Chapter 3 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199408234400754 3[1]


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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • Chapter 3 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199408234400754 3[1]

    1. 1. Sensation and Perception Chapter 3
    2. 2. Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><li>Body position </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul>We receive and process information about:
    3. 3. Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics <ul><li>Sensation refers to stimulation or activation of the receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is the organization of what you have sensed. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics <ul><li>Receptors for each sensory system respond to only one type of environmental stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction – physical properties are converted to a form we can perceive. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation occurs when continued presentation of the same stimulus results in a loss of sensitivity. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics <ul><li>Psychophysicists, such as Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner, studied the relationship between the mind and the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Weber: Just noticeable difference (jnd) – The smallest amount of energy that must be added or subtracted to detect change 50% of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Threshold </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sensory Systems Vision <ul><li>Light waves differ in terms of wavelength (hue) or color, anplitude (intensity), and saturation (purity). </li></ul><ul><li>The psychological counterpart of wavelength is color . </li></ul>
    7. 7. Sensory Systems Vision <ul><li>Saturation = “trueness” of only one hue. </li></ul><ul><li>Amplitude = intensity. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Additive and Subtractive Processes of Color Mixing <ul><li>Radiant light is visible energy emitted by an object </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected light is light waves that are reflected from objects </li></ul>
    9. 9. Sensory Systems Vision <ul><li>Sensory systems of the eye consists of Rods and Cones. –The c ones have greater acuity, respond to c olor , and have a higher threshold for activation. About 120 million per eye. –The rods have lower acuity, respond to black and white and shades of gray, and have a lower threshold. About 7 million per eye. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Sensory Systems Vision
    11. 11. Sensory Systems
    12. 12. Sensory Systems Visual Pathways
    13. 13. Two theories of color vision <ul><li>The trichromatic theory proposes that there are three different types of cones; </li></ul><ul><li>The opponent-process theory argues that color-sensitive cells are arranged in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Both theories are supported by research findings. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Opponent-process Theory <ul><li>Pairs of Yellow-Blue and Red-Green Cones </li></ul>
    15. 15. Color Blindness <ul><li>Dichromats lack the ability to see one of the three primary colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Monochromats are unable to see color. </li></ul>Ishihara Plate
    16. 16. Sensory Systems Audition <ul><li>Audition is initiated by the movement of molecules in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Varies by wavelength (frequency), amplitude (intensity), and purity (timbre) </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration of the eardrum starts a chain reaction that results in movement of fluid in the inner ear and the bending of specialized hair cells, which are the receptors for hearing. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sensory Systems
    18. 18. Hearing Disorders <ul><li>Conduction deafness </li></ul>Sensorineural deafness Central deafness
    19. 19. Sensory Systems Gustation <ul><li>Molecules in solution stimulate taste. </li></ul><ul><li>Hairs on taste buds, serve as the receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Each receptors may respond to several tastes, but each one is maximally sensitive to one of four tastes salty, sweet, sour, or bitter. Some people add metallic and alkaline </li></ul>
    20. 20. Gustation
    21. 21. Sensory Systems <ul><li>Molecules in the air stimulate the sense of smell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hairs located in the nasal cavity serve as the receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfaction has a direct connection to the limbic system [next] </li></ul>
    22. 22. Sensory Systems Vestibular Sense <ul><li>The vestibular sense enables us to adjust to different bodily movements. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Sensory Systems Kinesthetic Sense <ul><li>The kinesthetic sense allows us to determine the position of our extremities. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sensory Systems Cutaneous Senses <ul><li>Mechanoreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>Nocioreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoreceptors </li></ul>Cutaneous receptors for pressure, pain, and temperature are located in the skin.
    25. 25. Perception <ul><li>We engage in selective attention because we cannot process all of the stimuli we encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotic listening experiments study divided attention. </li></ul><ul><li>With practice we can learn how to divide our attention effectively. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Perception Size Constancy <ul><li>We experience perceptual constancies when our perception of an object does not change, even though the retinal image. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Shape Constancy <ul><li>Perception of shape remains constant even though image on retina changes. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Depth Perception and Binocular Disparity Close objects translate very fast (brush) and distant objects pass very slow (mountains).
    29. 29. Gestalt Principles of Perception <ul><li>We actively organize our perceptual world into meaningful groups or wholes. </li></ul><ul><li>The figure-ground relation is one of the most basic perceptual organizations. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Gestalt Principles of Perception <ul><li>Proximity </li></ul>
    31. 31. Perception <ul><li>Perceptual hypotheses are inferences about the nature of the stimuli we sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual illusions and ambiguous figures may cause us to develop incorrect perceptual hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Hermann grid </li></ul>
    32. 32. Ames Room In the Ames Room, even the size of a familiar object (such as a person) is perceived largely distorted, because the misleading geometry generates an incorrect frame of reference
    33. 33. Zener Cards
    34. 34. Skeptics Zener Cards, ESP, Telekinesis