Learning Theorist Project


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A PowerPoint presentation discussing Jean Piaget and Cognitivism.

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Learning Theorist Project

  1. 1. Piaget and CognitivismJoel CharbonneauEDUC 2130.01Learning Theorist Project11/29/2012
  2. 2. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) – Early Life Born on August 9, 1896, in Neuchatel, Switzerland Wrote a short paper on an albino sparrow at age 11 —“generally considered as the start of a brilliant scientific career” (Smith, 2000) Developed an interest in mollusks and “became a well-known malacologist by finishing school” (Smith, 2000) Obtained Ph.D. from University of Neuchatel in natural sciences
  3. 3. Piaget – Professional Career Professor of Psychology (or related)  University of Neuchatel  University of Geneva  University of Lausanne  Sorbonne, Paris Director  International Bureau of Education  Institute of Educational Sciences  International Centre for Genetic Epistemology President  Swiss Commission UNESCO  Swiss Society of Psychology  French Language Association of Scientific Psychology  International Union of Scientific Psychology Honorary Doctorates from 31 universities worldwide Twelve international prizes Author of “over sixty books and several hundred articles” (Smith, 2000)
  4. 4. Piaget’s Theory of CognitiveDevelopment “To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience” (McLeod, 2009). Three Elements  Schemas – “building blocks of knowledge”  Process of Adaptation  Stages of Development (McLeod, 2009)
  5. 5. Schemas “Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behavior” (McLeod, 2009). Children build schemas to explain the world around them and attain a state of cognitive balance called equilibrium (McLeod, 2009). Following slide demonstrates a child developing a schema for a dog. Animation created by Daurice Grossniklaus and Bob Rodes (03/2002). Animation can be viewed at http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html if it fails to load.
  6. 6. Stages of Adaptation Assimilation – “using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation” Accommodation – “existing schema does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation” Equilibration - moving from disequilibrium to equilibrium  Disequilibrium – “new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas”  Equilibrium – “schemas can deal with most new information” (McLeod, 2009)
  7. 7. Stages of Development Sensorimotor (0-2 years) – Object Permanence Preoperational (2-7 years) – Egocentrism Concrete Operational (7-11 years) – Conservation Formal Operational (11+ years) – Abstract Reasoning
  8. 8. Teaching Implications Piaget’s theory promoted the idea of the discovery learning, or learn by doing, approach. Teachers should strive for the following:  “Focus on the process of learning, rather than the end product of it;  Using active methods that require rediscovering or reconstructing "truths“;  Using collaborative, as well as individual activities (so children can learn from each other);  Devising situations that present useful problems, and create disequilibrium in the child; and,  Evaluate the level of the childs development, so suitable tasks can be set” (McLeod, 2009).
  9. 9. Criticisms The age ranges of the stages have been questioned, as have the existence of the stages at all. Piaget examines only the biological aspect with no consideration for the socio-cultural aspects of development. “The concept of schema is incompatible with the theories of Bruner and Vygotsky,” and behaviorism (McLeod, 2009).
  10. 10. References McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html Smith, L. (2000). A brief biography of Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html