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Chapter 6 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199903926935200 3[1]


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Chapter 6 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199903926935200 3[1]

  1. 1. Motivation and Emotion Chapter 6
  2. 2. What Is Motivation? <ul><li>What causes (motivates) behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation = physiological or psychological factors that account for the arousal , direction , and persistence of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of motivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) variability in intensity </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Biological theories </li></ul><ul><li>Instincts are unlearned; more complex than reflexes; triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight or flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altruism? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Drives - Internal motivational states created by physiological needs e.g., need for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Drives produce motivated behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Because drives are aversive, the goal of motivated behavior is drive reduction. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Optimum-level theories: there is a level of arousal at which organisms function best. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: reduce discomfort </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Cognitive-consistency - b/t beliefs and behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., cognitive dissonance: incompatible cognitions provide evidence. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Maslow: motivational needs are arranged in a hierarchy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Multiple motives often results in conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common conflicts are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approach-approach, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoidance-avoidance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approach-avoidance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and multiple approach-avoidance. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Specific Motives <ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors play a key role in determining a person's weight. </li></ul><ul><li>The resting metabolic rate is the rate at which a person burns calories to keep the body functioning. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Body Mass Index (BMI)
  11. 11. Hunger/Weight <ul><li>Set-point </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia-Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>Bulima </li></ul>
  12. 12. Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The commonsense view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional stimulus > emotion > physiological changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James-Lange- physiological changes create emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional stimulus > physiological changes > emotion </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Emotion <ul><li>Cannon-Bard > stresses the role of the thalamus in simultaneously relaying emotional input to the cortex and sympathetic nervous system. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Physiological Components <ul><li>Blushing </li></ul><ul><li>Alexithymia </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Expressive Components <ul><li>Strong evidence for universal recognition of six basic emotions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation = rt brain </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Expressive Components <ul><li>The Duchenne Smile </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Expressive Components <ul><li>Nonverbal communication involves communication through body language, movements, and gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with men, women report more emotional experiences and greater comfort with emotions. </li></ul>