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Persons, documents, models: organising and structuring information for the Web--2015-06-23

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A talk for the Moore Institute for Humanities -

People and documents are of enduring interest. Documents may be generated by individuals, collective groups, and administrations, on any number of topics. We are particularly interested in the relationships between people and documents. The most important relationships are creation (authors, illustrators, translators, ...), usage (e.g. association copies), and topic-of (e.g. people may be the subjects of biographies).

In this lecture, we will talk about several approaches for modeling, or representing, people and documents. We pay particular attention to computer-based approaches to organization, and to organizing information for websites. We will talk briefly about TEI and XML, and the focus on my area of research expertise: modeling "linked data", a widely adopted approach for interlinking data. Adopted by the UK and US governments and search engines such as Google and Yahoo!, linked data has also been widely used in the digital humanities and by libraries, archives, and museums. It consists in naming objects of interest (be they authors, documents, or whatnot) and using standard data formats to enable interlinking.

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Persons, documents, models: organising and structuring information for the Web--2015-06-23

  1. 1. Persons, documents, models: organising and structuring information for the Web Jodi Schneider Moore Institute Visiting Fellow jschneider@pobox.com @jschneider Moore Institute for Humanities National University of Ireland, Galway 4PM Tuesday June 23rd, Room G010
  2. 2. • Examples of persons and documents that we might want to represent on the Web • What to think about when organising and structuring documents for the Web. • Using identifiers & Linked Data • How is Linked Data different from other structured data used in digital humanities? (e.g. TEI, XML) Objectives
  3. 3. People
  4. 4. http://columbanus2015.eu/2012/02/09/hello-world/
  5. 5. http://aransongs.blogspot.ie/2012/10/don-gcead-bhlag-seo-uaim-thograios.html
  6. 6. http://www.nuigalway.ie/mooreinstitute/people/
  7. 7. http://landedestates.nuigalway.ie:8080/LandedEstates/jsp/family-show.jsp?id=490
  8. 8. Documents
  9. 9. What counts as a document? http://demo.ossianonline.org/texts/1/fragments-of-ancient-poetry
  10. 10. What counts as a document?
  11. 11. What counts as a document? • "A document is evidence in support of a fact." - Suzanne Briet
  12. 12. What counts as a document? • "A document is evidence in support of a fact." - Suzanne Briet
  13. 13. http://aransongs.blogspot.ie/2012/10/don-gcead-bhlag-seo-uaim-thograios.html
  14. 14. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile
  15. 15. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile Documents we have: • the blog post • the image
  16. 16. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile Documents we have: • the blog post • the image Potential documents: • a song recording • the cottage
  17. 17. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile Documents we have: • the blog post • the image Potential documents: • a song recording • the cottage
  18. 18. Documents ABOUT a document • Provenance • Oral history • …
  19. 19. People as documents? • To the extent that people serve as "evidence", they could be ALSO be modelled as documents.
  20. 20. Organising and Structuring Documents
  21. 21. Aspects to consider • Document type • Document features • What the document evidences
  22. 22. Aspects to consider • Document type – Text – Image – Sound – Audiovisual – Map – If a combination of one or more of these – can it be broken down further? • Document features • What the document evidences
  23. 23. Aspects to consider • Document type • Document features – Natural structure? – Affordances? • What the document evidences
  24. 24. Linked Data for Modeling Documents
  25. 25. Where Linked Data is used • Mass Media – BBC – New York Times – Guardian • Scholarly Publishers – Nature – CrossRef • Data Publishers – USData.gov – Data.gov.uk – Central Statistics Office • Libraries
  26. 26. • Using identifiers • to enable access • to add structure • to link to other stuff What is Linked Data?
  27. 27. Identifiers
  28. 28. http://aransongs.blogspot.ie/2012/10/don-gcead-bhlag-seo-uaim-thograios.html
  29. 29. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile Places
  30. 30. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile People
  31. 31. "an image I found in the James Hardiman Library here at NUI Galway, an image showing a man from Cill Mhuirbhigh, Pat Pheaidí Hernon (1903-1989), singing a song while his neighbour Neain Mhaidhc Mhóir Hernon sits in the fireplace of the ‘Man of Aran’ cottage." - Deirdre Ní Chonghaile Types of things
  32. 32. Why use identifiers? • Make what you are talking about unambiguous • Pull in information from elsewhere – images, descriptions, … – from works describing the same people, places, types of things
  33. 33. Large, growing body of linked data
  34. 34. How is Linked Data different from TEI & XML
  35. 35. – Using identifiers – to enable access – to add structure – to link to other stuff What is Linked Data?
  36. 36. What does TEI make explicit? structural divisions within a text title-page, chapter, scene, stanza, line, etc typographical elements changes in typeface, special characters, etc other textual features grammatical structures, location of illustrations, variant forms, etc Slide credit: Susan Schreibman
  37. 37. XML as a tree Document Paragraph Sentence Sentence Sentence Paragraph Sentence Sentence Remember, everything must nest properly! We use family tree terms: parent, child, sibling, ancestor, and descendent. Slide credit: Susan Schreibman
  38. 38. Linked Data: Graphs are more than trees
  39. 39. • Examples of persons and documents that we might want to represent on the Web • What to think about when organising and structuring documents for the Web. • Using identifiers & Linked Data • How is Linked Data different from other structured data used in digital humanities? (e.g. TEI, XML) Objectives

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