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Problematic citations--iSchool research showcase--2018-10-31

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Faculty presentation at the iSchool Research Showcase, 2018-10-31

The structure of citation networks provides evidence about how scientific information is diffused. Problematic citation patterns include the selective citation of positive findings, citation bias, as well as the continued citation of retracted literature (i.e. literature formally withdrawn due to error, fraud, or ethical problems). Previously, the detection of problematic citation patterns has been a side effect of astute researchers, noticing suspicious findings while conducting systematic literature reviews. This talk will describe work-in-progress in my lab detecting problematic citation patterns.

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Problematic citations--iSchool research showcase--2018-10-31

  1. 1. Problematic Citations Jodi Schneider @jschneider jodi@illinois.edu ISSA iSchool Research Showcase 2018-10-31
  2. 2. Problematic Citation • Citation of retracted literature • Bibliographic ghosts • Misrepresenting cited work • Cherry picking • Ignoring related work outside a clique • Playing telephone with review papers
  3. 3. Problematic Citation • Citation of retracted literature • Bibliographic ghosts • Misrepresenting cited work • Cherry picking • Ignoring related work outside a clique • Playing telephone with review papers
  4. 4. Citing retracted papers Retraction Watch, from Top 10 most highly cited retracted papers Article Year of retraction Citing Articles before retraction Citing Articles after retraction 1. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. N Engl J Med, 2013 2018 1792 79 2. Visfatin: A protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin. SCIENCE, 2005 2007 224 977 3. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. LANCET, 1998 2010 647 512
  5. 5. Citing retracted papers A visual analytic study of retracted articles in scientific literature
  6. 6. 134 citations to a retracted clinical trial with faked data Schneider & Ye in preparation, updating Fulton et al 2015
  7. 7. 2715 citations of citations to clinical trial with faked data Schneider & Ye in preparation, updating Fulton et al 2015
  8. 8. What is needed to address citation of retracted literature? • A database of retractions • A database of citations • Alert authors/editors before they finalize a bibliography: – Do you know this paper is retracted? • Don’t cite, or mention the retraction • When a paper is newly retracted: – Notify authors/editors who already cited it
  9. 9. Retraction Detector Schneider & Kansara Input reference strings Visfatin: A protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin. SCIENCE, JAN 21 2005 Renear, A. H., & Palmer, C. L. (2009). Strategic reading, ontologies, and the future of scientific publishing. Science, 325(5942), 828-832. Outputs retracted papers (in PubMed)
  10. 10. Use citation context to make this smarter Schneider & Cui
  11. 11. There’s lots of work to be done • Talk to me if you are interested (independent study, hourly work, research assistantship) • Both LIS & IM skillsets are needed • Talk to my lab at the poster session! – Di, Yogeshwar, Victor – Ben, Linh
  12. 12. Chen, Chaomei, Zhigang Hu, Jared Milbank, and Timothy Schultz. (2013) "A visual analytic study of retracted articles in scientific literature." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64(2): 234-253. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22755 Dubin, David. (2004) "The most influential paper Gerard Salton never wrote." Library Trends 52(4):748–764. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/1697 Duyx, Bram, Miriam JE Urlings, Gerard MH Swaen, Lex M. Bouter, and Maurice P. Zeegers. (2017) "Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and childhood asthma: a network analysis." Research Integrity and Peer Review 2(1): 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-017-0041-z Fulton, Ashley S., Alison M. Coates, Marie T. Williams, Peter RC Howe, and Alison M. Hill. (2015) "Persistent citation of the only published randomised controlled trial of omega-3 supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease six years after its retraction." Publications 3(1): 17-26. https://10.3390/publications3010017 Greenberg, Steven A. (2009) "How citation distortions create unfounded authority: analysis of a citation network." BMJ 339: b2680. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2680 Greenberg, Steven A. (2011) "Understanding belief using citation networks." Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17(2): 389-393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2753.2011.01646.x Marshall, Joe, and Conor Linehan. (2017) "Misrepresentation of health research in exertion games literature." Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 4899-4910. https://doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025691 Schrag, Matthew, Claudius Mueller, Udochukwu Oyoyo, Mark A. Smith, and Wolff M. Kirsch. (2011) "Iron, zinc and copper in the Alzheimer's disease brain: a quantitative meta-analysis. Some insight on the influence of citation bias on scientific opinion." Progress in neurobiology 94(3): 296-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.05.001

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