Theories, Concepts and Models of Development


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Theories, Concepts and Models of Development

  1. 1. Special Study PSU-LNU-UCU Edwin B.R. Gbargaye Facilitator Prof Jo B. Bitonio MDM Coordinator
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is Development? </li></ul><ul><li>- Development: A multi-dimensional process which involves transformation in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ A better quality of life in world’s poor countries calls for higher incomes-but it involves much more. It encompasses better education, higher standards of health and nutrition, less poverty, a cleaner environment, more quality of opportunities, greater individual freedom, and richer cultural life.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection </li></ul><ul><li>To raise levels of living, that is to say, higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and humanistic values. </li></ul><ul><li>To extend the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence not only in relation to other people and nation- states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Development is primarily defined in the context of economy as it is equaled with economic development of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Various scholars of diverse disciplines have view development in the following context: </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement-change (for the better) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth, Modernization, Industrialization </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Myrdal’s concept –”Soft State” underdevelopment is caused by external relationships (trade, aid, and investments) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations- looking for better alternatives for third world countries in dealing with developed countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Brandt Commission Report- (Uphoff and Ilchman) development is one of the more depreciated terms in social science literature. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ferrel Heady- in the case of modernization development tends to be discussed in societal terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Rostow (Rostowian concept)-5 stages of economic growth. Development process is successive stages. (Traditional, pre-take off, growth, maturity and high mass consumption). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Harrold- Domar equation- GNP =NS; 3 RD world nations must have mixture of savings, investments and foreign aid in order to be developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Kuznets –social, ideological and institutional aspects of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Dudley Seers-reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Todaro-changes in structures, attitudes, institutions and acceleration of economic growth . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Amartya Sen: Expanding real freedoms that people enjoy. </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas North- Institutions (Institutional building). </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Development is understood in terms of the following; </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Social development: Process of growth and development of the capacities of the people and the improvement of society in which they live in order to obtain a better life for all. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development: discussed in terms of economic growth although economist were aware of non-economic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Political development: process of increasing rationality, equality, participation and secularization in the political system. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Democratic governance: involves the interdependent democratization of the state and its governmental institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil society: All sectors and institutions in the political community outside of the state and its government. </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties: meaningful and attractive organizations of people who want to play active political roles in affecting public policy and governance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Capacity for governance: Refers to the ability of the state to make and enforce its decisions on all citizens and groups. </li></ul><ul><li>National Identity: Citizens identification within the state to make them perform their duties and responsibilities as participants in the political process. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Extractive capacity: The ability of the state to raise revenues and generate public support in order to perform its functions and render public service. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributive capacity: The ability of the state to make decisions to distribute or redistribute material and other benefits in the society. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>World Bank World Development Report, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Michael P. Todaro economic development 6 th New York University </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank you