Views and Concepts of Development


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Views and Concepts of Development

  1. 1. Differing Views in Development BY: JOSEFINA B. BITONIO,DPA
  2. 2. <ul><li>At end of the lecture, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Describe and explain the changing meaning of development; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discuss the efforts and issues in development in the Philippines; and </li></ul><ul><li>3. Define the role of public administration in achieving development. </li></ul>Enabling Objectives
  3. 3. <ul><li>As one of the most depreciated term in social science literature having been used more often it has been understood </li></ul><ul><li>Development is a concept that suffers from verbal inflation and yet has maintained as amorphous connotation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Development is a loaded misconception and has been used in most cases as a rubber concept being stretched and molded for the purpose at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Development never will be and never can be defined to universal satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Development tended to be defined in the context of economy as it is equated with economic development of the country </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Disciplinary bias had blinded the scholars as it was being viewed differently as change, improvement, economic growth, modernization, industrialization, social change, or simply the state of mind </li></ul><ul><li>It means like a swinging pendulum assuming a different emphasis during the course of time </li></ul>
  6. 6. Concept of Development
  7. 7. <ul><li>The doctrine of the “stages of economic growth” as propounded American economic historian Walter W. Rostow (1960). The Rostowian doctrine says that the transition from underdevelopment can be described in terms of steps or stages through all countries must proceed from: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) traditional society </li></ul><ul><li>(2) pre-condition for take-off </li></ul><ul><li>(3) self-sustaining growth </li></ul><ul><li>(4) drive to maturity, and </li></ul><ul><li>(5) age of high mass consumption. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The first or classical model of development was growth-led development. Also known as economic development, the model was patterned after the successful economist of the countries of the West. Economic growth, measured in terms of increased overall and per capita GNP, served as the principal goal of development. Industrialization was the major development strategy used to attain progress. </li></ul>Economic Development Ist Development Decade
  9. 9. <ul><li>Based on the famous Harrod-Domar equation, that growth rate of GNP equals the national savings ration divided by the national capital output ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if the national capital output of a country is 3 and the aggregate savings ratio is 6% of GNP then that country grows at 2% per year that is Y = 6/3 = 2. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>One of the principal tricks of development necessary for any take-off was the mobilization of domestic savings in order to generate sufficient investment to accelerate economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, all that the Third World Countries have to do to achieve development is to arrive at the right quantity and mixture of savings, investments and foreign aid as was done in the past by the developed nations which went through the economic stages. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>It was believed that these rapid gains in over-all and per capita GNP growth would “trickle down” to the masses of people in the form of services, jobs and other economic opportunities. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>While economic growth, in varying degree of success may have been experienced by those countries, the benefits of such growth did not “trickle down” to the vast majority who remained poor, jobless, illiterate, and nutrition-deficient. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, the economic development paradigm failed to produce the hoped-for improvements in the quality of life among the poor in these countries. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The aftermath of such a model only increased the disparity between the rich and poor countries and between the rich and poor within the poor countries, aggravated the problems occasioned by increasing industrialization and urbanization, and ravished the environment. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The great masses of the people continued to wallow in abject poverty. It was realized, that while savings and investments were necessary conditions of economic growth, they were not sufficient conditions . Social, political and institutional inputs were found necessary to explain the concept of development (Gunnar Myrdal) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The failure of the First Development Decade to bring about qualitative changes in human welfare and improve the levels of living of the masses of people resulted to rethinking about the meaning of development. Among those who are considered to have had profound influence in redefining development were Seers (1975), Dag Hammarkdjold Foundation (1975), and Todaro (1977) whose ideas on development emphasized social dimensions and espoused the centrality of man, not only as recipient of, but, more crucially, as active participant in development </li></ul>Social Development Second Development Decade
  16. 16. <ul><li>Kuznets (1971) isolated six characteristics of the growth process of developed countries, viz: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) high rate of growth of per capita output and population, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) high rates of increase in total factor production especially labor productivity, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) high rate of structural transformation of the economy, </li></ul><ul><li>(4) high rate of social and ideological transformation, </li></ul><ul><li>(5) propensity to reach out to the rest of the world for markets and raw materials, and </li></ul><ul><li>(6) limited spread of this growth only to a third of global population. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Dudley Seers (1971) The inadequacy of economic growth to explain development and the need to introduce equity and income distribution considerations were best highlighted by Seers who redefined development in terms of the reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment within the context of growing economy. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Denis Goulet (1971) went a step further and indicated life sustenance, self-esteem and freedom of choice as the three core values of development both for individuals and societies. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Dag Hammarsjolk Report (1975) The Report emphasized needs satisfaction, endogeneity and self-reliance, environmental harmony, and structural transformation as the pillars of development. </li></ul><ul><li>if development refers to the realization of man’s full potential, which means that, the poor countries must harness the ‘inner core’ of their society – their very own rich cultural heritage, resources and human energies and creativity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Michael Todaro (1977) <ul><li>As a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes, and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of absolute poverty. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>We were taught to take care of GNP as this will take care of poverty. Let us reverse this and take care of poverty and this will take care of GNP </li></ul>Mbug Ul Hag (1971)
  22. 22. <ul><li>“ As the ultimate purpose of development is to provide increasing opportunities to all people for a better life, it is essential to bring about a more equitable distribution of income and wealth for promoting both social justice and efficiency of production, to raise substantially the level of employment, to achieve a greater degree of income security and to expand and improve facilities for education, health, nutrition, housing and social welfare, and to safeguard the environment. Thus, qualitative and structural changes in the society must go hand-in-hand with rapid economic growth and existing disparities – regional, sectoral and social – should be substantially reduced.” </li></ul>Speaking on the second development decade, the United Nations declared :
  23. 24. <ul><li>Sustainable development was the emergent concept in the ‘80s. It emerged in the context of increasingly serious threats to human existence posed by global warning, acid rain, depletion of non-renewable natural resources, profligate human consumption and waste, rapid population growth, and even warfare. </li></ul>Sustainable Development
  24. 25. <ul><li>All these problems have largely been caused by excessive human activities – in the hallowed name of development – especially accelerated and indiscriminate economic activities, which led to wanton waste and destruction of natural and human resources. It’s recognized that such pursuit of development has only contributed to the worsening of poverty of human suffering among the less privileged, and endangered mankind’s life support system. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Pronk and Haq (1992 as cited in Briones 1994) described the meaning of sustainable development succinctly when they said that: “The call for sustainable development is not simply a call for environmental protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, sustainable development implies a new concept of economic growth – one that provides fairness and opportunity for all the world’s people , not just the privileged few, without further destroying the world’s finite natural resources and carrying capacity. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Sustainable development is a process in which economic, fiscal, trade, energy, agricultural, industrial, all other policies are so designed to bring about development that is economically, socially, and ecologically sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that current consumption cannot be financed for long by incurring economic debts that others must pay. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>This also means that sufficient investment must be made in the education and heath of today’s population so as not to create a social debt for future generations. </li></ul><ul><li>And natural resources must be used in ways that do not create ecological debt by overexploiting the carrying and productive capacity of the earth. All postponed debts mortgage sustainability-whether economic debts or social debts or ecological debts </li></ul>
  28. 29. Human Development Index
  29. 30. <ul><li>As nations worked to become more progressive, the human dimensions of development continued to lag behind. Poverty and misery existed along side progress. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations reported that human deprivation on a large scale persisted: </li></ul><ul><li>over a billion people or 20% of the world’s population living in abject poverty, </li></ul><ul><li>900 million adults in the developing countries still cannot read and write, </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 billion are without safe water, 400 million have no housing, and 30% (2.8 billion) of the world’s labor force are not productively employed </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme published the first Human Development Report and introduced there the human development index (HDI). The HDI is a development measure that goes beyond the traditional concern for income. It reflects the essential elements of a decent standard of living expressed in such indicators as life expectancy, literacy and educational attainment, and access to resources of income. </li></ul>Human Development Index
  31. 32. <ul><li>As defined by UN, human development is process of enabling people to have wider choices. It entails enlarging those capabilities that enable people to live a full life as human beings. The most important dimensions of human development are the person’s physical survival and health, level of knowledge, livelihood or income, and political freedom. These are the minimum basic needs (MBN) that must be fulfilled. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Countries fall into three broad categories based on their HDI: high , medium and low human development <ul><li>Rank Country HDI2006 data Compared to 2005 data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1  Iceland 0.968▲ +0.001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2  Norway 0.968▲ +0.001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3  Canada 0.967▲ +0.002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4  Australia 0.965▲ +0.002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5  Ireland 0.960▲ +0.002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6  Netherlands 0.958▲ +0.002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7  Sweden 0.958▲ +0.001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8  Japan 0.956▲ +0.003 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9  Luxembourg 0.956▲ +0.002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10  Switzerland 0.955▲ +0.0020. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>102  Philippines 0.745▲ +0.002 Medium </li></ul><ul><li>176  Liberia 0.364 ▲ 0.007m </li></ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Sustainable human development is an encompassing concept of development that enables all individuals to develop their capabilities to the full and apply them to their best use in all spheres – economic, social, cultural and political – that shape their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>It accelerates economic growth and translates it into improvements in the quality of life and more equitable distribution of wealth and economic opportunities. </li></ul>Sustainable human development
  35. 37. <ul><li>It protects the future of unborn generations by not running down the natural resource base needed for sustaining development in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>It also recognizes that achievements in these areas could be meaningless if dramatic improvement in the status of women and the opening up of all economic opportunities to them would not be attained. </li></ul>Sustainable human development
  36. 38. <ul><li>The UNDP has expanded its indicators of human development in subsequent years to include participation (1993) and gender (1995). Its most recent concern is the measurement of deprivation or human poverty (1997). </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>The eight Millennium Development Goals have been adopted by the international community as a framework for the development activities of over 190 countries in ten regions; they have been articulated into over 20 targets and over 60 indicators . </li></ul>Millenium Development Goals
  38. 41. <ul><li>Goal 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger </li></ul>Millenium Development Goals <ul><li>Originally set at $1 a day in 1985 prices, the international poverty line was subsequently revised to a $1.08 a day, measured in terms of 1993 purchasing power parity (PPP). </li></ul>
  39. 42. Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger <ul><li>1.2 billion people live on less than $1 a day </li></ul><ul><li>Every day, 800 million people go to bed hungry </li></ul><ul><li>Every day, 28,000 children die from poverty-related causes </li></ul>
  40. 43. Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education <ul><li>115 million children are not in school - 56% of them are girls and 94% of   them live in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>133 million young people cannot read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Only 37 of 155 developing countries have achieved universal primary school    completion </li></ul>
  41. 44. Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower <ul><li>Two-thirds of the world's illiterate people are female </li></ul><ul><li>The employment rate for women is 30% lower than the rate for men </li></ul><ul><li>Women only held 15% of seats in national parliaments in 2003 </li></ul>
  42. 45. Goal 4 Reduce child mortality <ul><li>48 countries had mortality rates greater than 1 in 10 childbirths, compared to 1 in 143 in developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Among the childhood vaccine-preventable diseases, measles is the leading  cause of child mortality, with over half a million deaths in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>70% of deaths before age five are caused by disease, or a combination of disease and malnutrition, that would be preventable in developed countries. </li></ul>
  43. 46. Goal 5 Improve maternal health <ul><li>More than 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and    childbirth every year </li></ul><ul><li>99% of maternal deaths from childbirth occur in the developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy is the leading cause of death for girls ages 15-19 in developing countries </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>4.8 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2003; that's 13,000    a day! </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria causes more than one million deaths each year </li></ul><ul><li>There were two million deaths from tuberculosis in 2002 </li></ul>Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other diseases
  45. 48. Goal 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability <ul><li>2 million children die every year from infections spread by dirty water or the lack of toilets </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 2.4 billion people lack access to proper sanitation facilities </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of fisheries around the world threatens to increase hunger and    poverty among poor coastal communities throughout the developing world </li></ul>
  46. 49. Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for development <ul><li>Europe's cows receive $2 a day in subsidies, more than the income of half    the world's population </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries pledged to give 0.7% of their national income in aid. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5 countries are living up to the commitment; the USA is giving less  than 0.2% </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that if there were developed countries to break down trade barriers, this could help lift 300 million people out of poverty by 2015 </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>“ The Millennium Development Goals can be achieved if immediate steps are taken to implement existing commitments. Reaching our goals for development around the world is not only vital to building better, healthier and decent lives for millions of people, it is also essential to building enduring global peace and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Ours is the generation that can achieve the development goals and free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization, 2007 </li></ul>