Theoretical Framework


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Theoretical Framework

  1. 1. Th Theoretical Framework
  2. 2. Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge, within the limits of the critical bounding assumptions.
  3. 3. • The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study. The theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory which explains why the research problem under study exists.
  4. 4. Formulating the Theoretical Framework Purpose: • It helps the researcher see clearly the variables of the study; • It can provide him with a general framework for data analysis; • It is essential in preparing a research proposal using descriptive and experimental methods. J199 lecture, R.E.Khan
  5. 5. The theory provides a point of focus for attacking the unknown in a specific area. If a relationship is found between two or more variables a theory should be formulated to explain why the relationship exists.
  6. 6. A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking. Importance of Theory
  7. 7. The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power. The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways. An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically. to act in more informed and effective ways. Importance of Theory
  8. 8. The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways. • An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically. • The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods. • Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
  9. 9. The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways. • Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. • By virtue of its application nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges of a phenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we may use that knowledge and understanding
  10. 10. Placement of a theory in quanti research only General guide: • Introduce the theory early in the study: • In the intro, in the review of lit, • Immediately after the hypotheses or research ?s (as a rationale for the connection among the variables) • Or as a separate section of the study (ideal so that researcher can clearly identify the theory vis- à-vis the study) Source: LEONARDO R. ESTACIO JR, MPH,PHD
  11. 11. Quanti Theory Perspectives (Cresswell, 2009:59) “The theory that I will use is____ (name of theory). It was developed by ____ (identify the origin, source or developer of the theory), and it was used to study ___ (identify the topics where one finds the theory being applied). This theory indicates that ___ (id the propositions of hypotheses in the theory). As applied to my study, this theory holds that I would expect my independent variable/s ___ (state independent variables) to influence or explain the dependent variable/s (state dependent variables) because ___ (provide a rationale based on the logic of the theory) Source :EONARDO R. ESTACIO JR, MPH,PHD
  12. 12. ADMINISTRATIVE CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS IN THE CORDILLERAS ROGELIO D. MERCADO, DPA This investigation substantially depended on the capability approach originally developed by Sen (1993). The capability approach, according to Robeyns (2003) is a broad normative framework for the evaluation of individual well-being and social arrangements, the design of policies and proposals about social change in society. She claimed the capability approach is used in a wide range of fields, most prominently in development thinking, welfare economics, social policy and political philosophy. It can be used to evaluate a wide variety of aspects of people’s well-being, such as individual well-being, inequality and poverty. It can also be used as an alternative evaluative tool for social cost-benefit analysis, or to design and evaluate policies, ranging from welfare state design in affluent societies, to development policies by governments and non- governmental organisations (NGOs) in developing countries.
  13. 13. ADMINISTRATIVE CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS IN THE CORDILLERAS ROGELIO D. MERCADO, DPA This inquiry also relied on the Theory of Organizational Performance Management. Davis (2013) held that performance management is a set of techniques used to measure success in meeting goals of an organization. Performance management can be used to evaluate specific processes and systems, the performance of departments or the performance of individual employees. The theory of organizational performance management, known as OPM, applies this approach to an organization as a whole, assessing progress toward goals and identifying and adjusting factors which hinder progress.
  14. 14. collective theory was first proposed as a solution to the problem of free- riding in collective action by Mancur Olson's seminal work, entitled “The Logic of Collective Action” in 1965. He is credited with initiating a paradigm shift in the study of the challenges facing collective action. Olson argues that group benefits that are difficult or impossible to exclude allow individuals to access these benefits, even though they have not contributed their proportional or appropriate share of the resources needed to supply the benefits Management Performance of Pangasinan Credit Cooperatives in the Context of Collective Action and Good Governance Edwin BR. Gbargaye, DPA
  15. 15. The governance theory has a bearing to the present study. Originally, it was in Britain when corporate governance entered the mainstream through the publication of the Watershed Cadbury Committee Report in 1992. . The term “governance” is used in a variety of ways and a variety of meanings (Rhode, 1996 and Stoker 1997). There is however, a baseline agreement that the development of governance styles in which boundaries between and within government and public sectors have become blurred. The essence of “governance” is its focus on governing mechanisms does not rest on option to the authority and sanctions of the government. The “governance” concept points to a creation of a structure or an order which cannot be externally imposed but as a result of the interaction of the multiplicity of governing and each other influencing actors (Kooiman and Van Vliet, 1993). Management Performance of Pangasinan Credit Cooperatives in the Context of Collective Action and Good Governance Edwin BR. Gbargaye, DPA
  16. 16. The provision of services provided by the members of the Women and Children Protection Desk of the Philippine National Police Cordillera Administrative Region (WCPD, PNP-CAR). The theory that the researcher will use in this study organizational theory, performance theory and Theory of Service Delivery. Organizational theory is being used in this study to relate performance of PNP based on their organizational structure, financial resources, human resources, equipment; and facilities. Melyrita A. Davis, DPA
  17. 17. The provision of services provided by the members of the Women and Children Protection Desk of the Philippine National Police Cordillera Administrative Region (WCPD, PNP-CAR) Another theory which has a bearing to this study is the theory of performance. (Chandler: 1962; Donaldson: 1987). Accordingly, it is assumed that an organization in misfit fail to make the adaptive changes that would move them into fit if they underwent a crisis of low performance. This is consistent with Simon (1976) that management decisions are boundedly rational that organizations do not maximize their performance but satisfies. Managerial decision making is problem solving that is activated when organizational performance falls below deemed to be satisfactory (i.e.satisficing). Thus, low performance of an organization that whose structure misfits, contingency variables lead into a change in the organizational structure to bring it into fit. In addition high performance feedback can increase the contingency variables. Melyrita A. Davis, DPA
  18. 18. The present study anchored on the theories of Governance and New Public Management (NPM). The decentralization of agricultural extension programs from the Department of Agriculture to the Local Government Code revealed several issues associated to policy, program, thrust, organizational structure, human resources, operation /implementation and fiscal resources as a consequence associated with the transition from centralized the decentralized system. Thus, the devolution of agricultural extension function required local empowerment for self governance . The delivery of agricultural extension services by the local Government Units in Pangasinan Rogelio C. Evangelista, DPA
  19. 19. The management of internal control system of Millionaire Multi-Purpose Cooperatives operating in Region I. Scientific Management Theory. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), the Father of Scientific Management, assumed that labor is not the cause of most problems in business and it is only the management which can provide solutions to the problems of the business. Behavioral Management Theory. This theory as stated by Robert Owen, is that management must have concern on the worker's condition which affects the quality and quantity of his work. Mary Parker Follett is the psychologist who first applied psychology to busi-ness. Contingency Management Theory. The contingency theory focuses on the following: 1.) legal aspects; 2.) cultural considerations; and 3.) emerging field of public administration. This management theory attempts to explain the operation of the system by assessing the factors in a given situation Social Management Theory. This theory considers the system of management as a system of cultural interrelationship. It is also a social interaction dealing with other people, as well as, cultural relationships Quantitative Management Theory. This theory expresses mathematical models and measurable data. This emphasizes the creation of models, which state specific assumptions, purposes and necessity. The quantitative explanations of the condition of assumptions, purposes and problems become the foundation for decision-making. Agustin D. Cortez, Ph.D.
  20. 20. Based on the foregoing example 1. specifies the theory used as basis for the study 2. mentions the proponents of the theory 3. cites the main points emphasized in the theory 4. Supports his exposition of the theory by ideas from other experts; 5. illustrates his theoretical framework by means of a diagram; and, 6. reiterates his theoretical proposition in the study. J199 lecture, R.E.Khan
  21. 21. Proposed Theories
  22. 22. Hypothesis The hypothesis stated in the null form were tested at .05 level of significance: • There is no significant relationship between administrative capability and performance of LGUs in the Cordilleras. ADMINISTRATIVE CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS IN THE CORDILLERAS ROGELIO D. MERCADO, DPA
  23. 23. “THEORY OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE CAPABILITY” This inquiry has proven that there is a significant relationship between administrative capability and performance of the LGUs in CAR with an overall value of .843, interpreted as high positive correlation as supported by the “p” value of .000 which is highly significant even at .01 level. In view of this result, a THEORY OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE CAPABILITY is hereby proposed. The proposed theory postulates that as administrative capability of local government units increases, the resulting performance also gets better. This contemplation is also supported by the discovery that as problems in administrative capability become more serious, performance of LGUs declines.
  24. 24. “THEORY OF SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS” This investigation also revealed that social responsibility has a significant perfect correlation with performance which suggests that the sense of social responsibility of the LGUs is the most significant dimension of administrative capability that influences their performance while the lowest in significance is organization structure. This finding not only affirmed the inclusion of social responsibility as a dimension of administrative capability but also proved that social responsibility is the most dominant dimension that affects performance. In effect, this supports another contemplation that a “THEORY OF SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS” should be considered. This theory posits that as long as an organization is fully committed to the prosecution of socially desirable programs and services, no matter how high or flat its structure is, its performance shall be highly regarded by the people. For a government entity, this is the real essence of “Commitment to Public Interest.”