting if -structures if-clauses if vs. when - if I were you in case vs. if
  18. 18. Conditional sentences - Special types and structuresStructureIf-clauses can be clause-initial (1), clause-medial (2) as well as clause-final (3). If you like, we can catch a movie. We, if you like, can catch a movie. We can catch a movie if you like.
  19. 19. Types Aside from the typical type I, II, III structure, conditionals can be divided into two categories: real and unreal conditionals.Real Condition If I have money, I spend it. Present Real Conditional - type I If I had money, I spent it. Past Real Conditional - type I If I have money, I will/am going to spend it. Future Real Conditional - type IUnreal ConditionIf I had had money, I Past unreal Conditional - type IIIwould have spent it.If I had money, I would I think about spending Present unreal Conditional -spend it. the money TODAY. type IIIf I had money, I would I think about spending Future unreal Conditional - typespend it. the money NEXT WEEK. II
  20. 20. Special Features Modal verbs Main clauses with real conditional tenses can have modal verbs. If I have money, I can spend it.You can use could and might instead of would in unreal conditional clauses. If I had money, I could spend it. (I would be able to spend it.) If I had money, I might spend it. (I would possibly spend it.)
  21. 21. Mixed Conditionals Mixed ConditionalsUnreal conditionals (type II + III) sometimes can be mixed, that is, the timeof the if clause is different from the one of the main clause.Past --> PresentIf I had taken an aspirin, I wouldnt have a headache now.Past --> FutureIf I had known that you are going to come by tomorrow, I would be in then.
  22. 22. Present --> PastIf she had enough money, she could have done this trip to Hawaii.Present --> FutureIf I were you, I would be spending my vacation in Seattle.Future --> PastIf I werent flying to Detroit, I would have planned a trip to Vancouver.Future --> PresentIf I were taking this exam next week, I would be high-strung.
  23. 23. if I were you - if I was you - which is correct? The word were in the phrase if I were you is special form. It is known as the subjunctive mood (from the grammatical point of view). Today you also find the phrase if I was you. Here the Simple Past form of be is used. But there are people who say that this phrase is incorrect and would never use it (mainly Americans). Others say that this phrase can be used. If I were you I would phone him. - subjunctive mood If I was you I would phone him. - Simple Past
  24. 24. will and would in if-clauses will in if-clauses When the situation or action depicted in the if-clause is a result of the main clause, the will future is used in the if-clause. Hell pay me $10 if Ill help him do the dishes. (Doing the dishes is the result of paying ten dollars.)would in if-clauses In polite requests would is possible in if-clauses. It would be nice if you would help me in the kitchen. (Are you ready to help me in the kitchen?)
  25. 25. English Grammar - Replacing if - Omitting if - if vs. when - in case vs. ifReplacing if If can be replaced by words or expressions with a similar meaning. The most common are: as long as assuming (that) on condition (that) on the assumption (that) provided (that) supposing (that) unless with the condition (that)
  26. 26. Omitting if Had I known... (instead of If I had known...) Were you my daughter,... (instead of: If you were my daughter,...) Should you need my advice,... (instead of: If you should need my advice,...)
  27. 27. if vs. whenif and when are interchangeable when the statement of the conditionalclause is a fact or a general issue (also known as zero conditional) If you heat ice, it melts. When you heat ice, it melts.if is used for something that, according to the speaker, might happen.We can spend the afternoon on the beach if the weather is fine.when is used for something that, according to the speaker, will happen. I will clean up the kitchen right away when Im back from work.
  28. 28. in case vs. ifin case of can be used to shorten an if-clause as shown below:If there is a fire, leave the room. In case of fire, leave the room.While if expresses a condition (1), in case is used to express a possibility (2). I need painkillers if Im in severe pain. I need painkillers in case Im in severe pain.The expression just in case is used pretty much the same way. I got you a pizza just in case you were hungry. (I dont know whether you are hungry.)
  29. 29. ExercisesA) Which answers are correct?1) Which words/phrases can be used in an if-clause type III? had played had sung Check your answers has played have played have sung Show correct answers sang
  30. 30. 2) Which words/phrases can be used in an if-clause type I? had played play Check your answers played plays sang Show correct answers sing will sing 3) Which words/phrases can be used in an if-clause type II? had sung has played play Check your answers played sang Show correct answers sing
  31. 31. B) Finish the sentences. Use the correct phrases. 1) If you drove from Paris to Lisbon, 2) If I were you, 3) My uncle would stay longer in York 4) If we had seen the film, Check your answers 1) If you drove from Paris to Lisbon, which way would you go? 2) If I were you, I would not play hockey. 3) My uncle would stay longer in York if he had more time. 4) If we had seen the film, we would not have bought the DVD.
  32. 32. C) Which type of the Conditional sentences is used? 1) Daniel would have been home on time if the bus had come. type I (condition possible to fulfill) type II (condition in theory possible to fulfill) type III (condition not possible to fulfill - too late) 2) She would be very happy if her friends came. type I (condition possible to fulfill) type II (condition in theory possible to fulfill) type III (condition not possible to fulfill - too late)
  33. 33. 3) If it rains, Ill wear a raincoat. type I (condition possible to fulfill) type II (condition in theory possible to fulfill) type III (condition not possible to fulfill - too late)4) If they had driven carefully, they wouldnt have crashed into the other car. type I (condition possible to fulfill) type II (condition in theory possible to fulfill) type III (condition not possible to fulfill - too late)

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