Health Psychology
Chapter 14




                     14-1
Health Psychology
• Health psychology is concerned with the
  social and psychological factors that
  influence health and...
Stress and Coping

    Define stress
    A biological reaction to external
       events; hormones are
       released tha...
Stress and Illness
• Stressors are
  demands that give
  rise to the general
  adaptation syndrome
  (GAS), which consists...
Stress and Illness
• Among the circumstances that could lead to stress are
  catastrophes, major life changes such as divo...
Stress and Illness
• Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in
  aftermath of disturbing experience.
• A reliving of the tra...
Stress and Illness
• Everyday minor annoyances can
  accumulate and become associated with
  subsequent health problems.
•...
Stress/Perfomance Connection




                               14-8
Stress and Illness

• A wide variety of stressful events can affect
  immune system functioning.
• These sometimes result ...
Ethnic and Gender Variations in Health


•       Differences in health among blacks and
        whites disappear when hold...
Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk
• The number one cause of death in the
  United States is heart disease.
• There is a...
Heart Disease in Middle Adulthood

•   A) Modifiable Factors   B) Non Modifiable Factors
•   Stress                  • Inc...
Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk
• Type A individuals tend to be aggressive,
  competitive, impatient, and have diffic...
14-14
Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk
• Efforts to change type
  A behavior reduced
  the rate of recurrent
  heart attacks...
Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk
• AIDS is now the 19th leading cause of
  death in the United States (5th among
  35-...
Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk
• Men and women
  differ in their
  likelihood of being
  exposed to infection
  with...
Coping With Stress
• Physical activity is
  associated with
  increased longevity
  and positive benefits
  on physical an...
Coping With Stress
•   Hardiness
•   Outlook
•   Distractions
•   Social Support
•   Sense of humor




                  ...
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Chapter 14 Psych 1 Online Stud 1201055906916477 3[1]

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Chapter 14 Psych 1 Online Stud 1201055906916477 3[1]

  1. 1. Health Psychology Chapter 14 14-1
  2. 2. Health Psychology • Health psychology is concerned with the social and psychological factors that influence health and illness. 14-2
  3. 3. Stress and Coping Define stress A biological reaction to external events; hormones are released that cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) 14-3
  4. 4. Stress and Illness • Stressors are demands that give rise to the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), which consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/livepsych/media/interface/index.htm?atitle=14.1%20Stress%20and%20Selye%27s 14-4
  5. 5. Stress and Illness • Among the circumstances that could lead to stress are catastrophes, major life changes such as divorce, traumatic events and hassles. • Associated with physiological responses such as increased levels of stress hormones • High levels of life change associated with Illness. • Interpretation often determines whether event is stressful. Schedule of Recent Experience: http://www.mindtools.com/stress/ps/ScheduleofRecentExperience.htm Social Readjustment Rating Scale: http://chipts.ucla.edu/assessment/Assessment_Instruments/Assessment_files_ne 14-5
  6. 6. Stress and Illness • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in aftermath of disturbing experience. • A reliving of the traumatic event in dreams, flashbacks, or intrusive thoughts. 14-6
  7. 7. Stress and Illness • Everyday minor annoyances can accumulate and become associated with subsequent health problems. • Psychosomatic illnesses • Conflicts 14-7
  8. 8. Stress/Perfomance Connection 14-8
  9. 9. Stress and Illness • A wide variety of stressful events can affect immune system functioning. • These sometimes result in psychophysiological illnesses http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/livepsych/media/interface/index.htm?atitle=14.2%20Stress%20and%20the%20Immune% 14-9
  10. 10. Ethnic and Gender Variations in Health • Differences in health among blacks and whites disappear when holding SES constant. • Gender also makes a difference in health. – E.g., Arthritis more common in men < 45; in women > 45 14-10
  11. 11. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk • The number one cause of death in the United States is heart disease. • There is a strong association between men and heart disease. 14-11
  12. 12. Heart Disease in Middle Adulthood • A) Modifiable Factors B) Non Modifiable Factors • Stress • Increasing age • High Cholesterol • Male • High Triglycerides • Family History • Low HDL Cholesterol • Lack of Exercise • Diabetes • High Blood Pressure • Overweight or obesity • Smoking / Chewing Tobacco • Type A personality/ Behavior 14-12
  13. 13. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk • Type A individuals tend to be aggressive, competitive, impatient, and have difficulty relaxing. • The Western Collaborative Group Study indicated that a Type A individual was twice as likely to develop heart disease as the more relaxed and easygoing Type B person. • Subsequent studies do not replicate this finding • Type H 14-13
  14. 14. 14-14
  15. 15. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk • Efforts to change type A behavior reduced the rate of recurrent heart attacks as compared with the rate among victims who received typical heart patient counseling
  16. 16. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk • AIDS is now the 19th leading cause of death in the United States (5th among 35-44 yr-olds). • Stress speeds onset of symptoms • AIDS cases among men is substantially higher than the number of cases among women. 14-16
  17. 17. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk • Men and women differ in their likelihood of being exposed to infection with HIV. 14-17
  18. 18. Coping With Stress • Physical activity is associated with increased longevity and positive benefits on physical and psychological health. 14-18
  19. 19. Coping With Stress • Hardiness • Outlook • Distractions • Social Support • Sense of humor 14-19

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