Commonly confused words 2


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This part 2 of the series. This is real good for learning commonly confused words and to help with your vocabulary and writing.

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Commonly confused words 2

  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free
  2. 2. ??? ????
  3. 3. bare andbearimmoral andamoralcourse andcoarsecouncil andcounselconfident,confidantandconfidantecomplementandcomplimentclimacticand climaticcite, sightand sitecensor,sensor andcensurecapital andCapitolcanvas andcanvassbreath andbreathebeside andbesides
  4. 4. bare and bearBare means exposed (e.g., without clothes).For everything else, use bear.There is often confusion over the words bear and bare.BearThe word bear has many meanings:To endure or to tolerate.It is very easy to endure the difficulties of ones enemies. It is thesuccesses of ones friends that are hard to bear. (Oscar Wilde)Mrs Taylor cannot bear the constant drone of the generator.I have learnt to bear the cold.Examples:
  5. 5. To carry (in many senses of the word).He bears himself with utmost dignity.We come bearing gifts for your chief.Our camels do not mate regularly, but we are expecting Tsu Tsu to bearher first baby next season.This small tree bears hundreds of apples every year.Who will bear the responsibility for this vandalism?My auntie is the tall lady bearing the green hat.(Bear means to wear as opposed to carry in this example.)Examples:Bear also mean to carry in an even looser sense (i.e., to have)You bear a resemblance to your mother.Does this document bear your signature?I bear bad news, Im afraid.
  6. 6. To maintain a direction.This track bears north for the next 10 miles and then bears eastas far as the lake.Bear left at the next two Y junctions.Examples:A large mammal.
  7. 7. Dont go out in bare feet. Youll catch a cold.Was the protestor totally bare when he ran in the meeting room?You need to cover those pipes. Bare pipes will freeze this winter.Peter ploughed those fields with his bear hands?(should be bare hands)BareThe adjective bare means uncovered, naked or exposed (i.e., withoutcover, clothing or cladding).Examples:
  8. 8. TRUST THE BEARWriters are very familiar with bear meaning a largemammal (e.g., grizzly bear). However, the word bear is veryversatile. It has many meanings. When they encounter theseother meanings, some writers are attracted to barebecause they know that bear denotes the large mammal.Well, unless you mean exposed or naked (i.e., bare), thenbear is correct:This idea did not bear fruit.This idea did not bare fruit.
  9. 9. BORE, BORNE, BORNThe past tense of to bear is bore.You bore a remarkable resemblance to your mother whenyou were younger.They bore gifts for the chief.The past passive participle of to bear is borne.The burden borne by the managerial team wassimply too heavy.She has borne two children since moving to India.
  10. 10. However, when talking about birth, the alternative participleborn is used (as an adjective or in a passive sentence.)I was London-born.(born as part of an adjective)She was born in Manchester.(born in a passive sentence)The child was borne to a witch.(should be born)Tip: The word before born is often the verb to be(e.g., is, was, were, been).
  11. 11. Drive through the town centre and then left towardsthe tower.The president himself with the utmost dignity.The contract your father’s signature.I excellent news.It’s a lovely restaurant if you can the heat.Click on the correct word in each of the following sentences.12345Bearbare /bearsbares /bearsbares /bearbare /bearbare /
  12. 12. 6789Do not feed the .Will it fruit?Do not leave those pipes during the winter.The hat by the child was ridiculously huge.bearsbares /bearbare /bearbare /borneborn /
  13. 13. beside and besidesBeside means next to. Besides means apartfrom or and another thing.Writers sometimes confuse the words beside and besides.BesideThe word beside is a preposition. It means close to or next to.Come and sit beside me.Your hat is beside the dog basket.Examples:
  14. 14. Besides Craig, who else caught a bass?(Besides is a preposition in this example. Apart from Craig, whoelse...)Besides, its not just about determination.(Besides is an adverb in this example. Furthermore, its not just...)BesidesThe preposition besides means in addition to or apartfrom. As an adverb, it means furthermore or and anotherthing.Examples:
  15. 15. Click on the correct word in each of the following sentences.1234Your wallet is the kettle.Dont pick me. I dont know much Art andLiterature., Ive never been to Las Vegas.Can you see anything the deer (i.e., apart fromthe deer)?besidesbeside /besidesbeside /BesidesBeside /besidesbeside /
  16. 16. Paul pinched his nose, took a breath and jumped off the boat.He would fight until his last breath.breath and breatheBreath (rhymes with death) denotes the air inhaled orexhaled during breathing. To breathe (rhymes withseethe) means to inhale and expel air from the lungs.Writers occasionally confuse the words breath and breathe.BreathThe word breath is a noun. It denotes the air that is either inhaled orexhaled during breathing. Colloquially, it can also mean a short pause(e.g., Take a breath and try again.) Breath rhymes with death.Examples:
  17. 17. BreatheThe word breathe is a verb. It rhymes with seethe. It has the followingclosely related meanings:To inhale and expel air from the lungs.Is she breathing?(Note: Breathe drops the e when ing is added.)Virtually all fish breathe through gills.(Gills are a fishs lungs.)To allow gas or moisture to pass through.The new synthetic material can breathe to prevent moisture buildingup against the skin.Examples:Example:
  18. 18. To impart (often used figuratively).He breathed a sigh of relief.He breathed new life into the project.Examples:BREEEEATHENative English speakers only tend to confuse breath and breathein writing. Therefore, if you use the e on the end of breathe toremind you that the ea is pronounced EE (i.e., breathe rhymeswith seethe), then you will eliminate this error.
  19. 19. The new hall will new life into the town.A cat takes 20-40 per minute.You take many deep in the form of sighs andyawns without even being aware of it.I can smell beer on your .breathebreath /breathesbreaths /breathesbreaths /breathebreath /Click on the correct word in each of the following sentences.1234
  20. 20. canvas and canvassCanvas is heavy cloth.To canvass means to survey opinionor to solicit votes.The words canvas and canvass sound identical, but theirmeanings are very different.CanvasThe noun canvas (with one s at the end) refers to a heavywoven cloth of hemp, flax or cotton. It is used for sails, tents andpaintings. The word canvas is also used figuratively for the floorof a boxing or wrestling ring (i.e., they are often not made ofcanvas).
  21. 21. CanvassThe verb canvass has several closely related meanings. It can mean:To collect opinions.Can you canvass the local area to determine the support for the bypass?To electioneer (i.e., to collect votes through persuasion of voters in apolitical campaign).Mr Millar will arrange for Joans team to canvass High Street andBond Street on Saturday. We need as much support from the westside of town as possible.To examine closely.Penny canvassed every shop in Wigan before she found the rightshoes.To ask around.The investigation team will canvass the neighborhood to seewhether there were any witnesses to the crash.
  22. 22. Canvass Used as a NounNowadays, canvass is used as a noun to denote the processes above.Did your canvass of the local area succeed in determining the supportfor the bypass?I heard Joans canvass was postponed due to the storm.(The noun canvassing is more common than the noun canvass. It canbe substituted into both examples above.)Examples:SS = SOLICIT SUPPORTUse the last two letters of canvass to bring solicit support to mind.
  23. 23. Tommys of members over 50 years old showedthat 85% are extremely angry at recent increases in meal charges.After Craigs wonderful combination, Paul hit the withsuch force, the referee had no option but to end the bout immediately.On Valentines Day, we are offering a free print onfor all guests.You need to the school to determine whetherSally is a more popular choice for hockey captain than Sarah.canvasscanvas /canvasscanvas /canvasscanvas /canvasscanvas /Click on the correct word in each of the following sentences.1234
  24. 24. capital and CapitolCapitol is the building where the US Congress meets.CapitolMany people (particularly non-Americans) who see the wordCapitol in writing assume it is a typo of capital. In fact, TheCapitol is the building that serves as the seat of government forthe United States Congress. It is located in Washington on top ofCapitol Hill.The United States Capitol
  25. 25. The Capitol is the main building of the US Congress.(Capitol is also known as the Statehouse.)The capital of England is London.That was a capital speech you made from the Capitol.(capital = first rate, excellent)CapitalThe word capital has numerous meanings. As a noun, it denotes:(1) a city that is the seat of the government for a country or state (2)an amount of money or property. As an adjective it denotes (1) anuppercase letter (3) first rate, excellent (3) main, principal.Examples:
  26. 26. Do you have any capital invested in her business?(...any money or property invested)Our capital concern is that everyone gets fed during theelectricity failure.(...main or principal concern)In German, all nouns start with a capital letter.(Ich habe eine Katze = I have a cat.)ALWAYS USE A CAPITAL FOR CAPITOLThe word Capitol is a proper noun (i.e., the name of something).Therefore, it should always be written with a capital C.
  27. 27. censor, sensor and censureTo censor means to forbid. A sensor is a detector. Censure is displeasure.CensorThe verb to censor means to forbid public distribution of something(usually a film or a newspaper).How did that statement end up on the streets? I censored thearticle myself.Example:
  28. 28. SensorThe noun sensor denotes a detector of a stimulus (such as heat,light, motion, pressure).An infrared sensor designed to detect movement triggered theroadside bomb.CensureThe noun censure denotes a formal rebuke or official displeasure.He has received two letters of censure from the commandant.Example:Example:
  29. 29. cite, sight and siteCite means to mention or to quote.Sight relates to vision.Site means a piece of land or to assign a position to.The words cite, sight and site have different meanings, but they soundidentical. As a consequence, some writers fail to differentiate between them.SightSight relates to vision. It is the power of seeing (i.e., perception by theeyes). It can also be something that is seen (e.g., What a beautiful sight.)The newborn foal was an emotional sight for all of us.After the laser treatment, her sight was perfect.Examples:
  30. 30. SiteThe noun site refers to a piece of land (e.g., building site). As a verb (tosite), it means to position in a place (e.g., I will site the slide near theswings.)There are three landfill sites in the local vicinity.Mr Dodds claimed his tools had been stolen from the archaeologicalsite.CiteThe verb cite means to quote, to refer to, to summon to appearbefore a court of law or simply to mention.The lecturer cited several instances of illegal behaviour.The young inspector was cited for his outstanding achievements.Remember to cite expert opinion to support your points.Examples:Examples:
  31. 31. THE CULPRIT IS SITEThe word site (meaning a piece of land) is the one that causesproblems. The most common error relating to these three words iswriting sight instead of site.TRADESMANS ENTRANCEA site often describes a place where building work is taking place. Youcan remember the definition of site using the te to remind you oftradesmans entrance. (A site is likely to have a tradesmansentrance.)A SITE IS A PLACEIf that tradesmans entrance idea doesnt help you, the bottom lineis this:A site is a place (e.g. a building site, a camping site, a website).
  32. 32. Select an answer to replace the word in bold:Q1 The bees were an unexpected spectacle.a. sight b. cite c. siteQ2 Penny went to Berchtesgaden to see the views.a. cites b. sites c. sightsQ3 Those fabulous apartments are built on the old mining plot.a. site b. cite c. sightCheck AnswersACA
  33. 33. climactic and climaticClimactic pertains to the highest point.Climatic pertains to the weather.ClimacticThe adjective climactic derives from the noun climax. It pertains to apeak, a decisive moment or the point of greatest tension.In the climactic scene of the movie, the aliens emerge from thecapsule and start zapping the onlookers.Who would have thought that the season would have ended insuch a climactic way?Examples:
  34. 34. ClimaticThe adjective climatic derives from the noun climate. Itpertains to the weather.Climate change is defined as the long-term significant change inthe expected patterns of weather.His assessment on the eco-climatic system over Africa is basedsolely on satellite data.Examples:
  35. 35. complement and complimentCompliment is associated with praise.Complement is associated with enhancement.There is often confusion over the words complement and compliment.ComplimentA compliment (with an i) is an expression of praise.My compliments to the chef for such a wonderful starter.(my praise to the chefs)When I said your eyes looked misty, I meant that as a compliment.(I meant that as praise)Tell the cook of this restaurant with my compliments that these are the veryworst sandwiches in the whole world, and that, when I ask for a watercresssandwich, I do not mean a loaf with a field in the middle of it. (Oscar Wilde)(compliments can also mean good wishes, regards or respect)Examples:
  36. 36. ComplementA complement (with an e) is something that enhances something elseor goes well with it. (For example, cranberry sauce is a complement forturkey.) It is not common, but complement can also mean compositionor make-up. (When used, it is often seen in the term full complement,meaning the whole number.)The cashew nuts were an excellent complement for the soup.(cashew nuts went well with the soup)The drums were a perfect complement to their dancing style.(drums enhanced their dancing style)Examples:
  37. 37. The Verbs To Compliment and To ComplementThe examples above all relate to nouns. However, both words existas verbs too.I would like to compliment the pilot on such a smooth landing.(pass praise to the pilot)The jade and silver cufflinks complement the green tie.(go well with the green tie)He has worked hard for many years to break my record. I can onlycomplement him for such terrific dedication.(should be compliment - i.e., offer praise to him)Examples:
  38. 38. THE LETTERS CAN HELP YOU REMEMBERThe word "compliment" has an "i" in it - just like "praise".The word "complement" has an "e" in it - just like "enhancement".COMPLEMENT ALSO MEANS COMPOSITION OR MAKE-UPDo you have a full complement of men for your mission.
  39. 39. I chose brown rice, because I thought its nuttier flavor and smallergrains would the mushrooms better.complement / complimentThe yellow form can be used for complaints,or comments.complements/ complimentsClick on the correct word in each of the following sentences.12
  40. 40. I chose brown rice, because I thought its nuttier flavor andsmaller grains would themushrooms better.Having studied his theory, we can offer an explanation thatJohannes Kepler’s laws.Use sparingly when you meetnew people. If you too often, youmay come across as pathetic.complement / complimentcomplementscompliment s/complementsCompliments/complementcompliment /534
  41. 41. confident, confidant and confidanteA confidant is someone to whom private matters are confided. (The wordsconfidant and confidante are interchangeable, but strict grammariansreserve confidant for males and confidante for females.)Confident relates to being certain or assured. (E.g. I am confident it will rain.)ConfidentThe word confident is nearly always an adjective. Someone with confidence(i.e. not shy and with self-belief) is described as confident. Being confidentalso means to be assured or certain of something that is pending.My theory is that if you look confident you can pull off anything - even if youhave no clue what youre doing. (Jessica Alba)No matter what a woman looks like, if shes confident, shes sexy. (Paris Hilton)And in rejecting an atheistic other world, I am confident that the Almighty Godwill be with us. (President Herbert Hoover)Examples:
  42. 42. ConfidantThe noun confidant denotes someone to whom private or personalmatters are confided (i.e. someone trusted).Finding a confidant can be difficult if you have a hard time placing trustin others.An Egyptian believed to be a close confidant of Bin Laden has been killedin a drone strike.ConfidanteMost people consider the word confidante to be an alternative spellingof confidant. However, some contest that confidante is the femaleversion of confidant, which they reserve for males. If you know theconfidant is a female, I would advise using confidante.Examples:
  43. 43. council and counselA council is a committee elected to lead or govern.Counsel is advice (usually legal advice).To counsel is to advise.Writers occasionally confuse the words council and counsel.CouncilThe noun council denotes an assembly of people who serve in an administrativecapacity. For example, a committee elected to lead or govern could be describedas a council (e.g., a church council, a town council and student council).The emergency session was convened due to the failure of the UnitedNations Security Council to resolve the instability at the Suez Canal.In December 1046, Holy Roman Emperor Henry III established a churchcouncil to reform the papacy.She yelled: "Its not the councils job to sift through your bins for glass."Examples:
  44. 44. CounselThe word counsel is most commonly a verb meaning to give advice. Itis also a noun meaning advice (usually legal assistance) or opinion.Counsel can also refer to a body of people set up to offer advice (usuallylegal advice); e.g., the Queens Counsel, the General Counsel of theArmy.We are seeking staff who can counsel the homeless on where toattain social services.(Counsel is a verb in this example.)The litigation team offers excellent counsel on a wide range ofsubjects.(Counsel is a noun in this example.)After bereavement, who counsels the counselor?Examples:
  45. 45. COUNCILORS AND COUNSELORSCouncilors work in a council.For example:City council sign inAberdeen, ScotlandCounselors work in a counsel.For example:Sign of the General Counselof the Army (US Army)
  46. 46. Superior Court Judge John Pitman denied a request by Paul Denbighfor post-conviction relief that named ineffectiveas a reason to have his case re-examined.In my experience, most young people have no understanding of theright to .counselcouncil /counselcouncil /Click on the correct word in each of the following sentences.12
  47. 47. The General is the Armys chief lawyer, who isultimately responsible for determining the Armys position on anylegal question. It serves as legal to the Secretary,Under Secretary, five Assistant Secretaries and other members ofthe Army Secretariat.I think you stand an excellent chance of winning your case. Yousee, the town under the leadership of themayor is responsible for setting policy. I have appointed you ourtop man, Mr Williams. He is a first-class attorney who providesexcellent to executive teams and boards ofdirectors.counselcouncil /counselcouncil /counselcouncil /counselcouncil /34
  48. 48. course and coarseCoarse means rough or crude.Most commonly, course means:(1) a series of educational lessons (e.g., a French course).(2) A direction (e.g., Thats an odd course to take.)More meanings below...The words coarse and course sound identical, but their meaningsare very different.CoarseThe adjective coarse means rough, crude, of low quality or not fine in texture.coarse sand coarse mannersPerch - a type of coarse fish (notas refined as trout or salmon,which are classified as game fish)
  49. 49. CourseThe word course has many meanings. It can be an adjective, noun or verb.Education delivered in a series of lessonsI took a speed-reading course and read War and Peace in twentyminutes. It involves Russia. (Woody Allen)English course.Also, the students who attendYou have been an excellent course.A direction.A southerly course.The river changed course.
  50. 50. A series of events.The government took an unexpected course.A course of action.To move (of liquids and ships).The German ships coursed the Baltic.The stream coursed through the peat bog.Part of a meal.Were having a three-course meal. The first course is white baitor mussels.To hunt with dogs.Hare coursing. To course after hares.
  51. 51. Naturally.of course.Area of land (or water) for sport.Golf course.Skiing course.ARSE IS COARSEThe British word arse is quite vulgar. In fact, it is coarse. It can,however, serve as a reminder for the meaning of coarse.arse ass
  52. 52. 1234Click on the correct word in each of the following sentences.Do you prefer sea or fishing?Of , Ill hold it steady. Trust me.This sand is too for the cement mix.A sharks skin is extremely .coursecoarse /coursecoarse /coursecoarse /coursecoarse /
  53. 53. immoral and amoralImmoral means morally wrong.Amoral means not related to morality.ImmoralThe adjective immoral means not adhering to moral principles(i.e., deliberately breaking the rules of right and wrong).Stop looking at Peters answers. Your conduct is immoral.Examples:AmoralThe adjective amoral is very technical and quite rare. It means notrelated to morality. It pertains to the noun amorality. Amorality is astate in which the concept of right and wrong is invalid.Deciding which scent you like best is an amoral decision.The scientists try not to consider whether their research is right orwrong. They are encouraged to adopt a totally amoral attitude.Examples: