Welcome class!Today we will be covering the Elements of Art. On your desks you will find a pre-test. This will not be graded, I would just like to know what your prior knowledge is. As you complete your pre-test please flip it upside down on your desk and remain seated until all of your class mates are finished. We will then begin today’s lecture covering all of the information on the pre-test. You may begin.Today’s lecture is the first of the series “Developing a Visual Vocabulary.” We will be going over the Elements of Art and getting an in depth look into a painters mind.
The elements are the visual building blocks of art. They are: line, shape, value, texture, space, time and motion, and color. Using “The Persistence of a Memory” painted by Salvador Dali, we will analyze how he used the elements of art to create his very successful, famous painting housed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
There are two types of lines: visible lines created by shapes in a composition, and implied lines which are paths your eyes take, as it follows shapes, colors and forms. Implied lines do not have to be continuous or even connected. Shapes are created using lines. These are the elements that you were introduced in kindergarten. However, shapes are not only geometric such as: circles, squares, rectangles, triangles and many others, they can also be organic such as the shape of a puddle, a blob, leaf or even a boomerang.
There are many line evident in our lesson’s sample painting. Can you spot any?
Here are a few examples of how Salvador Dali used shape in his work. The way these shapes are formed and placed allows the viewers eye to move throughout the piece.
The next element we will look at is value. Value is the relative quality of lightness or darkness of color. Tints and shades are used to describe value of colors. Tints result when you mix white with a color. Shades occur when you mix black with a color.
We are not done with value, this next set of vocabulary words describe the entire work of art as a whole. High key describes a work of art that is uses colors primarily light in value. Low key is used to describe a work that is very dark in value and Middle key is somewhere between the two.
Can you tell what key The Persistence of a memory is? You guessed it! Low Key.
Texture is used to add interest to a piece. When depicting a subject such as trees or bushes, you want to use quite a bit of texture to accomplish a realistic tree. Texture can be added to a surface literally or figuratively. By literally adding things such as multiple layers of paint, gesso, foam, moss – the possibilities are endless, you can create textures views can see, feel and experience. Adding textures with the use of shading, color mixing and adding lines creates more of a visual texture.
The next two elements of art have quite a bit to do with one another. Space is how objects interact with each other in an area. Space includes foreground, background and middle ground. Space can be broken down into two different types: positive space and negative space. Positive space is the actual shape or object representing the subject matter. Whereas negative space can be described as the space around and between the objects and shapes. Or the shapes created by the objects and shapes. Take a look at the two vases on the bottom right-hand side of the screen. In the picture with the white vase, you can see a vase. Is there anything you can see other than a vase in the second picture, the one with the black vase? [PAUSE] I bet you can see two faces looking at each other. This is an example of how negative space can influence positive shape.Time can be depicted through the use of imagery from particular eras, or it can also be created by using motion. Motion can be portrayed through the use of repetition of colors, objects, or lines as well as creating object that look like they are moving. An example could be a ballerina posing in a painting. You can’t see her moving, yet motion is depicted.
How did Dali use space, time and motion in his painting? [PAUSE] It is pretty evident huh? The clocks are melting showing motion and time. Space is shown by using such a vast, rocky beach scape. By locating the horizon line near the top of the painting, the artist creates a very large area for subject matter and details.
Some of you might remember in science class how Newton refracted light into the visible spectrum you see here. The colors of the visible spectrum are Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo – which is not depicted here, and Violet. You can remember this by using the acronym ROY G BIV. These colors are called hues. The word hue, is basically just a fancy word for color. Hues can include different colors as seen on the bottom left hand side of the screen. In this example, red, maroon, pink and rose are all different colors of the same hue – red.
When mixing colors, there are two different ways to do it. Additive color mixing involves the mixing of light. You will not be doing this type of color mixing in this art class, but it is important to understand so you can grasp the overall concept of color. In additive color mixing, equal amounts of the primary colors result in white light. This is the reverse of what Newton did – he broke down white light into several colors rather than adding colors and getting white light.
Subtractive Color mixing is used when you mix pigments such as: paint, ink, pastels, colored pencils – basically anything with color. This is the kind of color mixing I want you to remember! There are three ways color is broken down as you can see on the color wheel. Primary colors which are: red, yellow, and blue. These colors can not be made by mixing any other colors together and all other colors come from these 3 colors. Secondary colors are made by mixing two primary colors together such as Blue and Yellow make green. The secondary colors are green, violet, and orange. Tertiary colors result when a primary color is mixed with a secondary color. When you are writing tertiary colors, the primary color is always listed first. Tertiary colors are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, and yellow-orange
Another way to describe color is color temperature. Warm colors such as red, orange and yellow can create a feeling of aggression, excitement and in theory, can appear closer. Cool colors such as blue, green, violet and other tertiary combinations of those colors can make a viewer feel tranquil, relaxed and in theory appear to recede into the picture frame.
Color intensity describes the relative brightness or dullness of a color. There are two ways to lower a color’s intensity. The first can be seen in the top example, add a color’s complement. Another way can be seen in the lower example which is by adding grey to a color.
There are three basic color schemes which we will cover in this class, they are monochromatic, analogous and complementary. What does the prefix “mono” mean? [PAUSE] If you guessed “one” you are correct. For a monochromatic color scheme, we will use only one hue. In this example, the student used the hue blue. By varying values and intensities of blue, he created a composition in the monochromatic color scheme.Analogous colors schemes are made by using 3 colors right beside each other on a color wheel. The example provided here, painted by Claude Monet, shows an analogous color scheme using blue, green and yellow. Another example would be using Red, orange, and yellow as seen on the color temperature slide.
The final color scheme is complementary. This includes the use of complementary colors – or colors that lie directly across from each other on the color wheel. In the example shown here, by Francis Bacon, he uses yellow and violet to create his complementary color scheme. Other examples of complementary colors are red and green and orange and blue.Other colors can be used in a color scheme as well. When you are creating a work of art, it is very difficult to not include a variety of colors. But when you determine a painting’s color scheme, blur your eyes and pick out the most predominant colors. This will allow you to see only the colors that are important and make the painting’s color scheme evident.
Let’s try it. What color scheme do you think The Persistence of a memory can be classified as? [PAUSE] If you choose complementary, you are correct!
Now class you will begin completing the color packet using the acrylic paints listed in the instructions. The materials you will need to acquire are: Canvas Paper, Paper Towels, Acrylic Paints, Paintbrushes, Palette Paper. While you are working on your color packets, I will be calling students up to my desk to choose a famous painting which you will be determining the color scheme, and using it in your next painting project. Your homework will be to find 4 photos, either taken by you or a family member (please avoid infringing on copyrights) of an object or landscape, please do not choose a photo of a person. People are very difficult to depict in any other color scheme. After you have your photos, draw thumbnail gesture sketches of each – divide your sketchbook page into 4 parts. You will be choosing one of these photos to draw using your color scheme from the famous painting you choose today.In your weekly sketchbook which is due on Friday, you will determine the color scheme of your bedroom at home and draw a composition in your sketchbook using that color scheme. Use colored pencils for this.
Elements of art
Lesson 5EDUC 505 – High School Pedagogy Concordia University Jacie Ochsner
Elements of Art: Visual Building Blocks of Art• Line• Shape• Value• Texture• Space• Time & Motion• Color The Persistence of a Memory, 1931 Salvador Dali Oil on Canvas The Museum of Modern Art, New York City
Line Shape0 use of various 0 use of areas in two marks, outlines and dimensional space implied lines in artwork and design that can be defined0 Implied line: path that by edges, setting one the viewers eye flat specific space takes as it follows apart from another. shapes, colors, and form along a 0 Shapes can be path, but may not be geometric or organic continuous or in nature. physically connected 0 Example: created by a dancers arms, torso, and legs when performing an arabesque.
Value Value is the relative quality of lightness or darkness of a color.Tint: Result of mixing color with white (or lighter color)Shade: Result of mixing a color with black (or darker color)
Other vocabulary used to describe ValueHigh Key: colors predominantly light in value Artist: Diebenkorn Middle Key: Predominantly medium in value Artist: Klee Artist: Delacroix Low Key: Colors dark in value
Low KeyWhat key is this Salvador Dali Painting?
Texture• The texture is the quality of a surface or the way any work of art is represented.• Lines and shading can be used to create different textures as well.
Space Time & Motion• Includes the • Capture an essence of background, foregroun time d, and middle ground• Refers to the distances • Portray motion or areas • Objects look as around, between or though they are within components of a piece moving• There are two types of • Movement created space: positive and through repetition of negative space. color or motifs • Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter • Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter
How is space, time and motion shown in this painting?
Color: HueHue: the visual sensation create by specific parts of the visible spectrum. Remember Newton? …refracted light? & ROY G BIV? Different colors of the same hue: For instance: red, maroon, pink and rose are different colors of the same “red” hue.
Color: Additive Color Mixing (Light)Primary Colors:• Blue• Red• GreenSecondary Colors:• Magenta (blue + red)• Yellow (red + green)• Cyan (green + blue) Equal amounts of primaries produces white light
Color: Subtractive Color Mixing (Pigments) Primary Colors: • can not be mixed or formed by any combination of other colors • all other colors are derived from these 3 hues. Secondary Colors: • formed by mixing the primary colors Tertiary Colors: • formed by mixing a primary and a secondary color • Primary color is always listed first
Color: Temperature Warm Colors: • Red, Orange, Yellow and tertiary combinations of • Feel aggressive, exciting • Appear CloserArtist: ThoreauArtist: Van Gogh Cool Colors: • Blue, Green, Violet and tertiary combinations of • Feel tranquil, relaxing • Appear to recede into the picture plane.
Color: IntensityIntensity: (a.k.a.: saturation, purity, or chroma)The relative brightness ordullness of a color.A color’s intensity can be lowered in two ways. One way is to add itscomplement to it (as seen above).Another way is to add gray to the color (seen below).
Color: Color SchemesMonochromatic: range of Analogous: 3 colors next to each other onvalues and saturation levels of the color wheelone hue (may include different Artist: Monetcolors of one hue)Artist: Student Work
Color: Color SchemesComplementary: hues that liedirectly opposite each other onthe color wheelArtist: Francis Bacon
ComplementaryWhat is the color scheme of this painting?
Assignment:In Class:• Complete the Color Packet• Choose a Painting, determine the color scheme (See homework)Homework:• Find 4 photos you or a family member took (no copyright infringement) and do a thumbnail gesture sketch.• Student will then choose one photo to draw using color scheme from famous work that they drew.Weekly Sketchbook:• Determine color scheme in bedroom at home. Draw a composition in Sketchbook that uses that color scheme. Use colored pencils.