Helping & compound verbs


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Learn how to use helping and compound verbs correctly.

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Helping & compound verbs

  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free
  2. 2. Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs) and Compound Verbs
  3. 3. Compound VerbsType 1 Type 2 Meaning Exercise
  4. 4. What are compound verbs?Compound Verbs are formed by the combination of auxiliary verbsand the main verbs. When a verb is formed by the combination ofauxiliary verb followed by the main verb, that verb is calledcompound verb.A compound verb is a combination of two verbs: 1) A so-called“auxiliary” verb – meaning, basically, an “additional” verb, and 2)a participle – past or present – that is essentially the “main” verband that follows the auxiliary verb.Every subject in a sentence must have at least one verb. But thatdoesnt mean that a subject can have only one verb. Somesubjects are greedy as far as verbs go. A greedy subject can havetwo, three, four, or more verbs all to itself. When a subject hastwo or more verbs, you can say that the subject has a compoundverb.
  5. 5. Type 1We have applied for the jobs. In this HAVE APPLIED is the compound verb. But this verb has two parts. HAVE is the auxiliary verb whereas the APPLIED is the main verb. Compound verbs are used much more often in English. For example, the future tense in English uses the auxiliary verb WILL as in I will study.
  6. 6. Sarah was walking to the store when it started to rain.“Walking” is the present participle (of “to walk”), and “was” is the auxiliaryverb used in addition to “walking” (which is the main activity), to indicate thatthe walking Sarah did was ongoing. The past participle of “to walk” can also be used in compound verbs, as in: By the time Sarah had walked to the store, it had started to rain. In this example, “had” is the auxiliary verb, and “walked” and “started” are the past participles (of “to walk” and “to start”).Here are some other examples of compound verbs: The point that Joan was trying to make was lost on her audience. The meeting will reconvene in ten minutes. Our professor has been talking for a very long time. Our professor had been talking for a very long time when the bell rang.
  7. 7. Note that the auxiliary verb always orients the action in time – indicatingwhether the action is occurring, has already occurred, or will occur at somepoint in the future. Also, consider that:“Had” (as in “had been talking”) is generally used to indicate that an action“had already occurred” (the “already” is implicit) – usually by the time thatsome other action took place.“Has” (as in “has been talking”) is typically used to indicate that an actionhas already occurred and imply continuity (implied in “our professor hasbeen talking for a very long time” is the thought “and may continue to keeptalking”).
  8. 8. In the following sentences, Compound verbs are in boldface 1. I will come to New York next year. 2. He has gone to his college. 3. They should submit their application. 4. She is working in the Internet café. 5. It is working properly. 6. My sister is doing well. 7. You father has committed a mistake.
  9. 9. Type 2 Recognize a compound verb when you see one.A compound verb includes two or more verbs in one sentence. Here isan example: Julie played the guitar and danced around the room. Playedand danced are the two verbs in the sentenceBefore mixing the ingredients for his world-famous cookies, Bobbyswatted a fly buzzing around the kitchen. Bobby = subject; swatted = verb Before mixing the ingredients for his world-famous cookies, Bobby swatted a fly buzzing around the kitchen and crushed a cockroach scurrying across the floor. Bobby = subject; swatted, crushed = compound verb.
  10. 10. Now take a look at this sentence.Before mixing the ingredients for his world-famous cookies, Bobbyswatted a fly buzzing around the kitchen, crushed a cockroachscurrying across the floor, shooed the cat off the counter, picked hisnose, scratched his armpit, licked his fingers, and sneezed.Bobby = subject; swatted, crushed, shooed, picked, scratched,licked, sneezed = compound verb.
  11. 11. ExerciseOn the next page you are to type in your answers in thespace provided. Then click on “Show Answers” buttonto see the correct answers. Our planet revolves around the sun Revolves, rotates and rotates on its axis. Type in the compound verbs here. Ready?
  12. 12. John Lennon wrote and performed wrote,the song "Imagine". performedMaya Angelou writes poetry and has writes, hasappeared on many TV shows. appearedThe directions said to recite and to recite,repeat until understood. repeat wereThe students were entering the entering,room and were talking. were talking stopped,The bus stopped and was wasunloading passengers. unloading Show Answers
  13. 13. Helping Modal Verbs Auxiliaries . Introduction 23 ExercisesHELPING VERBS.
  14. 14. IntroductionHelping verbs or auxiliary verbs such as will, shall, may, might, can, could, must,ought to, should, would, used to, need are used in conjunction with main verbsto express shades of time and mood. The combination of helping verbs withmain verbs creates what are called verb phrases or verb strings. Are singing Auxiliary verbs are verbs that are used together with another verb (called the main verb of the sentence) to express the action or state. Main verb + auxiliary verb = complete ideaThe most common auxiliary verbs are:be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had. The main verb is "singing." The auxiliary verb is "are."
  15. 15. Auxiliary Verbs (also called "helping verbs")Helping verbs are verbs that are used with a main verb in a sentence toexpress an action or state of being. Helping verbs are also known as auxiliary verbs. A verb is a word that shows an action or state of being. Examples of verbs: The horse jumped. Richard and Mike are laughing. Sarah likes to help in the kitchen. The ball bounces high.
  16. 16. Helping verbs are verbs that are usually used WITH a main verb in a sentence to express an action or state. helping verb + main verb= complete ideaThere are two types of helping verbs: primary helping verbsand modal helping verbs.Primary helping verbs can be used ashelping verbs or alone as the main verb.Modal helping verbs can only be used ashelping verbs. They are never used alone.
  17. 17. Primary helping verbs Primary helping verbs are helping verbs that can also be used alone as the main verb in a sentence.A) The "to be" verbs The "to be" verbs show a state of being. These are the different forms of the "to be" verbs: be being been was were am is are
  18. 18. Examples of "be" verbs as helping verbs: (helping verb + main verb) Tom will be eating at our house tonight. I have been calling you all night! I was talking to her. She is baking cookies. Fred and Lisa are walking to the park.
  19. 19. Examples of "be" verbs as main verbs: She will be here at 5:00. Mike was there. Tim and Sally were at the game. I am at school. Where are you?
  20. 20. B) The "do" verbs These are the different forms of "do": do does did The "do" verbs have a variety of uses. As main verbs when asking questions Do you like carrots? Did you do your chores?
  21. 21. As helping verbs to make a negative He does not want to go today. She did not finish her supper. As helping verbs to emphasize Tom and Bob did complete all of their homework. Bill does love you!
  22. 22. C) The "have" verbs These are the different forms of "have": have has had The "have" verbs are used as helping verbs to show an action that has already been completed. Examples of "have" verbs as helping verbs: Tim had spoken to his mom about the trip. I have called you for hours! Sally has eaten all her food.
  23. 23. The "have" verbs can also be used alone as main verbs. Examples of "have" verbs as main verbs: He has a green car. I have a dog. Jack and Jill had pizza for supper.
  24. 24. Modal helping verbsModal helping verbs can never be used alone in a sentence.Modal helping verbs must always be used with a main verb. These are the different forms of modal helping verbs: may, might, must should, would, could will, can, shall
  25. 25. Examples of modal helping verbs in sentences: modal helping verb + main verb Correct: Erica might walk home from school today. Incorrect: Erica might from school today. There is no main verb (action) in this sentence. Correct: I could buy you a new bike. Incorrect: I could you a new bike. There is no main verb (action) in this sentence.
  26. 26. Correct: We will learn about verbs today. Incorrect: We will about verbs today.There is no main verb (action) in this sentence. You do not have to use a helping verb in every sentence. You MUST use a main verb in every sentence.
  27. 27. English modal verbs are special verbs that are used to showpossibility, ability, permission, and so forth. Examples: "It might rain" – shows possibility. "I can joggle" – shows ability. "You may sit down" – shows permission.
  28. 28. The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will and would. First of all, what does MODAL mean? Modal = expressing mood. Mood = a way to express the attitude of the speaker to what is being said.Examples: "I can paint" means the speaker believes he has the ability to paint. "I might paint" means the speaker believes there is a possibility for that to happen. "I will paint" means the speaker has the intention to paint. English Modal Verbs show us the attitude of the speaker to what is being said.
  29. 29. What is special about the modal verbs? They are special because they behave differently from other verbs in English.1. English modal verbs are used together with the base form of another verb. Examples: "He might come late." "You may leave if you wish." "We must finish this on time."2. English modal verbs have only one form. You dont add "-ing", "-ed“ or "-s“ to them. Examples: Correct:"We must go now." Incorrect:"We are musting go now." Correct:"They said we could park here." Incorrect:"They said we coulded park here." Correct:"She can help us." Incorrect:"She cans help us."
  30. 30. 3. To form questions use the modal verb itself, but change the order. Examples: "He can fix the car tomorrow." Correct: "Can he fix the car tomorrow?" Incorrect:"Does he can fix the car tomorrow?" "We should start packing our things." Correct:"Should we start packing our things?" Incorrect:"Do we should start packing our things?" "She will be ten years old next month" Correct:"Will she be ten years old next month?" Incorrect:"Does she will be ten years old next month?"
  31. 31. 4. To form negative sentences use the modal verb itself and add "not" or"nt" to it. Examples: "He can run fast enough." Correct:"He cant run fast enough." Incorrect:"He doesnt can run fast enough." "She could lift a feather." Correct:"She could not lift a feather." Incorrect:"She did not could lift a feather." "I thought he would come." Correct:"I thought he wouldnt come." Incorrect:"I thought he did not would come."
  32. 32. How and when do we use each of the English modal verbs? Uses of "can" (negative: cannot, cant) 1. To talk about what you are able to do "He is so strong! He can lift that car!" "She cant come before four oclock." "Can he teach?" 2. To talk about a general possibility "The weather here can get really bad." "These chairs can be folded." "Such things can happen." 3. To say that something is allowed "He can borrow my book if he needs it." "You cant smoke in here". "You can pay with a credit card." 4. To make a request (this is an informal use, "may" is the formal version) "Can you help me with my homework?" "Can you make some tea?" "Can you be come here, please?"
  33. 33. Uses of "could" (negative: could not, couldnt) 1. As the past form of "can" "He said he couldnt come so early." "I couldnt remember who he was." "They couldnt pass the border." 2. To make a polite request "Could you open the window, please?" "Could you turn up the heat?" "Could you remind him to call?" 3. To show possibility ("may" and "might" are stronger) "She could be with her parents." "It could take you months to find a new place." "He could still win, but its not very likely."
  34. 34. Uses of "may" (negative: may not) 1.To show possibility (it is slightly stronger than "might") "What he said may be true." "It may rain." "You may win the race." 2. To request or give permission (this is a formal use, "can" is the informal version) "You may sit down." "May I speak?" "He may not use the car."Uses of "might" (negative: might not) 1. As a past from of "may" "The weatherman said it might rain." "She mentioned that she might come." "We agreed that it might be dangerous." 2. To show possibility (it is slightly weaker than "may") "He might pass the exam, but I wouldnt count on it." "We might fail, but lets not think about it." "I might visit on Saturday."
  35. 35. Uses of "must" (negative: must not, mustnt) 1. To show that you have to do something, for example because it is very important or because it is a rule "You must stop the car when the traffic light turns red." "You must pay your taxes." "She must stop drinking if she wants to keep her job." "I must go now, otherwise I will miss my train." 2. "Must not" (or "mustnt") is used to show you are not allowed to do something "You mustnt steal." "He mustnt talk to his parents like that." "The fruit of this bush must not be eaten because it is toxic." 3. To show that something is very logical or very likely to be true "He left at noon, so he must be there already." "She is not stupid, so she must have known what she was doing!" "They must be really rich to live in such a house."
  36. 36. Uses of "ought to" (negative: ought not to) 1. To say what is the right thing to do ("should" is the more common word) "In her condition, she ought to quit smoking." "I believe you ought to apologize." "He was watching TV when he ought to have been studying."Uses of "shall" (short form: ll, negative: shall not, shant) 1. Used with "I" and "we" to talk about the future (especially in formal British English) "I shall leave tomorrow morning." "Ill never forget you." "We shall overcome." "I shant be late again." 2. Used with "I" and "we" to ask questions or make suggestions "Shall I close the door?" "What shall we do tonight?" "Lets start, shall we?"
  37. 37. Uses of "should" (negative: should not, shouldnt) 1. To say what is the right thing to do "You should be helping your mother." "If he doesnt like the job, he should tell it to his boss." "If you knew you were going to be so late, you should have called." 2. To give advice or ask for advice "You should try the new restaurant down the street." "What should I do? Should I tell him the truth?" "Should I try to take the exam again?" 3. To show that something is likely to be true or that it is expected "Lets return home, dinner should be ready by now." "We should arrive there by twelve oclock." "I should get an e-mail from him soon."
  38. 38. Uses of "will" (short form: ll, negative: will not, wont) 1. To talk about Future actions or future states (not plans) "I hope he will pass his exams." "Shell be very happy to hear this." "They will not be here on time." "You wont feel a thing." 2. For promises or intentions "Leave it, I will do the dishes." "It must be Joe at the door, so Ill get it." "I wont do that again, I promise."
  39. 39. Uses of "would" (short form: d, negative: would not, wouldnt) 1. As the past form of "will" in reported speech "I will handle it myself." --> "He said he would handle it himself." "I wont be late." --> "He said he wouldnt be late." "Shell change her mind in the end." --> "He said shed change her mind in the end." 2. To talk about an imagined situation "What would you do if you were a millionaire?" "I wish wed go away on a holiday." "I would have cleaned the house, but I was too tired." 3. To make a polite request "Would you mind closing the window?" "Would you get me the paper, please?" "Would someone please answer the phone?"
  40. 40. 4. To invite someone, or offer something, politely"Would you like a drink?""We are going for a walk, would you like to join us?""Would you like to meet her?"5. To say that you want something or want to do somethingI would like= a polite way of saying "I want."I would hate= a polite way of saying "I dont want."I would rather= a polite way of saying "I prefer.""I would like a cup of coffee, please.""I would hate to loss this opportunity.""Wed rather study with you."- "Would you like to come with us?"-" Id love to, but I cant."
  41. 41. Wow! That was quite a lot of information about English Modal Verbs, wasnt it?Lets sum it up... English Modal Verbs Table Modal verb Usage Example ability I can do several things at the same time. can when something is Miracles can happen. possible permission You can go now. informal requests Can you come for a minute? past form of "can" She said she could pay for us as well. could polite requests Could you move your bag, please? possibility It could be that he missed the train.
  42. 42. possibility It may rain tomorrow. may ask or give May I speak? permission (formal) He said he might past form of "may" might change his mind. possibility This might fail. you have to do it You must obey the law must its very logical or They left so early, they very likely to happen must be home by now.must not/ you are not You mustnt smoke in here. mustnt allowed to do it future for "I" and "we" I shall see him tomorrow. shall questions and suggestions for "I" and Lets continue, shall we? "we"
  43. 43. the right thing to do She should call the police. - What should I do? advice - You should stopshould thinking about it. what is likely or We should be expected to happen back by midnight. future action or states Prices will go up will (not plans) next summer. promises and intentions Its alright, Ill pick it up. past form of "will" He told me he would come. What would you do imagined situations if you were him? - Would you please sit down? - Would you like some tea? would for polite requests, offers and - We are meeting with Sarah invitations next Saturday, would you like to come along? to say what you I would like a piece of cake. want to do or haveought to the right thing to do You ought to apologize.
  44. 44. English Modal Verbs – Situations TableSituation Modal Verb Example requests may May I sit down? (formal) requests can Can I sit down?(informal) requests could Could I sit down? (polite) requests would Would you mind if I sit down? (polite)permission may You may sit down. (formal)permission can You can sit down. (informal)
  45. 45. obligation You must tell the must (full) police the truth. obligation You should tell should (partial) your friends the truth. obligation (partial) You ought to tell ought to (less common) your friends the truth. logical conclusions He left an hour ago, so he must be must (stronger than "should") there already. He left half an hour ago, logical conclusions should I believe he should (weaker than "must") be there already. possibility can It can rain sometimes. (general) possibility It could rain, but it is (weaker than could not very common in this "may" and "might") part of the country. possibility Its not very cloudy yet, might (weaker than "may") but it might rain. possibility It starts getting cloudy – may (stronger than "might") it may rain soon. Look at the sky!futureactions/states/intentions will It will rain soon.
  46. 46. 23 HELPING VERBSThumb 1st Finger Dirty Finger Ring Finger Pinky Palmhave can could do is may be had shall should did am might been has will would does are must being was were
  47. 47. SECOND METHOD OF LEARNING THE HELPING VERBS C can could H have had had A am are D do did does B be been being S shall should W was were will would I is M may might must
  48. 48. QuizzesUse was or were in the following sentences.1. I crossing at the red light waswhen the accident took place.2. They working on their werechemistry project. were3. The boys climbing thetree. was4. Did she say what she doing? were5. Where they playing? Show Answers
  49. 49. Identify the helping verb in the following sentence.The chefs are competing in a new TV sitcom appearing on theFood Network every Thursday night at 5 p.m. competing appearing every are The cook had won the competition, and she felt very lucky: only one graduating student received the sought-after Cordon Bleu prize for pastry that year. sought-after felt received had Show Answers
  50. 50. Identify the helping verb in the following sentence. The sous chef did not like the demanding head chef, who had hired him in the first place. did hired like The hot pastry may not have failed to catch her hungry eye, but it never reached her plate. may / have never reached hungry failed Show Answers
  51. 51. Choose the best helping verb or combination of helping verband main verb to complete the following sentence. The school _______ prepare the class for the rigors of modern, big-city restaurants. ought to try will ought should had Show Answers