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Learn who to capitalize letters in your writing correctly. This will improve your writing ability more.

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  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free
  2. 2. CAPITALIZATION RULESShould you write “The king is here” or “The King is here”?This is a very tough question for lots of people.The real question is "When should you capitalize letters?"Although this may seem like a difficult question for lots ofwriters, the answer is quite simple when you know therules. Below, you will find a list of capitalization rules thatwill help you in most writing situations.Rules Exercises
  3. 3. the first word of a sentenceStart a sentence with a capital letter.capitalizeEXAMPLERule 1
  4. 4. names of relatives (to indicate family relationship) whenused with nameEXAMPLEcapitalizeI received a gift from Uncle George, but not from my other not capitalizeproper nounsRule 2
  5. 5. names of relatives when used as proper nameEXAMPLEShe spoke to Mother about the bill, but not to her father.capitalize name do not capitalize relationship
  6. 6. titlesA. preceding a nameEXAMPLEOver 2,000 people attended the rally for Governor Brown.capitalizeEXCEPTION - Do not capitalize titles that follow names.Over 2,000 people attended the rally for Harold Brown, governor of not capitalize
  7. 7. EXCEPTION - Do not capitalize titles used as general not capitalizeThe governor attended the rally today.B. when used in direct addressWe appreciate your hard work, Governor.capitalize
  8. 8. ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR TITLESCapitalize very high ranking government officials titles even whennot followed by a name or used in direct address when a specificindividual is referred to.EXAMPLEThey attended the inauguration of the President of the United States.The Secretary of State walked into the room.capitalizecapitalize
  9. 9. If no specific individual is referred to, do not capitalize titles of even veryhigh ranking government officials.EXAMPLEAmericans know that a president must be 35 years old to run forthe not capitalize (not a specific individual)Capitalize important words in compound titles used with names, but donot capitalize prefixes or suffixes added to the titles.EXAMPLESThe crowed applauded President-elect Obama onto the stage.We learned that ex-Governor Brown will move to not capitalizecapitalizecapitalizedo not capitalize
  10. 10. EXAMPLEcapitalizeHave you read Melville’s great novel, Moby Dick?EXCEPTION - Do not capitalize short prepositions, conjunctions, or articlesunless they are the first word of the titleEXAMPLESmajor words in titles of books, articles, and songsRule 3
  11. 11. EXAMPLESgods: Buddha Zeus God the Father Allahreligious figures: Moses Mohammed the Virgin Maryholy books: the Bible The Koran the Bagavad GhitaEXCEPTION - Do not capitalize the non-specific use of the word "god."The Greeks believed in many not capitalizenames of God, specific deities, religiousfigures, and holy booksRule 4
  12. 12. directions that are names, such as North, South, East, andWest when used as sections of the countryEXCEPTION - Do not capitalize directions when used as compass directionsEXAMPLEcapitalize name of areaThe Patels have moved to the Southwest.Jim lives two miles south of the railway not capitalizeRule 5
  13. 13. days of the week, months of the year, and holidaysEXAMPLEFriday October HalloweenRule 6
  14. 14. Rule 7seasons, when used in a titleEXAMPLEJones tool a course in chemistry during the Spring 2009 semester.capitalizeEXCEPTION - Do not capitalize the names of seasons if they are used generally.This has been a cold winter.Next summer we will take a trip to not capitalizedo not capitalize
  15. 15. Rule 8EXAMPLEcountries, nationalities, and specific languages
  16. 16. Rule 9EXAMPLEperiods and eventsVictorian Era Age of Enlightenment RenaissanceConstitutional ConventionEXCEPTION - Do not capitalize century numbersTechnological advancements revolutionized communicationsin the early twenty-first not capitalize
  17. 17. Rule 10EXAMPLEnames ofnational, political, racial, social, civic, andathletic groupsBaltimore Orioles House of RepresentativesChamber of Commerce Kiwanis Club
  18. 18. Rule 11EXAMPLESPepsi Apple (computers) Sony Starbucks ToyotatrademarksRule 12EXAMPLEthe first word in a sentence that is a direct quote, even if thedirect quote comes in the middle of a sentenceTimidly, the student asked, “May we turn our papers late?”
  19. 19. Rule 13EXAMPLEthe first word of a sentence following a colonJoe’s late arrival at the meeting made no difference: He had nothingimportant to add.EXCEPTION - Do not capitalize the first word of a list following a colon if the listis not a complete sentence.We were asked to bring the following supplies: headphones, alaptop, a pen, some not capitalize
  20. 20. Rule 14EXAMPLEThe first word in each line of most poetryWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not mind me stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with snow.from “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost
  21. 21. Rule 15EXAMPLEthe single-letter word, first person pronoun I.Everyone is aware of the problems I encountered on the trip.salutations and closings in letters - firstword only unless proper name is usedRule 16EXAMPLESalutations: Dear student, My dear friend, My dearest darling love,Closings: Yours truly, Love, With much love, With great affection,
  22. 22. Rule 17EXAMPLEinitials, initialisms, and acronymsInitials with names Millicent R. Stokes J.W. RandolphInitialisms FBI CBS DVD GIS AAA GNPAcronyms SPCOT NASDAQ MADD AIDS
  23. 23. Rule 18EXAMPLEnames of the planetsMars Venus Jupiter Saturn Mercury Neptune EarthNOTE - Experts disagree about whether to capitalize earth, sun, andmoon. For consistency, this author suggests capitalizing them whenthey are used to designate celestial bodies.
  24. 24. ExercisesExercise 1 Exercise 4Exercise 2 Exercise 3
  25. 25. Exercise 1Choose the sentence that has the correct capitalization:1. Which is correct?We saw the Brooklyn Bridge.We saw the Brooklyn bridge.2. Which is correct?Were going to Germany in june.Were going to Germany in June.3. Which is correct?We spent our holidays in the Dominican republic.We spent our holidays in the Dominican Republic.Check Answers
  26. 26. 4. Which is correct?Im starting my job in May.Im starting my job in may.5. Which is correct?We often go to the beach in the summer.We often go to the beach in the Summer.6. Which is correct?I love learning french.I love learning French.Check Answers
  27. 27. 7. Which is correct?The Jamaican man was cooking dinner.The jamaican man was cooking dinner.8. Which is correct?Im pretty bad at Math.Im pretty bad at math.9. Which is correct?One of the courses that I have to take next year is "math 3".One of the courses that I have to take next year is "Math 3".10. Which is correct?I saw Senator Brown in the lobby.I saw senator Brown in the lobby.Check Answers
  28. 28. Choose the sentence that has the correct capitalization:Exercise 21. Which is correct?He was born in New York city.He was born in New York City.2. Which is correct?His parents were from the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan.His parents were from the city of Kalamazoo, Michigan.3. Which is correct?When we were in Washington, we saw President Obama.When we were in Washington, we saw president Obama.Check Answers
  29. 29. 4. Which is correct?The senator was talking to the president.The Senator was talking to the President.5. Which is correct?He was examined by dr. Jones.He was examined by Dr. Jones.6. Which is correct?Many good American writers come from the South.Many good American writers come from the south.Check Answers
  30. 30. 7. Which is correct?Go South for three blocks, then turn right.Go south for three blocks, then turn right.8. Which is correct?They have a cottage on lake Michigan.They have a cottage on Lake Michigan.9. Which is correct?My favorite book is "The Fellowship Of The Ring".My favorite book is "The Fellowship of the Ring".10. Which is correct?FBI stands for "Federal Bureau of Investigation".FBI stands for "Federal bureau of investigation".Check Answers
  31. 31. Choose the sentence that has the correct capitalization:Exercise 31. Which is correct?These are my favorite colors: Blue, red, and pink.These are my favorite colors: blue, red, and pink.2. Which is correct?Did you speak with Mr. Richardson?Did you speak with mr. Richardson?3. Which is correct?He was reading the bible.He was reading the Bible.Check Answers
  32. 32. 4. Which is correct?Both Christmas and new years eve are in December.Both Christmas and New Years Eve are in December.5. Which is correct?He was one of the most famous writers of the sixteenth century.He was one of the most famous writers of the Sixteenth Century.6. Which is correct?He bought me a coke.He bought me a Coke.Check Answers
  33. 33. 7. Which is correct?Would you like some french fries?Would you like some French fries?8. Which is correct?He grew up in the southeastern part of Missouri.He grew up in the Southeastern part of Missouri.9. Which is correct?In basketball news, The Lakers beat The Celtics again.In basketball news, the Lakers beat the Celtics again.10. Which is correct?He received a bachelors degree from the university of Colorado.He received a bachelors degree from the University of Colorado.Check Answers
  34. 34. Tick each word that needs a capital letter.Exercise 41) why didnt you ask me?2) yesterday id have sent it.3) oh, mom, you dont understand me.4) tomorrow grandmother leaves for florida.5) i live in lindon, utah.6) have you and john visited england?Check Answers