Gerund or infinitive.


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Learn how to use gerunds and infinitives.

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Gerund or infinitive.

  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free
  2. 2. Gerund or Infinitive? How & When to UseWhat is the difference between gerunds and infinitives?When should you use each? Lets start from the beginning.
  3. 3. Gerund? Infinitive?
  4. 4. Introduction ComprehensiveGerund Infinitive Look Exercises
  5. 5. Introduction Gerunds and InfinitivesGerunds and infinitives are forms of verbs that act like nouns. They canfollow adjectives and other verbs. Gerunds can also follow prepositions.A gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from a verbby adding -ing. Not all words formed with -ing are gerunds. An infinitive is to + the verb. When a verb follows a verb it either takes the gerund or infinitive form. Some verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive with no loss of meaning.
  6. 6. For example: With the verb start - "It started to rain." or "It started raining." Both sentences have the same meaning.Sometimes the use of the gerund or infinitive changes the meaning of thesentence.For example: With the verb remember - "I remembered to do my homework". or "I remembered doing my homework." In the first sentence (I remembered to do my homework), the person speaking remembered they had some homework first and then carried out the action and did it. In the second sentence (I remembered doing my homework.), the person speaking carried out the action (their homework) first and then remembered doing it.
  7. 7. Other verbs only take one or the other, unfortunately there is no ruleas to which form the verb takes. The same is true when the verbfollows an adjective. The best way to learn their correct use is with practice - these lists may help:- Gerunds & Infinitives by-gerunds-docx-43k?da=y
  8. 8. What is a Gerund?A gerund is a noun made from a verb. To make a gerund, you add"-ing" to the verb.For example: In the sentence "I swim every day", the word "swim" is a verb. In the sentence "I like swimming", the word "swimming" is a noun. Therefore, "swimming" is a gerund.
  9. 9. Second example: In the sentence "She reads several books a week", the word "read" is a verb. In the sentence "Reading is important", the word "reading" is a noun. Therefore, "reading" is a gerund. More examples of gerunds: buying, fishing, running, watching, telling, and so forth. The word "gerund" actually comes from the Latin word gerere, which means "do". You could say this actually makes sense: the gerund describes an action, something you do. Gerunds are often used when actions are real or completed.
  10. 10. Examples: (Note how the main underlined verb relates to real or completed actions.) She stopped smoking. I finished doing my homework. They keep on fighting. We discussed moving to Florida. You recommended waiting until tomorrow. He recalled falling asleep on the couch. She practices playing those drums all the time. John completed fixing the car.
  11. 11. The job involves dealing with animals.Brian mentioned staying up late.They suggested not keeping the luggage.We started working on this yesterday.
  12. 12. What is an Infinitive?An infinitive is the basic form of the verb + "to".Examples: to buy, to fish, to run, to watch, to tell, and so forth.Example Sentences: "I want to swim." "They asked us to leave." "To be, or not to be– that is the question." "The goal is to win."
  13. 13. The word "infinitive" comes form the Latin word infinitus, from in-(not) and finitus (finished, limited).You could say this actually makes sense: the infinitive describes anaction, but unlike a regular verb, it is not limited in any way.The regular verb is limited to the tense and subject. For example, inthe sentence "Diana danced" the action is limited to Diana and tothe past. However, the infinitive is unlimited. In the sentence "To dance is easy", the action is not limited to any subject or to any time. Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, general, or future.
  14. 14. Examples:(Note how the main underlined verb relates to unreal, general, or futureactions.) Kate agreed to come. I hope to see you soon. We plan to finish this shortly. They decided to return home. She promised to stop smoking. We agreed never to talk about it again.
  15. 15. He offered to sell the house.I refuse to pay!You seem to be disappointed.She asked him not to leave.I want to drink.They need to get up early.
  16. 16. Gerunds and Infinitives1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund formof the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, thecomplement, or the object of a sentence.Examples: Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence I enjoy reading. object of sentence Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."Examples: He enjoys not working. The best thing for your health is not smoking.
  17. 17. 2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is"to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement,or the object of a sentence. Examples: To learn is important. subject of sentence The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence He wants to learn. object of sentence Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not." Examples: I decided not to go. The most important thing is not to give up.
  18. 18. 3. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complementof a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually soundmore like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. Inthe following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be morecommon in everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility orpotential for something and sound more philosophical. If this soundsconfusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as thesubject or complement of a sentence.Examples: Learning is important. normal subject To learn is important. abstract subject - less common The most important thing is learning. normal complement The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common
  19. 19. 4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between agerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are notnormally interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentencedetermines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive.Examples: He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund. He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive. 5. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. List of Verbs Followed by GerundsExamples: She suggested going to a movie. Mary keeps talking about her problems.
  20. 20. 6. Some verbs are followed by infinitives. List of Verbs Followed byInfinitivesExamples: She wants to go to a movie. Mary needs to talk about her problems.7. Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her,its, your, their, our, Johns, Marys, the machines, and so on. This makes itclearer who or what is performing the action.Examples: I enjoyed their singing. They were singing. She understood his saying no to the offer. He said no. Sam resented Debbies coming late to the dinner. Debbie came late to the dinner. We discussed the machines being broken. The machine is broken.
  21. 21. 8. Some verbs are followed by a noun plus an infinitive. In some situations,the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional. List of VerbsFollowed by a Noun + an InfinitiveExamples: The police ordered the man to stop. noun is required She asked to leave. noun is optional She asked him to leave. noun is optional9. Some verbs are usually followed by a gerund, BUT they can also be followedby a noun plus infinitive. Using a noun plus infinitive will usually change who isperforming the action. List of Verbs followed by a Gerund OR a Noun +InfinitiveExamples: I advised taking the train. in general I advised him to take the train. He will take the train.
  22. 22. 10. There are many "go + gerund" expressions used for adventure sports andindividual recreational activities. List of Go + Gerund Combinations Examples: I go swimming every weekend. Would you ever go skydiving? 11. Gerunds are used after prepositions. Most commonly, these are "verb + preposition" combinations. For reference, see the Verb + Preposition Dictionary and the Phrasal Verb Dictionary. You dont have to memorize these resources, you just need to remember that gerunds are used after prepositions! Examples: They admitted to committing the crime. Leslie made up for forgetting my birthday. He is thinking about studying abroad.
  23. 23. 12. Remember that there are many "adjective + preposition" combinationsand "noun + preposition" combinations in English as well. These are alsofollowed by gerunds. List of Adjective + Preposition Combinations Followedby Gerunds and List of Noun + Preposition Combinations Followed byGerunds. Once again, you dont have to memorize these resources, you justneed to remember that gerunds are used after prepositions! Examples: Sandy is scared of flying. adjective + preposition Nick is anxious about taking the examination. adjective + preposition His interest in becoming a professional snowboarder was well known. noun + preposition Thomas story about seeing a grizzly bear was really exciting. noun + preposition
  24. 24. 13. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with adifference in meaning. List of Verbs Followed by a Gerund or Infinitive(Different Meaning) Examples: Nancy remembered getting married. Nancy has a memory of getting married. Fred remembered to bring sun block to the beach. Fred remembered that he needed to bring sun block.14. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive with littledifference in meaning. List of Verbs Followed by a Gerund or Infinitive (SimilarMeaning) Examples: She likes swimming. She likes to swim.
  25. 25. Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, andgerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still ameaning difference. Using a gerund suggests that you are referring to realactivities or experiences. Using an infinitive suggests that you are talking aboutpotential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small differencein meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably,such as in the examples below.Examples: The British reporter likes living in New York. He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there. The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the United States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the United States. I like speaking French because its such a beautiful language. I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language. I like to speak French when Im in France. I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France.
  26. 26. 15. There are many "be + adjective" combinations that are commonlyfollowed by infinitives. List of Be + Adjective Combinations Followed byInfinitives Examples: They were anxious to begin. She was delighted to receive such good feedback. He is lucky to have such good friends.16. There are also many nouns that are commonly followed by infinitives. List ofNouns Followed by Infinitives Examples: It was a good decision to move to San Francisco. His wish to become an actor was well known. Lauras desire to improve impressed me.
  27. 27. 17. Sometimes infinitives are used to express the idea of "in order to do something." Examples: He bought the English dictionary to look up difficult words. in order to look up Janine sold her car to get the money that she needed. in order to get Juan uses to learn English. in order to learnThis idea of "in order to do something" is found in many English patterns. too + adjective/adverb + infinitive Examples: The box is too heavy to carry. The television is too expensive to buy. Fiona ran too slowly to win the race. We arrived too late to see the beginning of the movie.
  28. 28. adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive Examples: She is tall enough to reach the book on the shelf. Brian was smart enough to enter college at the age of 12. Linda runs quickly enough to win the race.enough + noun(s) + infinitive Examples: He has enough money to buy his own car. Cheryl owns enough books to start her own library! Diane needs enough time to finish writing her book.
  29. 29. 18. Certain expressions are followed by "ING" forms. List of Expressions followed by Verb+ing Forms Examples: He had fun fishing. They had difficulty finding a parking place. She spent her time practicing the piano.19. Verbs which indicate location can often be followed by "ING" forms. Thispattern is VERB OF LOCATION + LOCATION + VERB+ING. List of Verbs ofLocation Examples: Sarah stood at the corner waiting for Tom. Melissa lay in bed thinking about her future. Don clung to the side of the cliff looking down.
  30. 30. 20. In addition to simple gerund and infinitive forms, there are progressivegerund and infinitive forms, passive gerund and infinitive forms and perfectgerund and infinitive forms as well as combinations of these forms. Progressiveforms are used to emphasize that an action is taking place now. Passive formsare used to emphasize that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon.Perfect gerund and infinitive forms are used to emphasize completion in boththe past and the future. Study the examples below to help understand theseconcepts.
  31. 31. GERUND FORMS INFINITIVE FORMSSIMPLE The teacher enjoys teaching. The teacher wants to teach. Mr. Smith is really enjoying teaching his class. Mr. Smith would like to bePROGRESSIVE Looks the same as simple form teaching his class. above.PASSIVE The students enjoy being taught. The students want to be taught. The retired teacher recalled having The teacher was expecting to havePERFECT taught. taught that already. The students are enjoying being taught by such an exciting newPASSIVE + The students would like to be teacher.PROGRESSIVE being taught by Mr Smith. Looks the same as the passive form above.PASSIVE + The older students recalled having The students were expecting toPERFECT been taught that already. have been taught that by now.
  32. 32. ExercisesExercises Based on 1 through 6 of the Gerunds and InfinitivesComprehensive Look
  33. 33. Exercises Based on 7 through 12 of the Gerunds and InfinitivesComprehensive Look
  34. 34. Exercises Based on 13 through 20 of the Gerunds and InfinitivesComprehensive Look
  35. 35. Final Exam