Night by Elie Wiesel

A nonfiction journey of
evil and unspeakable
horror that should never
occur again.
Nonfiction: types
• An autobiography is a sketch of the author’s
entire life, often from birth up until the time of
the wr...
Nonfiction: other types
• A biography is the story of a life from
another person’s perspective.
• An essay is a short nonf...
Night by Elie Wiesel
• Autobiographical, memoir
• Focus on observation - describes an
event that the writer witnessed
firs...
Strategies for Reading Nonfiction
• Find the writer’s main points and
support.
• Ask yourself what the author wants you
to...
Background
• Prewar European population: 9.5 million
• Most Jews lived in eastern Europe,
primarily in the Soviet Union an...
Background (2)
• Germany invaded Poland in 1939,
beginning World War II.
• Over the next two years, German forces
conquere...
Background (3)
• Nazi anti-Jewish policy expanded with the
invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
• Mobile killing units mu...
Background (4)
• At the largest extermination camp,
Auschwitz-Birkenau, transports arrived
almost daily from across Europe...
Terms to Know
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Holocaust
Genocide
Ghetto
Prejudice
Discrimination
Kapo
Los
Gestapo

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Race
Et...
Holocaust
• Holocaust means “complete destruction
by fire.”
• The term is now associated with the
murder of more than six ...
Genocide
• Genocide is a word that combines the
Greek word “genos” (meaning race,
people, or nation) and the ending “cide”...
Ghetto
• The confinement of Jews in a set-apart
area of the city.
Prejudice
• Prejudice comes from the word
“prejudge” (pre-judge, or judge
beforehand).
• A prejudice is a preconceived opi...
Discrimination
• Discrimination is when actions are
based upon prejudices, stereotypes,
and biases.
Kapo
• Camp prisoner forced to oversee other
prisoners.
los
• German for “Go on!”
Race
• Any people united by common history,
language, or cultural traits.
• The Dutch race.
Ethnicity
• A shared and distinctive cultural
characteristic pertaining to the
language, religion, background, etc. of
a g...
Anti-Semitism
• Hostility toward or discrimination
against Jewish people.
Euphemism
• A mild or vague term that is substituted
for one that is harsh or offensive.
• “To pass away” is a euphemism f...
Fascism
• A system of government with
centralized authority under a dictator,
stringent socioeconomic controls,
suppressio...
Death camp
• Camps dedicated to the efficient murder
of Jews and other victims;
• E.g. Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec,
Chelmo,...
Concentration camp
• Camps that were primarily used for
slave labor
• Holding camps or
• Transit camps
Names and Places
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Adolf Hitler
Heinrich Himmler
Adolph Eichmann
Rudolph Hess
Dr. Mengele
Aryan Race
Third Re...
Adolf Hitler
“The Fuhrer,” dictator
of Germany
(Chancellor – 1933,
President – 1934), a
demagogue and tyrant
who obtains p...
Heinrich Himmler

The head of the SS.
Adolph Eichmann

Devised the plan for
the Final Solution.
Rudolph Hess

The commander
of Auschwitz.
Dr. Mengele
“The Angel of Death,”
a doctor who
performed brutal,
unnecessary
experiments and
operations upon
prisoners.
Aryan Race
The pure Germanic
race, used by the
Nazis to suggest a
superior, nonJewish Caucasian
typified by height,
blonde...
Third Reich
The Third
Republic of
Germany which
began with
Hitler’s rule in
1933 and ended
with his defeat in
1945.
SS

“Schutz-Staffel” (literally
defense echelon),
established in 1929 as
Hitler’s blackshirted
bodyguards. They
became the...
Gestapo

•The secret police
organized in 1933 to
uncover and undermine
political opposition.
•German acronym for the
Germa...
Dachau
A concentration
camp used as a
model for the
death camps.
Aushwitz
The largest death
camp, located in
Poland.
Theresienstadt
The “model”
concentration camp
used to deceive the
visiting International
Red Cross. Many
artists were
impr...
The Final Solution
The plan devised in 1941 to
speed up the system of killing
the Jews and “undesirables.”
The previous me...
Selection
Term used when the
SS forced prisoners
to line up for
inspection and
decided which
prisoners would live
and whic...
Jewish / Biblical terms to
know
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Cabbala
Hasidism
Job
Kaddish
Maimonides
Messiah
Zohar
Passover
Pentecos...
Cabbala
• Jewish mysticism, including
numerology.
Hasidism
• Movement of Orthodox Judaism with
strong mystical and emotional
elements.
Job
• Biblical figure who has come to
symbolize suffering.
Kaddish
• A prayer in Aramaic praising God. The
mourner’s Kaddish is said for the dead.
Maimonides (1135-1204)
• Jewish rabbi
• Physician
• Philosopher
Messiah
• Greek translation of Hewbrew Mashiach
• The anointed one.
Zohar
• From the Hebrew meaning light or
splendor.
• One of the major works of the Cabbala.
Passover
• Greek word for the celebration of the
exodus of Jewish people from Slavery
in Egypt.
Pentecost
• The celebration of the giving of the
Torah.
Rosh Hashana
• Jewish New Year.
Lazarus
• A man described in the Books of John
and Luke as having been raised from
the dead by Jesus.
Synagogue
• A Jewish house of worship and study.
Talmud
• The most important compilation of
Jewish oral tradition.
Temple
• Holiest place in Judaism, located in
Jerusalem. Biblically ordained
sacrifices were performed here. Built
and des...
Yellow Star
• Nazis forced Jews to wear a cloth
badge with the word Jew written in the
center of a yellow six pointed star...
Yom Kippur
• Day of Atonement.
• Holiest day of Jewish year.
• When the Jews fast and pray for
forgiveness of their sins.
Zionism
• Political movement advocating the
establishment of a Jewish state.
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Night

  1. 1. Night by Elie Wiesel A nonfiction journey of evil and unspeakable horror that should never occur again.
  2. 2. Nonfiction: types • An autobiography is a sketch of the author’s entire life, often from birth up until the time of the writing. • A memoir focuses on one aspect of the writer’s life. Memoirs usually cover a relatively short span of time, and their main purpose is to draw the reader’s attention to a specific theme or circumstance.
  3. 3. Nonfiction: other types • A biography is the story of a life from another person’s perspective. • An essay is a short nonfiction work that addresses a specific subject. • A speech is a talk or an address presented to an audience.
  4. 4. Night by Elie Wiesel • Autobiographical, memoir • Focus on observation - describes an event that the writer witnessed firsthand. • Elie Wiesel - Bearing Witness - invites us to listen, and to remember. “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
  5. 5. Strategies for Reading Nonfiction • Find the writer’s main points and support. • Ask yourself what the author wants you to learn or think about.
  6. 6. Background • Prewar European population: 9.5 million • Most Jews lived in eastern Europe, primarily in the Soviet Union and Poland. • The Nazi party came to power in Germany in 1933. • The Germans moved to extend their power in central Europe, annexing Austria and destroying Czechoslavkia.
  7. 7. Background (2) • Germany invaded Poland in 1939, beginning World War II. • Over the next two years, German forces conquered most of Europe. • The Germans established ghettos in occupied eastern territories, isolating and persecuting the Jewish population.
  8. 8. Background (3) • Nazi anti-Jewish policy expanded with the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. • Mobile killing units murdered Jews, Roma (also called Gypsies), Soviet political commissars and others. • The Germans and their collaborators deported Jews to extermination camps in occupied Poland.
  9. 9. Background (4) • At the largest extermination camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, transports arrived almost daily from across Europe. • By war’s end, almost six million Jews and millions of others had perished in the Holocaust. • Postwar European Jewish Population, ca. 1950: 3.5 million
  10. 10. Terms to Know • • • • • • • • Holocaust Genocide Ghetto Prejudice Discrimination Kapo Los Gestapo • • • • • • • Race Ethnicity Anti-Semitism Euphemism Fascism Death camp Concentration camp
  11. 11. Holocaust • Holocaust means “complete destruction by fire.” • The term is now associated with the murder of more than six million Jewish people during World War II.
  12. 12. Genocide • Genocide is a word that combines the Greek word “genos” (meaning race, people, or nation) and the ending “cide” (meaning to kill). • Genocide refers to the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
  13. 13. Ghetto • The confinement of Jews in a set-apart area of the city.
  14. 14. Prejudice • Prejudice comes from the word “prejudge” (pre-judge, or judge beforehand). • A prejudice is a preconceived opinion or feeling formed without knowledge, thought or reason. • Prejudices are often based on stereotypes.
  15. 15. Discrimination • Discrimination is when actions are based upon prejudices, stereotypes, and biases.
  16. 16. Kapo • Camp prisoner forced to oversee other prisoners.
  17. 17. los • German for “Go on!”
  18. 18. Race • Any people united by common history, language, or cultural traits. • The Dutch race.
  19. 19. Ethnicity • A shared and distinctive cultural characteristic pertaining to the language, religion, background, etc. of a group of people. • Ethnicity generally refers to a minority within a larger society.
  20. 20. Anti-Semitism • Hostility toward or discrimination against Jewish people.
  21. 21. Euphemism • A mild or vague term that is substituted for one that is harsh or offensive. • “To pass away” is a euphemism for “to die.”
  22. 22. Fascism • A system of government with centralized authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship and usually a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.
  23. 23. Death camp • Camps dedicated to the efficient murder of Jews and other victims; • E.g. Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmo, Madjanek, Sobibor, Treblinka. • The terms was also used for concentration camps where thousands died of starvation and disease.
  24. 24. Concentration camp • Camps that were primarily used for slave labor • Holding camps or • Transit camps
  25. 25. Names and Places • • • • • • • Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler Adolph Eichmann Rudolph Hess Dr. Mengele Aryan Race Third Reich • • • • • • • • SS Gestapo Dachau Aushwitz Theresienstadt Selection Ghetto The Final Solution
  26. 26. Adolf Hitler “The Fuhrer,” dictator of Germany (Chancellor – 1933, President – 1934), a demagogue and tyrant who obtains power by appealing to the emotions and prejudices of the masses.
  27. 27. Heinrich Himmler The head of the SS.
  28. 28. Adolph Eichmann Devised the plan for the Final Solution.
  29. 29. Rudolph Hess The commander of Auschwitz.
  30. 30. Dr. Mengele “The Angel of Death,” a doctor who performed brutal, unnecessary experiments and operations upon prisoners.
  31. 31. Aryan Race The pure Germanic race, used by the Nazis to suggest a superior, nonJewish Caucasian typified by height, blonde hair, blue eyes.
  32. 32. Third Reich The Third Republic of Germany which began with Hitler’s rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945.
  33. 33. SS “Schutz-Staffel” (literally defense echelon), established in 1929 as Hitler’s blackshirted bodyguards. They became the elite guards of the Nazis trained in brutality and put in charge of concentration camps.
  34. 34. Gestapo •The secret police organized in 1933 to uncover and undermine political opposition. •German acronym for the German Secret State Police •Part of the SS •Notorious for terrorism against enemies of the state.
  35. 35. Dachau A concentration camp used as a model for the death camps.
  36. 36. Aushwitz The largest death camp, located in Poland.
  37. 37. Theresienstadt The “model” concentration camp used to deceive the visiting International Red Cross. Many artists were imprisoned here and later killed.
  38. 38. The Final Solution The plan devised in 1941 to speed up the system of killing the Jews and “undesirables.” The previous method of shooting and burying the dead was too “costly and inefficient.” This final method used an efficient system of gas chambers and crematories to kill the Jews. Six of these death camps were built and often were kept working round the clock, killing thousands per day.
  39. 39. Selection Term used when the SS forced prisoners to line up for inspection and decided which prisoners would live and which would be killed.
  40. 40. Jewish / Biblical terms to know • • • • • • • • • Cabbala Hasidism Job Kaddish Maimonides Messiah Zohar Passover Pentecost • • • • • • • • Rosh Hashana Lazarus Synagogue Talmud Temple Yellow star Yom Kippur Zionism
  41. 41. Cabbala • Jewish mysticism, including numerology.
  42. 42. Hasidism • Movement of Orthodox Judaism with strong mystical and emotional elements.
  43. 43. Job • Biblical figure who has come to symbolize suffering.
  44. 44. Kaddish • A prayer in Aramaic praising God. The mourner’s Kaddish is said for the dead.
  45. 45. Maimonides (1135-1204) • Jewish rabbi • Physician • Philosopher
  46. 46. Messiah • Greek translation of Hewbrew Mashiach • The anointed one.
  47. 47. Zohar • From the Hebrew meaning light or splendor. • One of the major works of the Cabbala.
  48. 48. Passover • Greek word for the celebration of the exodus of Jewish people from Slavery in Egypt.
  49. 49. Pentecost • The celebration of the giving of the Torah.
  50. 50. Rosh Hashana • Jewish New Year.
  51. 51. Lazarus • A man described in the Books of John and Luke as having been raised from the dead by Jesus.
  52. 52. Synagogue • A Jewish house of worship and study.
  53. 53. Talmud • The most important compilation of Jewish oral tradition.
  54. 54. Temple • Holiest place in Judaism, located in Jerusalem. Biblically ordained sacrifices were performed here. Built and destroyed twice.
  55. 55. Yellow Star • Nazis forced Jews to wear a cloth badge with the word Jew written in the center of a yellow six pointed star.
  56. 56. Yom Kippur • Day of Atonement. • Holiest day of Jewish year. • When the Jews fast and pray for forgiveness of their sins.
  57. 57. Zionism • Political movement advocating the establishment of a Jewish state.

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