Who are Canada’s indigenous people?
-Referred to also as First nations, aboriginals and in the north of
-In U.S.A referred to as Native Americans as well
-Colloquially: Indian, Red man, Red Indian.
-They were the people present in Canada before the arrival of
What are some of the problems?
A report done by stats Canada for year 2000 showed that, compared to the rest
-Life expectancy of native males was 7.4 years less and for females 5.2 years
-Birth rate is double and one in five involve teenage mother
-Circulatory disease and injury account for half of mortality
-Natives 1 – 44 injury and poising common cause of death, above 45 circulatory
-Elevated rates of
-Heart Disease 1.5x
-Type 2 diabetes 3-5 x
When did it all start?
-Arrival of Europeans caused many health issues with First nations
-Introduction of alcohol (firewater)
-Introduction of common European diseases
-Forcing of aboriginals onto reserves
-Some of these actions in the past have had lasting effects that are
Alcohol Effects, then and now.
-The effect of alcohol historically caused break down of social
-As young native men were the ones most likely to partake. This
was a problem as they were the main providers for the
-Also caused social breakdown through alcohol induced violence
-Alcoholism has been behaviorally carried down through many
generations, exacerbated by the lack of education
-FAS (Fetal alcohol syndrome) in aboriginal communities is much
higher than the national average.
-Alcohol related deaths 187 per year
-4x the normal rate
What they caught from the Europeans
-Isolation of first nations people made them very susceptible to
common European diseases
-Diseases such as Chicken pox, measles and small pox were deadly
to First nations
-Caused epidemics that destroyed 1/3 to 3/4 of some villages
-Caused social break down as well as the continued health effects.
Result of Displacing the first nations
-By moving First Nations people on to fixed reserves much of their
culture was taken away.
-Cause continual alcoholism.
-Lack of education towards health issues
-Nutrition – circulatory problems
What has been done?
-Programs and support groups for alcoholism
-Incentives for higher education (no fees, allowance)
-Specialized health promotion and services
Why is this still a problem?
-Much of the substance and alcohol abuse as well injury caused
by lost sense of culture.
- Many stay on reserves to preserve what culture is left
-Problems on reserves
-Educational attainment rates lower on all indicators,
secondary, postsecondary and university degrees
-55.8% of homes are considered adequate for living
-15.7% require major repairs
-Behaviorally learned alcohol abuse
-Difficult to provide social programs for isolated reserves
-Continued lower socio-economic status
Photos from google search