Chapter 5 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199911964958211 2[1]

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Chapter 5 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199911964958211 2[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Learning 1
  2. 2. What is Learning?  Learning: a (relatively) permanent change in behavior. 2
  3. 3. Wundt  Studied images, sensations, feelings “introspectionists” 3
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning Stimulus Reflex Food (US) Salivation (UR) Puff of air Eye Blink Cold Vasoconstriction 4
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning Food Salivation (US) (Elicits UR) Food + Bell Salivation US + CS Elicits UR Bell Salivation Elicits CR 5
  6. 6. Classical Conditioning 6
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning Second order conditioning Bell + Salivation Salivation Will previous pairing make conditioning stronger or weaker? 7
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning  Stimulus Generalization  Stimulus Discrimination 8
  9. 9. Extinction 9
  10. 10. Spontaneous Recovery 10
  11. 11. Physiological Reactions Electric Shock Increase in BP US UR E.S. + Light Increase in BP Light Increase in BP 11
  12. 12. Treatment Drinking Pleasant Flgs UCS ?? CS, UCS, UR, CR?? UCR Antibuse + Alcohol Nausea UCS + CS UCR Alcohol Nausea 12
  13. 13. Operant Conditioning  Grew out of Watson  Taste aversion Class Cond Op Cond Elicits reflex Emits a behavior Forms Association Reward given Responds after presentation Response before any reward 13
  14. 14. Operant Conditioning  Operant conditioning occurs when an organism operates on its environment to produce a change. 14
  15. 15. Operant Conditioning Law of Effect (Thorndike)  Behavior that is rewarded is repeated  Behavior that is not rewarded dies out So, have we learned all of our behaviors because they have been rewarded? 15
  16. 16. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated Behavior that is not reinforced tends to die out. Tested in the Skinner Box 16
  17. 17. Operant Conditioning  Reinforcement increases the frequency of response  Positive reinforcers: presented after the target response  Negative reinforcers: withdrawn or taken away after the target response has been made. [next] 17
  18. 18. Operant Conditioning  Primary reinforcers (food, warmth, sex) satisfy basic biological needs.  Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers (money, toys, praise) are associated with primary reinforces. 18
  19. 19. Operant Conditioning  Positive Reinforcers  Negative Reinforcers  Regardless of direction, reinforcers make behavior more likely 19
  20. 20. Operant Conditioning  Shaping  Systematic desensitization 20
  21. 21. Autoshaping 21
  22. 22. Learned Helplessness 22
  23. 23. Operant Conditioning –Schedules of reinforcement  Interval = time  Fixed-interval = reinforcement after a certain amount of time  Variable interval = reinforcement after varying time interval.  Ratio = number of responses  Fixed-ratio  Variable ratio 23
  24. 24. Operant Conditioning –Schedules of reinforcement Partial vs continuous reinforcement 24
  25. 25. Counterconditioning  CS (fear) + UCS (cookies)  CR is now happy chewing instead of fear/crying  Making kids laugh instead of pout 25
  26. 26. Punishment  A punishment decreases the rate of response 26

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