Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 4Learning Objectives:• Differentiate the various social sciencetheories• Explain the relationship of the varioussocial theories- the conflict, consensus,functionalism and interactionist theories-and educational systems• Discuss how the various social theoriesaffect the functions of schools
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 5Introduction:• Sociology, the scientificstudy of human social behavior.As the study of humans in theircollective aspect, sociology is concernedwith all group activities: economic, social,political, and religious.• Sociologists see education as one majorinstitutions that constitutes society.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 6While theories guide research and policyformulation in the sociology of education,they also provide logical explanations forwhy things happen the way they do.• These theories help sociologistsunderstand educational systems.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 7Discussion:Consensus and Conflict Theory• Consensus is a general or widespreadagreement among all members of aparticular society.• Conflict is a clash between ideas andprinciples and people.Dahrendorf (1968 ) Ritzer (2000)
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 8CONSENSUS• Shared norms andvalues as fundamentalto society• Focus on social orderbased on tacitagreement• Social change occurs inslow and orderlyfashionCONFLICT• Emphasize thedominance of somesocial groups• See social order asmanipulation andcontrol by dominantgroups• Social change occursrapidly and in disorderlyfashion as subordinategroups overthrowdominant groupsDiscussion:
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 9CONSENSUS• Examine value integrationin society• Absence of conflict isseen as the equilibriumsets on a society basedon a general orwidespread agreementamong all members of aparticular societyCONFLICT• Examine conflicts ofinterest and coercionthat holds societytogether• Can be COVERT orOVERT• Focus on theheterogeneous natureof society and thedifferential distributionof political and socialpowerDiscussion:
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 10Discussion:• Schools contribute to theunequal distribution ofpeople into jobs insociety.• Powerful members-bestpositions• Less powerful groups(minority, ethnic, racial,women) - lowest rankWhat is theimpact of conflicttheory in thePhilippineeducationsystem?
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 11Discussion:• Education plays inmaintaining theprestige, power,and economic andsocial position ofthe dominant groupin society.What is therole ofeducation inassuming theconflicttheory?
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 12Discussion:• Max Weber- schoolsteach and maintainparticular “statuscultures”• Schools arehomogenous in theirstudent bodies.• Education system trainsindividuals in specialtiesto fill needed positions orprepare “cultivatedindividuals”Status culturesrefer to groupsin society withsimilarinterests andpositions in thestatushierarchy.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 13Discussion:• Conflict theory assumesthat social behavior isbest understood in termsof conflict or tensionsbetween competinggroup.• Conflicts need not beviolent; it can take theform of labornegotiations, partypolitics, competitionbetween religious groupsHow dopeople or anorganizationsettle aconflict ?
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 14Discussion:• The conflict theorists are interested in howsociety’s institutions-the family,government, religion, education, and themedia-may help o maintain the privilegesof some groups and keep others insubservient position.• Emphasis on social change andredistribution of resources makes conflicttheories more “radical” and “activist”» (Schaefer, 2003)
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 15Discussion:• The consensus theory is a sociologicalperspective or collection of theories, inwhich social order and stability/socialregulation form the base of emphasis.• It is concerned with the maintenance orcontinuation of social order of society, inrelation to accepted norms, values, rules,and regulations of society»
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 16Discussion:The Conflict Model
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 17Discussion:The proponents of consensus and conflictsociological and social theories are: Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber Talcott Parsons & Robert Merton Louis Althusser & Ralph Dahrendorf herbert Mead & Herbert Blumer
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 18Discussion:Structural FunctionalismStructural Functionalism states that societyis made up of various institutions that worktogether in cooperation.Parsons’ structural functionalism has fourfunctional imperativesalso knownas AGILscheme.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 19Discussion:Structural Functionalism1. Adaptation – a system must cope withexternal situational exigencies. It mustadapt to its environment and adaptenvironment to its needs.2. Goal attainment- a system must defineand achieve its primary goals.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 20Discussion:Structural Functionalism3. Integration- a system must regulate theinterrelationship of its component parts. Itmust also manage the relationship amongthe other three functional imperatives(A,G,L)4, Latency (pattern maintenance)- a systemmust furnish, maintain and renew both themotivation of individuals and the culturalpatterns that create and sustain themotivation.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 21Discussion:Structure of the General Action System (Ritzer 2000)Cultural system(Latency Function)providing actors with thenorms and values thatmotivate them for actionSocial system(Integration Function)controlling itscomponents partsAction system(Adaptation Function)adjusting to andtransforming to theexternal worldPersonality system(Goal Attainment)defining system goalsand mobilizingresources to attain them
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 22Discussion:Structural FunctionalismParson’s answer to the problem of order inStructural Functionalism1. Property of order and interdependence ofparts2. Self-maintaining order or equilibrium3. Maybe static or involved4. Nature of one part has an impact on theforms that the other parts can take.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 23Discussion:Structural FunctionalismParson’s answer to the problem of order inStructural Functionalism5. Maintain boundaries with their environments.6. Allocation and integration are twofundamental process necessary for a givenequilibrium7. Self-maintenance involving the maintenanceof relationships of parts to whole
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 24Discussion:Structural FunctionalismParson’s social system begins at the microlevel with interaction between the ego andalter – ego, defined as the mostelementary form of the social system. Hewas interested in such a large-scalecomponents of social systems ascollectiveness, norms and values. Parsonswas not simply a structuralist but also aFUNCTIONALIST.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 25Discussion:Structural FunctionalismFunctional Requisites of a social system1.Social system must be structured so that theyoperate compatibly with other systems.2.To survive, the social system must haverequisite from other systems.3.The system must meet a significantproportion of the needs of its actors.4.The system must elicit adequate participationfrom its members.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 26Discussion:Structural FunctionalismFunctional Requisites of a social system5. It must have at least a minimum of controlover potentially disruptive behavior.6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, itmust be controlled.7. Finally, a social system requires a languagein order to survive.-Talcott Parsons
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 27Discussion:Structural FunctionalismThe functionalist perspective is primarilyconcerned with why society assumes aparticular form.It assumes that any society takes its particularform because that form works well for thesociety given its particular situation.Societies exist under a wide range ofenvironmental situations.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 28Discussion:Structural FunctionalismKey principles of the functionalist theory byFarley 1990.1.Interdependency2.Functions of social structure and culture3.Consensus and cooperation4.Equilibrium
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 29Discussion:Structural FunctionalismKey principles of the functionalist theory byFarley 1990.1.Interdependency – every part of society isdependent to some extent on the other partsof the society, so that what happens at oneplace in society has important effectselsewhere.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 30Discussion:Structural FunctionalismKey principles of the functionalist theory byFarley 1990.2. Functions of Social Structure and CultureSocial Structure refers to the organization ofsociety, including its institutions, its socialpositions and distribution of resources.Culture refers to a set of beliefs, language,rules, values, and knowledge held in commonby members of a society.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 31Discussion:Structural FunctionalismKey principles of the functionalist theory byFarley 1990.3. Consensus and Cooperation – societieshave a tendency toward consensus; that is tohave certain basic values that nearlyeveryone in the society agrees upon. Societytends toward consensus to achievecooperation.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 32Discussion:Structural FunctionalismKey principles of the functionalist theory byFarley 1990.4. Equilibrium is a characteristic of a societywhen it has achieved the form that is bestadapted to its situation.New technology, a change in climate, orcontact with an outside society are allconditions to which a society might have toadapt.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 34Discussion:Structural Functionalism• In the analysis of living organism, thescientist’s task is to identify the variousparts (structures) and determine how theywork (function).• In sociology, sociologist tries to identify thestructure of society and how they function,hence the name structural functio-nalism.(Javier, et al., 1994)
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 35Discussion:Structural Functionalism• The component parts of social structure:• Families• Neighbors• Associations• Schools• Churches• Banks• Countries
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 36Discussion:Structural Functionalism• Functionalist sociologists stress• interdependence of the social system• View society as a kind of machine• Maintain social order by stressingconsensus and agreement• Understand that change is inevitable• Argue that without a common bond tounite groups, society will disintegrate
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 37Discussion:Structural Functionalism• Parsons believes that education is a vitalpart of modern society, a society thatdiffers considerably from all previoussocieties.• Schooling performs an important functionin the development and maintenance of amodern, democratic society, especiallywith regard to equality of opportunity for allcitizens.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 38Discussion:Structural Functionalism• Thus, in modern societies educationbecomes the key institution in ameritocratic selection process.• Education also plays a significant functionin the maintenance of the moderndemocratic and technocratic society.• Schools teach work skills and teachstudents how to learn so they may adaptto new work roles and requirements.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 39Discussion:Interactionist Theories• Interactionist theories are critiques andextensions of the functionalist and conflictperspectives.• This level of analysis helps us tounderstand education in the “ big picture”.• Interactionist theories attempt to make the“commonplace strange” by turning on theirheads everyday taken-for-grantedbehaviors and interactions in schools.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 40Discussion:Interactionist Theories• Symbolic Interactionism views the self associally constructed in relation to socialforces and social structures and theproduct of ongoing negotiations ofmeanings.• Thus, the social self is an active product ofhuman agency rather than a deterministicproduct of social structure
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 41Discussion:Interactionist Theories• Symbolic Interactionists are not onlyinterested in socialization but also ininteraction in general which is of “vitalimportance in its own right”.• Interaction is the process in which theability to think is both developed andexpressed.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 42Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesPrinciples of Symbolic Interactionism1.Human beings are endowed with thecapacity for thought.2.The capacity for thought us shaped bysocial interaction3.In social interaction, people learn themeanings and the symbols that allow themto exercise their distinctively humancapacity for thought.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 43Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesPrinciples of Symbolic Interactionism4. Meanings and symbols allow people tocarry on distinctively human action andintercation.5. People are able to modify or altermeanings and symbols that they use inaction and interaction on the basis of theirinterpretation of the situation.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 44Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesPrinciples of Symbolic Interactionism6. People are able to make these modificationsand alterations because, in part, of theirability to interact with themselves, whichallows them ton examine possible courses ofaction, assess their relative advantages anddisadvantages, and then choose one.7. The intertwined patterns of action andinteraction make up groups and societies.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 45Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesMead’s differentiation between the basic formsof Social Interaction are:Non-Symbolic Interactionism does not involvethinking.Symbolic Interactionism requires mentalprocesses
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 46Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesMead’s approach to symbolic interaction restedon three basic premises.1.People act toward the things they encounter onthe basis of what those things mean to them.2.We learn what things are by observing howother people respond to them through socialinteraction.3.The result of ongoing interaction we use indealing with others acquire symbolic meaningsthat are shared by the people who belong to thesame culture.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 47Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesThe importance of thinking to symbolicinteractionists is reflected in their views onobjects.Blumer differentiates among thee types of objects:1.Physical objects- chairs, trees2.Social objects- student, mother, teacher3.Abstract objects- idea or a moral principleObjects are seen simply as things, the greatestsignificance is the way they are defined byactors.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 48Discussion:Interactionist TheoriesCharles Horton Cooley developed a concept thathas long been used by symbolic interactionistand it is the LOOKING- GLASS-SELF it means“that we see ourselves as others see us”We come to develop a self – image on the basis ofthe messages we get from others, as weunderstand them.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 49REFLECTIONSchools play a significant role in educating theFilipino citizens . It is our duty as teachers toreally inculcate the value of fairness andhonesty to our students. We also need to teachthem how to learn, so they may be able to adaptin any situations/events that they will bepresented. The looking –glass-self simply tellsus that we must be cautious in giving remarks toothers. Let us all be generous in giving positivecomments and lessen the words that will hurtothers.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 50LEARNING TASKS 11. Use a Venn diagram in comparing consensusand conflict theories.2. Define the following terms:structure, structural, structuralism ,function,functional and functionalism.3. Interview a teacher or a friendon the influenceof the conflict and consensus theories onhis/her work as a teacher. Submit a write up ofthe interview
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 51REFERENCES1. Social Dimensions of Education, VioletaA.Vega2. Social Dimensions of Philippine Education, Dr.Adelaida Bago3. www.google.com.4. www.wikipedia.com