Evaluation of clinical psychology


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Evaluation of clinical psychology

  1. 1. Running head: EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Examination of Clinical Psychology Jody Marvin PSY 480 October 12, 2013 Dr. Char Schultz 1
  2. 2. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 2 Examination of Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology attempts a perfect convergence with the science, knowledge, and theory of human behavior helping individuals with the numerous experiences during the course of a life regarding emotions, relationships, and physical selves (Plante, 2011). Rich history spans from early Greek philosophers to Sigmund Freud cataloguing the evolving nature of clinical psychology. In the present, within modern psychology lies an abundance of information clinical psychologists draw from including science and other realms referring to biopsychosocial factors.The role of research and statistics in clinical psychology lays the foundation for new applications and directions defining the relationship between physical behavioral, biological, and social sciences. Developing the most effective means for intervention and treatment, scientific exploration through empirically validated-based evidence creates effective treatment approaches embracing all aspects of human behavior. Equally important, enhancing the quality of life from and for the human spirit involves an integration of direct services or a collaboration of psychiatrists, social workers, medical doctors, and other specialists concerned with normal, moderate, or severe psychological problems. The future of clinical psychology hangs in the balance between research and practice creating the need for guiding theorists of the 21st century. History of Clinical Psychology The nature and scope of clinical psychology began with a background from ancient and distinct pre-scientific psychology based on theories rather than reliable, valid, scientific research. Understanding of the context of body and mind began with the ancient Greeks exploring biological, psychological, and social influences. As an illustration, Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.) believed an imbalance of four bodily fluids was the primary cause of disease whereas the Middle Ages reverted back to an emphasis on demons and spirits influencing disease and insanity.
  3. 3. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 3 Regardless, Galen formed a holistic theory incorporating the physiological explanations of Hippocrates with Plato‟s metaphysical explanations. The work of Pinel, Bernard, and Rush was the beginning of approaches sough to alleviate psychological dysfunction rather than restraint with simple separation of the dysfunction. The birth of psychology proper followed the publishing of Wundt‟s The Elements of Psychophysics(1850) and Principles of Psychology(1890) by James. Following, in 1896 at the University of Pennsylvania, Lightner Witmer developed and began the first psychological clinic. The focus was on assessment rather than treatment of maladies. Additionally, with the influence in America of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the founding of the American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP) in 1917 and early clinical psychology added to tremendous growth of clinical psychology. Empirical measurement of behavior to the result of understanding the components of the mind became the main force behind psychology. Elsewhere, as tension developed between mainstream psychology and clinical psychology a general understanding of human behavior began leaning toward abnormal or dysfunctional psychology. Evolving Nature of Clinical Psychology Evidence-Based Treatments (EBT) became a concern (Kazdin, 2008) because although support may show effects between and among multiple studies, results reflect no effects or different effects. The first edition of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1907), followed by the first formal classes in clinical psychology, identified the need for Research Centered Treatment (RCT) based on the existing knowledge base and clinical practice (Kazdin, 2008). The first edition of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1907), followed by the first formal classes in clinical psychology, identified the need for Research Centered Treatment (RCT) based
  4. 4. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 4 on the existing knowledge base and clinical practice (Kazdin, 2008). Simultaneously, Sigmund Freud postulated the direct outcome of mental and physical illness results from unconscious conflict and strife. Many decades following his death, the work of Freud molded the direction of clinical psychology, including the expansion of psychological and child guidance centers. As a result of the Boulder Conference (1949), training guidelines for clinical psychologists included a firm understanding of psychotherapy and psychological research. Equally important, World War I discovered the need for recruit classification based on psychological functioning and emotional intelligence. As a result, approximately two million people received the Army Alpha Test, Army Beta Test, and the Psychoneurotic Inventory (developed by Robert Woodsworth, 1917) applicable to large groups of literate and nonliterate individuals. The explosion of psychological testing dominated the professional services of clinical psychologists whereas psychiatrist conducted psychotherapy and treatment for mental illness. Clinical Psychology and Other Branches Apparently a major lawsuit in the late 1980s allowed clinical psychologist‟s expansion into consultation with children, teachers, and parents with behavioral dynamics reflecting research developments. Following the evolving nature of clinical psychology, by the 1970s the field evolved into a respected robust field of study and research. Individuals from every walk of life, from sports super stars to the every-day housewife have a clinical psychologist helping him or her consistently to achieve a very best performance level. Likewise most public and private schools have a clinical psychologist assisting children. Rather than a taboo, becoming an accepted field of psychology, the practice fields and educational fields of clinical psychology continue to grow.
  5. 5. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY The establishment of community health centers and the introduction of psychotropic drugs began a change in the psychological perspective to a humanism, cognitive-behaviorism, and family systems approach. Because no one theory proved to explain the entirety of cognition, dysfunction, and behavior, the biopsychosocial theory incorporates many of the practices from the individual perspectives. As a consequence, revising the historic split between the various branches of psychology may result in Clinical Psychology to assimilate Counseling Psychology (Kinderman, 2009). According to Kinderman (2009), “Mental health services should fully embrace the recovery approach with services commissioned on the basis of individual social need, and functional outcome as much as on the basis of „treatment‟ and clinical outcome,” (p. 16). In addition, evaluation frameworks, new assessments, and preventative health promotion work needs a particular focus to adolescent mental health (Kinderman, 2009). Also cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is implementing strategies developing psychological therapy services (Turpin et al., 2006 as cited in Kinderman, 2009, p. 17). Bilewicz (2009) proposes a shift toward positive psychology with a perspective on human strengths and mental health. Additionally, promoting personal fulfilment through perspective taking and intergroup helping intentions will increase the level that people are willing to help each other while working with multicultural/diverse populations. Professional psychology recognizes the specialty that clinical psychologuy is a general practice and health service provider. In contrast couseling psychology helps individuals with normal or moderate psychological problems. Fewercouseling psychology graduate programs exist and are normally housed in education departments rather than psychological departments. Generally concerned with social problems, their causes, and their solutions, clinical social workers provide a variety of services. Knowledgeable of community mental health services 5
  6. 6. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 6 available they empower clients to obtain such services. Generally employed at government subssidized community centers, mental health care is affordable by members of the community resulting in low fees and greater availability. With special training involving a two-year program, including at least one-year practicum clinical social workings may also provide psychological counseling. Although seven branches exist in the realm of psychology psychiatrists, psychologists, couselors, and social workers discover an overlap in services to ameliorate mental distress, prevent mental disorders, or improve mental health (DiVail, Zikaras, Copeland, & Gonyeau, 2010). Psychiatrists begins training as a medical practictioner but continues to grow with specialized training in treating mental disorders, including examples such as schizophrenia, severe depression, and bipolar disorders. The addition biomedical approach consists of prescribing and monitoring medications, psychiatric ward admissions, investigative procedures such as electroencephalographs (EEG), and brain imaging procedure scans such as computer assisted tomography (CAT). Fees of psychiatrists are generally higher because of medical status and long training. In contrast because clinical psychologists do not prescribe medications there is a growing movement for the biomedical approaches toward clinical psychologists prescribing privileges requiring additional education and trainiong (DiVail, Zikaras, Copeland, & Gonyeau, 2010). In the same way clinical psychologists are a general practice and health service provider, school psychologyapplies the science and practice with developmental psychology to learners of all ages and their families. Promoting educational and personal development of the students includes the protection of students rights regarding developmental disabilities or learning disabilities (DiVail, Zikaras, Copeland, & Gonyeau, 2010). Psycho-educational evaluation,
  7. 7. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 7 program development, consultations with parents and students assist school psychologists with interventions at systems levels and individual student levels. Practicing in a variety of environemtns, school psychologists are in public and private schools, forensic settings, hospitals, clinics, and in independent practice (Kazdin, 2008). Research and Statistics in Clinical Psychology The application of findings from psychotherapy research is one guide to clinical work, Concerns exists from those in research regarding how clinical work is conducted (Kazdin, 2008). Shifts in emphases regarding research and practice will ensure and improve patient care hoping to eliminate the perceived and genuine hiatus divide between research and practice. Providing a body of evidence guiding clinical practice includes empirically supported methods of treatment and prevention. The relationship between psychological factors and physical disease finds a foundation in empirically validated methods regarding assessment. Unfortunately, effective interventions, psychological tests, and other assessments methods or Evidence-Based Treatments (EBT) eliminate clinical experiences as a source for hypothesis and ideas. Consequently, single-case designs study one individual at a time whereas multisided, large-scale studies involve hundreds of participants. Controlled laborites and naturalistic settings, such as clinics or schools are only a few of the many settings clinical psychologists conduct research. Additionally, data analysis ranges from complex multivariate statistics to the singlecase study using non-statistical methods. The answer to a history of objections and reservations hopes to eliminate generalizing. Establishing the need for individual treatment to meet the needs of individual patients will help eliminate generalizing (Kazdin, 2008). Concurrently, the influx of new treatments in child and adolescent therapy continues to grow without the study in controlled or uncontrolled trials.
  8. 8. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 8 Refocusing research and practice on patient care, needs the experience and expertise of clinical psychologists regarding the identity of mechanisms to change (Kazdin, 2008). Intensive and systematic research involved with qualitative research methods provides an understanding of the individual experiences. Systematic evaluation includes monitoring treatment effects and permits finer delineations of therapeutic change allowing psychology to profit from clinician and patient experience regarding various treatments. Conclusion To summarize, the investigation of the human condition looks for the relationship between psychology and physiology. The investigation began with the first theory of interplay between the metaphysical to the first postulations of a biological foundation for mental illness. As the applied approach rose in the 19th and 20th centuries the emphasis on a hands-on method to approach mental illness was adopted conflicting with the empirical, scientific ascertainable explanations. Although research and statistics is a corrective instrument, the blending of other perspectives creates the biopsychosocial interventions and treatments. Concurrently, the individual process of possible recovery and understanding of the malady promotes enhancement of functioning in social and behavioral maladjustment. Whether discussing the psychiatrist, counseling psychologist, or social worker, the main goal of all psychological disciplines (with an emphasis on clinical psychology) is to promote a better quality of life from and for the human spirit (Goodwin, 2012).
  9. 9. EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 9 References Bilewicz, M. (2009). Perspective taking and intergroup helping intentions: The moderating role of power relations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 2779-2786. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00548.x DiVail, M., Zikaras, B., Copeland, D., & Gonyeau, M. (2010). School-wide clinical intervention system to document pharmacy students' impact on patient care. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(1), 1-8. Goodwin, J. (2012). A history of modern psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Kazdin, A. (2008). Evidence-based treatment and practice: New opportunities to bridge clinical research and practice, enhance the knowledge base, and improve patient care. American Psychologist, 63(3), 146-159. Kinderman, P. (2009). The future of counseling psychology: A view from outside. Counseling Psychology Review, 24(1), 16-21. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.comezproxy.apollolibrary Plante, T. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &