2013 depestele it_qs-seafloor_v_final

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2013 depestele it_qs-seafloor_v_final

  1. 1. Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Researchwww.ilvo.vlaanderen.beAgriculture and Fisheries Policy AreaInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries ResearchFrom right-based catch sharesto benthic impactsALTER-NET Target 4: Ensure the sustainability of fisheriesGent, Belgium18 april 2013Jochen Depestele
  2. 2. Statement 2: Rights-based catch shares canprovide incentives for sustainable harvest that isless prone to collapse. It can, however, lead toaccumulation of fishery property rights in non-fishery related companies.Statement 3: Bottom trawling and the seafloordisturbance resulting from it enhances fish stockproductivity and is essential for productive fishstocks and economically viable fisheries.2 statements: firstALTER - Net 2
  3. 3. ALTER - Net 3(c) Costello et al. (2012a - Nature)
  4. 4. ITQ managementprevents stock collapseWhy ITQs in fisheries? World fisheries with biomass below MSY:63 – 64%(c) Costello et al. (2012b - Science)(c) Worm et al. (2009 - Science)Unassessed stocksAssessed stocksMedian B/BMSY(c) Costello et al. (2008 - Science)
  5. 5. Why ITQs in CFP? (1)Jo’burg WSSD 2002: Fishing at MSY by 2015Decrease in nr of vessels since ITQs (1996: cod trawlers;<1996: indirect quota trading via boat licenses)(c) Hannesson et al. (2013)Assessed EU stocks (2008) outside ‘safe’ limits(c) EEAReduce overcapacity5Past policies did NOT work:(e.g. €2.7 billion for scrapping)still 3% ↑ in fishing capacitySelf-regulatingmechanism (ITQ)91% of EU stocks will not meetthe MSY target by 2015 undercurrent fishing pressure(Froese & Proelb, 2010)
  6. 6. Why ITQs in CFP? (2)Plan fishing along market developmentsIncrease responsibilityof fishermenFlexibility to complywith discard banO:overfishedspecieswithrestrictiveallowablecatchesQ:speciesunderITQmanagementR:speciesthatcannotbelanded(c) Branch et al. (2006)
  7. 7. Prevention of stock collapse is not guaranteed !ITQs reduce variability in exploitation rateALTER - Net 7So, what’s the catch?Yes! I want to be afisherman...What’s the catch? Maybe an ITQ redherring . . . ?(A) BC petrale sole; (B) SE Australia school whiting; (C) New Zealand red rock lobster.(c) Essington et al. (2012)ITQ ITQ ITQ
  8. 8. Strong effect in multi-species fisheries with fullobserver coverage! enforcement!ITQs reduce variability in exploitation rateIF EXCLUSIVITY and DURABILITY/SECURITYTake care of your babies, fishermen!ALTER - Net 8So, what’s the catch?
  9. 9. It’s not all roses there... 1) evaluation?What about ITQs in EU? NS Beam trawlers in NL and B (target: PLE/SOL)Licensingmax days@sea...B+NLmax fishingcapacityNL BiesheuvelinformalNL ITQOfficial?NL ITQB+NL: schemes fordecommissioning, ...B: IQs, based on kW209 (1990) > 107 (2006)Fish capacity ↓ slightlyNL: fleet reductionfrom days@sea
  10. 10. It’s not all roses there... 1) evaluation?What about ITQs in EU? NS Beam trawlers in NL and B (target: PLE/SOL)Licensingmax days@sea...B+NL: fleet reductionB+NLmax fishingcapacity(c) ICESinformalNL ITQNL BiesheuvelOfficial?NL ITQ
  11. 11. It’s not all roses there... 2) relative stability?NS Beam trawlers in NL Fleet rationalisation quota-hopping(c) Hatcher et al. (2002); Van Hoof (2013)1988 > 1998+ 133 vessels- 161 decommissioned- 176 withdrawals (UK flag)02040
  12. 12. ALTER - Net 12It’s not all roses there...(c) Arnason (2005);(c) Benediktsson and Karlsdóttir (2011)3) Social equity4) active fishermen
  13. 13. ALTER - Net 13What can catch shares accomplish?Q-value: Quality of property rights Durability Security Exclusivity Transferability(c) MRAG (2009)BUT!social issues. . .
  14. 14. ALTER - Net 14But again, it’s not all roses there...What about the ecosystem?(besides overfishing)Ecosystem objectives: ‘fishy’ ITQs:• limits on fishing capacity• =~ limits on effort• = insufficient to meet ecosystem objectives How can the fishing industry be involved inachieving GES? Incentive-based management?
  15. 15. ALTER - Net 15Ideas for incentive-based EAFM?Expand ITQs for all species?TAC adjustment based on trade-offs,interactions with non-target species Eastern Tuna and Billfish FisheryCreate Individual Habitat Quota? Real-TimeIncentives? Holland & Schnier (2006); Kraak et al. (2012)with bycatch penalties2009 ETBF fishing effort(c)Bax,2010
  16. 16. Statement 2: Rights-based catch shares canprovide incentives for sustainable harvest that isless prone to collapse. It can, however, lead toaccumulation of fishery property rights in non-fishery related companies.Statement 3: Bottom trawling and the seafloordisturbance resulting from it enhances fish stockproductivity and is essential for productive fishstocks and economically viable fisheries.2 statements: secondALTER - Net 16
  17. 17. Seafloor impactsALTER - Net 17Seafloor impacts Fishermen’s perspectivesPlaice box failed, from‘90s onwards...“Farming the sea!”Question 1:How can science assessthe influence of sea floordisturbance on fish stockproductivity and themarine ecosystem?
  18. 18. ALTER - Net 18From short-term to long-term monitoring…1) BACI-experiments:Short-term mortality, scavenging, etc.2) ModellingCombination of short-term empirical datathrough algorithms3) Effort comparisonsLong-term, historical dataSpatiallySeafloor impacts Scientific assessments
  19. 19. ALTER - Net 19Differences in direct mortalityDifferences in recovery potentialShift in species composition, abundance &productivity~ gear~ habitat~ traitsTotalproductionTurnoverrate(c) Jennings et al. (2001)Seafloor impacts Scientific assessments
  20. 20. Food dependence of fish productivity?(c) Rijnsdorp & Vingerhoed (2001)Slight increase in fish foodproduction at very low trawlingintensities(c) Hiddink et al. (2008)Seafloor impacts ~ fish stock productivity?
  21. 21. Plaice length ~ age + food + density + effort(c) Shephard et al. (2010)74% otter and 26% beam47% otter and 53% beamPlaice: polychaetes as foodPlaice: <3% polychaetes as foodSeafloor impacts ~ fish stock productivity?
  22. 22. Statement 2: How can ITQs be used to combineeconomics, society and ecosystems? ITQs = economic efficient ITQs = social drama? ITQs = What about other ecosystem objectivesbesides overfishing?Statement 3: Ploughing the seafloor:How can we communicate the subtle effects andthe (sometimes contradicting) and ‘difficult’scientific results on the effects of seafloordisturbance with fishermen?2 questions in ‘conclusion’ALTER - Net 22
  23. 23. Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Researchwww.ilvo.vlaanderen.beAgriculture and Fisheries Policy AreaInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries ResearchFrom right-based catch sharesto benthic impactsJochen.Depestele@ilvo.vlaanderen.be

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