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Dimensions of argumentation in social media EKAW2012 2012 10 11

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Paper presentation for EKAW 2012, The 18th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management.

Position paper with Brian Davis and Adam Wyner: http://jodischneider.com/pubs/ekaw2012.pdf

Conference website: http://ekaw2012.ekaw.org/

Abstract: Mining social media for opinions is important to governments and businesses. Current approaches focus on sentiment and opinion detection. Yet, people also justify their views, giving arguments. Understanding arguments in social media would yield richer knowledge about the views of individuals and collectives. Extracting arguments from social media is difficult. Messages appear to lack indicators for argument, document structure, or inter-document relationships. In social media, lexical variety, alternative spellings, multiple languages, and alternative punctuation are common. Social media also encompasses numerous genres. These aspects can confound the extraction of well-formed knowledge bases of argument. We chart out the various aspects in order to isolate them for further analysis and processing.

Published in: Technology
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Dimensions of argumentation in social media EKAW2012 2012 10 11

  1. 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Dimensions of Argumentation in Social Media Jodi Schneider1, Brian Davis1, and Adam Wyner2 1Digital Enterprise Research Institute, NUI Galway 2Department of Computer Science, University of Liverpool EKAW, Galway, Ireland Thursday 11th October 2012 Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Enabling Networked Knowledge 1
  2. 2. Want to reuse social media dataDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Growing amount of social media data  Want to reuse data  Need to analyse & structure it Enabling Networked Knowledge
  3. 3. Key PointDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The overall popularity of an opinion is not as important as the reasons supporting it Image: http://www.nickmilton.com/2012/03/when-people-trust-crowds.html Enabling Networked Knowledge
  4. 4. ArgumentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Claim: Jaffa Cakes are cakes Justification: official EU ruling; cakes go hard when stale https://twitter.com/robeastaway/status/135838892694839296 Enabling Networked Knowledge 4
  5. 5. ArgumentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Claim: If Canon does not make the repair, you should take them to small claims court.  Justification: it’s easy, cheap, and can be done online; it’s within your rights Enabling Networked Knowledge 5
  6. 6. Knowledge bases of social mediaDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Growing amount of social media data  Want to reuse data  Need to analyse & structure it Envision: Knowledge bases of social media  Query  Make a representation we can reason with – even in the face of inconsistency. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  7. 7. Oops!Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  People disagree  Inconsistency is bad for knowledge bases!  How do we reconcile & resolve the inconsistencies? Enabling Networked Knowledge
  8. 8. Argumentation to the Rescue!Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  People disagree  Inconsistency is bad for knowledge bases!  How do we reconcile & resolve the inconsistencies?  Argumentation!  Claims  Justifications  Contrary Claims & Disagreements… Enabling Networked Knowledge
  9. 9. Formal RepresentationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Argumentation Frameworks  Variety of Semantics – can be used to choose best options Enabling Networked Knowledge
  10. 10. Calculate best optionsDigital Enterprise Research Institute (non-contradictory opinions) www.deri.ie Wyner, van Engers, & Bahreini. From Policy-making Statements to First-order Logic. EGOV 2010 Enabling Networked Knowledge 10
  11. 11. Formal RepresentationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Argumentation Schemes  Appeal to Expert Opinion  Appeal to Popular Opinion  From Analogy  Slippery Slope  ....  Indicate Relevant “Critical Questions” for a discussion  Patterns for Information Extraction (SWAIE 2012) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  12. 12. John Danaher, http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.ie/2010/03/argumentation-schemes-part-1.html
  13. 13. GoalDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Extract arguments from text.  Reconstruct argumentation into formal representations.  Make a representation that we can reason with even in the face of inconsistency. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  14. 14. How to automate?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  What aspects of social media are relevant to extracting and representing argumentation? Enabling Networked Knowledge
  15. 15. Dimensions of (Argumentative)Digital Enterprise Research Institute Expression www.deri.ie  Genre  Metadata  Properties of users  Goals of a particular dialogue  Context  Informal language  Implicit info  Sentiment techniques  Subjectivity and objectivity Enabling Networked Knowledge
  16. 16. Genre 16
  17. 17. Metadata 17
  18. 18. Properties of UsersDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 18
  19. 19. GoalsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! " % ( )*+, ( #$ & -. " #$ 1 #/ % / )0" . 2#3/ 4" #. 15 % , 6)7 #$ 7 % )% )! " % ( #$ 8 #$ & Find and Verify -. 9 "3+ Need to Have Proof Prove (Disprove) Hypothesis Evidence Need to Find an Find and Defend a ! " : ( 3+ 64% Choose Best Hypothesis for Testing Explanation of Facts Suitable Hypothesis Acquire or Give -. 8 3; #/ % < ( =" & % . 0( . Need Information Exchange Information Information Dilemma or Practical Coordinate Goals and ! ( $>( 3 % " #/ . Decide Best Available Course of Action Choice Actions 2( 36 #6" . % Conflict of Opinions Persuade Other Party Resolve or Clarify Issue Get What You Most ? ( & / #/ % % . Conflict of Interests Reasonable Settlement Both Can Live With Want Verbally Hit Out at @ 6/ 4 3" Personal Conflict Reveal Deeper Basis of Conflict Opponent Enabling Networked Knowledge 19
  20. 20. Goals of #election2012 tweets?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 20
  21. 21. Related PapersDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Schneider and Wyner. “Identifying Consumers Arguments in Text”, SWAIE 2012 at EKAW 2012.  Wyner, Schneider, Atkinson, and Bench-Capon. “Semi-Automated Argumentative Analysis of Online Product Reviews.” In 4th International Conference on Computational Models of Argument (COMMA 2012).  Wyner and Schneider. Arguing from a point of view, Agreement Technologies 2012. 21 Enabling Networked Knowledge October 9, 2012
  22. 22. AcknowledgmentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Project Funding  Science Foundation Ireland Grant No. SFI/08/CE/I1380 (Líon-2)  Short-term scientific mission (STSM 1868) from the COST Action ICO801 on Agreement Technologies  FP7-ICT-2009-4 Programme, IMPACT Project, Grant Agreement Number 247228 Enabling Networked Knowledge 22
  23. 23. Thanks!Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Questions?  Contacts:  Jodi Schneider jodi.schneider@deri.org @jschneider  Brian Davis brian.davis@deri.org  Adam Wyner adam@wyner.info Enabling Networked Knowledge
  24. 24. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Examples of Arguments in Social Media Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Enabling Networked Knowledge 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. ArgumentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Claim: Jaffa Cakes are cakes Justification: official EU ruling; cakes go hard when stale https://twitter.com/robeastaway/status/135838892694839296 Enabling Networked Knowledge 26
  27. 27. 27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Heath_Totten
  28. 28. ArgumentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Claim: does not merit an article Justification: hasn’t played since 2008, mediocre record Enabling Networked Knowledge 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. http://www.amazon.co.uk/review/R34F9M7871K2W0/ref=cm_cr_rev_detmd_pl?ie=UTF8&asin=B004M8S152&cdForum=FxM7A99WYT0UJ9&cdMsgID=Mx35ZEPGH4SV7JK&cdMsgNo=1&cdPage=1&cdSort=oldest&cdThread=Tx1C124R97075W9&store=photo#Mx35ZEPGH4SV7JK 30
  31. 31. ArgumentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Claim: If Canon does not make the repair, you should take them to small claims court.  Justification: it’s easy, cheap, and can be done online; it’s within your rights Enabling Networked Knowledge 31
  32. 32. http://www.vangrondelle.com/2010/10/ekaw-2010/
  33. 33. ArgumentsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Claim: The in-use paper category is important.  Justification: Provides a platform for research scaling up to enterprise scale. Enabling Networked Knowledge 33
  34. 34. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie etc Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Enabling Networked Knowledge 34
  35. 35. Using ArgumentationDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Mark & help resolve inconsistencies  Provide justifications & explanations Enabling Networked Knowledge 35
  36. 36. Formalism: AbstractDigital Enterprise Research Institute argumentation frameworks www.deri.ie AF = hA; attacki, where A is a set of arguments and attack a binary relation on A. A variety of semantics are available to evaluate the arguments. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  37. 37. Formalism:Digital Enterprise Research Institute argumentation schemes www.deri.ie  Presumptive patterns of reasoning  Position To Know  1. Ms. Peters is in a position to know whether Mr. Jones was at the party.  2. Ms. Peters asserts that Mr. Jones was at the party.  3. Therefore, presumptively, Mr. Jones was at the party. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  38. 38. Key PointDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The overall popularity of an opinion is not as important as the reasons supporting it Image: http://www.nickmilton.com/2012/03/when-people-trust-crowds.html Enabling Networked Knowledge
  39. 39. Key PointDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie overwhelming numbers of people may not matter Photograph DAVID GILES/PA NEWS WIRE/AP PHOTO - February 7, 2011 New Yorker via http://www.vincentskeltis.com/blog/2011/2/7/crowd-crush.html Enabling Networked Knowledge
  40. 40. Key PointDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie as much as a particular reason against it http://www.mirror.co.uk/3am/celebrity-news/crowd-crush-mars-jls-no1-431245 Enabling Networked Knowledge
  41. 41. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge

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