The Internet & Rural Development ME 216 Information & Communication Technology In Industry


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First Mile of Connectivity; Rural Radio in the Philippines; Lessons of Participatory Communications; GIS

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The Internet & Rural Development ME 216 Information & Communication Technology In Industry

  1. 1. The Internet & Rural Development ME 217 Information & CommunicationTechnology in Industry Presented by: Jo Anne Almonte-Marteja Master in Management Engineering Dr. Jo Bitonio Professor
  2. 2. Promoting access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in rural areas has been identified as an important tool to alleviate poverty. Through the use of ICT services, rural communities can find new income earning opportunities, improve the delivery of basic services, and enhance their participation in decision making processes.
  3. 3. Internet  It was conceived and designed in 1963 by Larry Roberts, working for the advance research projects agency (ARPA) with funding from the United States Department.  The Internet is relatively cheap, powerful, decentralized and potentially an ideal platform to build a flexible and powerful environment for sharing and learning. The Internet is the first communication tool that allows every user to be a sender, receiver, narrowcaster and broadcaster in a global sphere (Richardson, 1996).
  4. 4. “ The Philippines is a key country in Southeast Asia in terms of its digital economy and tech-savvy population. This new office will allow us to better engaged with our local users, partners and advertisers. Over 33 million Filipinos access the Internet regularly to study, shop, search for ideas, opportunities, create new businesses, and connect to each other. And Internet use is set to grow exponentially. Research indicates that number of Filipinos online will have nearly doubled by 2016!" said Julian Persaud, Managing Director of Google in Southeast Asia. Jan 31,2013 Search engine company, Google, has opened an office in Makati to help local business grow both here and abroad. It is a key part of the company's efforts to develop a range of products and services specifically suited for the Philippine market.
  5. 5. -There are over 33 million Internet users and 1.5 million broadband subscribers (ADMA 2012) -The Philippines is the second top Internet user in Southeast Asia, 6th in Asia and the 17th in the world. (Internet World statistics) TOP 20 COUNTRIES WITH HIGHEST NUMBER OF INTERNET USERS - JUNE 30, 2012 # Country or Region Population, 2012 Est Internet Users Year 2000 Internet Users Latest Data Penetration (% Population) Users % World 1 China 1,343,239,923 22,500,000 538,000,000 40.1 % 22.4 % 2 United States 313,847,465 95,354,000 245,203,319 78.1 % 10.2 % 3 India 1,205,073,612 5,000,000 137,000,000 11.4 % 5.7 % 4 Japan 127,368,088 47,080,000 101,228,736 79.5 % 4.2 % 5 Brazil 193,946,886 5,000,000 88,494,756 45.6 % 3.7 % 6 Russia 142,517,670 3,100,000 67,982,547 47.7 % 2.8 % 7 Germany 81,305,856 24,000,000 67,483,860 83.0 % 2.8 % 8 Indonesia 248,645,008 2,000,000 55,000,000 22.1 % 2.3 % 9 United Kingdom 63,047,162 15,400,000 52,731,209 83.6 % 2.2 % 10 France 65,630,692 8,500,000 52,228,905 79.6 % 2.2 % 11 Nigeria 170,123,740 200,000 48,366,179 28.4 % 2.0 % 12 Mexico 114,975,406 2,712,400 42,000,000 36.5 % 1.7 % 13 Iran 78,868,711 250,000 42,000,000 53.3 % 1.7 % 14 Korea 48,860,500 19,040,000 40,329,660 82.5 % 1.7 % 15 Turkey 79,749,461 2,000,000 36,455,000 45.7 % 1.5 % 16 Italy 61,261,254 13,200,000 35,800,000 58.4 % 1.5 % 17 Philippines 103,775,002 2,000,000 33,600,000 32.4 % 1.4 % 18 Spain 47,042,984 5,387,800 31,606,233 67.2 % 1.3 % 19 Vietnam 91,519,289 200,000 31,034,900 33.9 % 1.3 % 20 Egypt 83,688,164 450,000 29,809,724 35.6 % 1.2 % TOP 20 Countries 4,664,486,873 273,374,200 1,776,355,028 38.1 % 73.8 % Rest of the World 2,353,360,049 87,611,292 629,163,348 26.7 % 26.2 % Total World Users 7,017,846,922 360,985,492 2,405,518,376 34.3 % 100.0 % Penetration % population = internet users latest data X 100 population Users % World = internet users latest data X 100 total world internet users data
  6. 6. Rural Area population density is very low agriculture is the primary industry decline in the productivity and profitability of farming smaller farm sizes and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation and depleted fishing waters lag behind in economic growth and they have higher underemployment
  7. 7. Rural Population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
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  18. 18. The Internet and Rural Development Internet  a flexible, decentralized, information- sharing tool and has the potential to support variety of rural development endeavors.  initiate economic development for agricultural producers  expanding the effectiveness of community development programs  increasing the amount of participatory research conducted  promoting small business enterprises  improving news media networks
  19. 19. Drishtee is an India based business that provides information technology goods and services to rural India through village kiosks that are run and managed by local entrepreneurs. Some of the services provided by Drishtee include computer education, English courses, rural BPO, government services, health, insurance, e-commerce, microfinance etc. Through its low cost, direct delivery network of over 2,400 kiosks, Drishtee has impacted the lives of over 1.5 Million people in rural India. One of Drishtee's primary objectives is to empower rural communities by supporting local entrepreneurship and thus helping to stem the distress migration of people from rural to urban parts of the country. The organization was founded in 2000 and is currently led by its co-founder and managing director – Mr. Satyan Mishra. Nirvikar Singh,University of California, Santa Cruz,USA October 2006 The Internet and Rural Development
  20. 20. The Akshaya project, first started in the rural Malappuram district of Kerala, India, and now spread all around the state, was the first district-wide e-literacy project in India and one of the largest known Internet Protocol (IP) based wireless networks in the world. The project offers a lot of services in 2008: E-Pay (electronic payment of utility bills like electricity, land phone, drinking water, university fees etc.); E-Krishi (for farmers to provide online agriculture trading and information portal, A to Z Solution) E-Vidya (advanced IT learning for e-literates and others); E-Ticketing (online train, flight, bus ticket reservations); PMRY online registration; online passport registration; a village kiosk for transparent collectorate program, online communication providers for nonresidential Indians; an online medical transcription course, with extension programs for all the above mentioned services. Nirvikar Singh,University of California, Santa Cruz,USA October 2006 The Internet and Rural Development
  21. 21. The Internet and Rural Development n-Logue Communications Ltd. has created a for-profit business model designed to affordably meet the latent demand for rural connectivity. The company was incubated by the Telecommunications and Computer Networks (TeNeT) Group at the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras, as part of the group's mission to create appropriate and cost-effective technology solutions designed for developing countries. n-Logue aims to fulfill its stated mission of "significantly enhancing the quality of life of every rural Indian" by setting up a profitable network of wirelessly-connected Internet kiosks in villages throughout India. Copyright © 2005, Harsh Jain - Lakshmi NarayanaSwamy
  22. 22. TARAhaat is an e-business created to bring the benefits of the Internet to India's rural population. The business combines a mother portal,, with a network of franchised village Internet centers, or TARAkendras. TARAhaat delivers education, information, services, and online market opportunities to rural consumers via the Internet and its Kendra outposts. TARAhaat offers the first ICT-based solution for delivery high quality, affordable and relevant products and services to the people of rural India on a sustainable basis., 10/15/2008 The Internet and Rural Development
  23. 23. The Philippine government is currently experimenting on new wireless Internet technology, dubbed as “Super Wi-Fi,” to connect the more than 60 million Filipinos living in rural areas that are still out of reach of the Internet. Information and Communications Technology Office (ICTO) Executive Director Louis Casambre said they have already begun initial pilot tests of the technology in the Quezon City Science Community, with pilot tests in Western Visayas and Mindanao by the end of the year. He said full deployment is seen in the Visayas and Mindanao region by the end of 2013, with implementation in Luzon to follow in 2014. As much as 703 Mbps of bandwidth capacity will be available for deployment in rural areas, he added. With increased penetration in rural areas, Casambre said the Super Wi-Fi technology can jumpstart economic development by giving access to e-Commerce, e-Learning, and e- Government tools to rural folk, subsequently increasing their incomes and pushing the economic status upwards in the countryside. Govt looking at ‘SuperWi-Fi’ in bridging Internet divide in rural areas J. M.Tuazon, ·Tuesday, February 12, 2013 · The Internet and Rural Development
  24. 24. One Laptop per Child (OLCP) Program in Lubang Island, Mindoro Occidental The local government of Lubang Island in collaboration with non-government organizations, and private companies has launched the “OLPC” project that aims to provide free laptops to elementary students in the island in 2010- becoming the first OLPC adoption in Southeast Asia. The OLPC Program is an initiative intended for school children aged 6 to 12 years, residents of Lubang island, a low-class municipality in Mindoro Occidental, Visayas Region of the Philippines. The program aims to create educational opportunities by providing these school children with a rugged, low-cost, low-power and connected laptops bundled with software designed for collaborative, joyful, and self-empowered learning. This program equalizes the learning opportunity of learners in urban centers and those in remote areas thereby closing the digital gap. The Internet and Rural Development, May 17,2011
  25. 25. Boac Telerad Experience The experience of Boac Community eCenter (CeC) states the precedence for other CeCs to explore the convergence of new services and products in their communities. For years, Marinduque had no practicing radiologist/sonologist in the province; residents needed to go to laboratories located towns and cities as far as Metro Manila to have their x-ray and ultrasound results interpreted. Realizing the need for a more efficient system to deliver basic health services to its community, the local government of Boac used ICT to fill the gap in delivering health service with efficiency. With the help of the UP Telehealth Center, the Boac Teleradiology, an image sending station based in the Boac CeC, was born right after the re-election (2007) of Mayor Solomon, established at the Dr. Pablo Marquez Health and Diagnostic Center. The first-of-a-kind service has established Boac as the ‘Center for Teleradiology’, serving not only its municipality but the entire region of Marinduque. The Internet and Rural Development, May 17,2011
  26. 26. Basic and Customized Internet Literacy Course for Rural Women Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) piloted the implementation of the Basic and Customized Internet Literacy Course for Rural Women, a project which taps the potential of ICT to provide women in rural areas with accessibility tools to promote their local livelihood. Aside from the provision of access points, the project further aims train women in the rural communities on the use, application and services of ICT as a vehicle for improving their social and economic conditions. The project has been piloted in the CeCs of Bato, Leyte and Binalonan, Pangasinan in the Philippines. The program will be replicated as a training tool in other Philippine CeCs. The Internet and Rural Development, May 17,2011
  27. 27. The First Mile of Connectivity  Titus Moetsabi coined rural communities as being the ‘first mile of connectivity’, expresses a more equitable and far less urban-centric view of the challenge of providing everyone with the option of connecting themselves to the rest of the world and all it has to offer.  If rural communities are the "first mile," then the real challenge for enhancing rural connectivity lies with the urban-centered governments, businesses and agencies that have for so long ignored or placated the desires of rural people to get connected to the world.
  28. 28. The First Mile of Connectivity  For a rural person, getting connected is a means for sharing the wide range of options available to urbanites, a means for making better and more informed decisions, a means for staying in contact with friends and families who migrate to urban areas for work and education, a means for linking their businesses to the trade, transportation and commerce systems of urban areas, and a means for accessing the services (health, education, information, etc.) that enable urban people to improve their lives.
  29. 29. Solutions for rural connectivity are best developed with and for rural people. Rural people must be enabled to participate in making decisions about how and where telecommunication technologies will be put to use. Access to the technologies, and influence on their use, must be equitable across the diverse groupings within rural communities (including gender, class, ethnicity, age and wealth). To be sustainable, rural telecommunication technologies need to be designed with rural people as active participants in strategizing, planning, implementing and evaluating. The First Mile of Connectivity
  30. 30. A New Era of Accessibility: or Is It? Accessibility has always been important to retailers, politicians, and geographers, inter alia. Individual access refers to one’s ability to reach or obtain something (usually something desirable such as a paying job, medical care, or entertainment), and in the non-virtual world achieving access -often even access to information-requires physical mobility. In both physical and virtual access, one must know of the existence of a destination that will meet one’s needs, be aware of how such a destination might be found, and be able to reach the destination.
  31. 31. A New Era of Accessibility: or Is It? Grounded geographies shape the Internet by guiding the placement of IT infrastructure such that—at regional and even intraurban scales --physical access to the Internet closely resembles pre-Internet patterns of spatial access to goods and services. But physical access to Internet infrastructure alone does not equate to access. Pre-Internet geographies shape constraints on individuals’ accessibility to usable information and knowledge on the Internet in other ways as well.
  32. 32. Rural Radio in the Philippines Radio is the most reliable for distributing news, information and entertainment in the Philippines’rural interior, wher mountains often get in the way of TV signals. According to the National Commission on Culture and the Arts, radio reaches 85% of households in the country, whereas television reaches just under 60%. Source: Philippines: media and telecoms landscape guide. Infoasaid, 2012, p.13 Radios are everywhere, with at least 75% of households in developing countries having access to a radio. Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2012, p.248
  33. 33. Rural Radio in the Philippines  Radio is ‘the window to the world’ for many poor people. It has reached and helped people who are impoverished, ill and isolated, as well as minorities who have tended to be ignored and neglected.  Radio provides the needed reach, frequency, and access to rural and remote areas, making it a promising, appropriate and powerful tool for education. In addition, ownership and patronage among poor households are relatively high compared to other media forms, particularly in rural settings.
  34. 34. Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres  The provision of access to ICTs by rural communities in developing countries is likely to go through telecentres. The purpose of these considerations is to ensure that this development is as effective, efficient, sustainable and equitable as possible, so that the promise of the technology becomes a reality - a tool in the hands of rural people. ICTs will not fulfill their potential for rural development unless the special characteristics of the technologies are combined with applications, which focus on participatory communication and training methodologies.
  35. 35. Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres Telecentres are not just technology centres; they can also be living laboratories, which facilitate local sharing of information and ideas. A telecentre can take full advantage of global information as well as facilitate the creation of a common local development vision. Telecentres are not only a way to provide simple, single-point access to external information and services, but also a facility for local residents and groups to organize village meetings, video conferences and technology training to address their development needs.
  36. 36. When selecting locations for telecentres, consideration should be given to the level of potential demand for communication and information services from a large number and a wide range of users. The proximity of the telecentre to other organizations and institutions that can play roles in using, supporting, maintaining or operating the telecentre should be investigated. Infrastructural considerations should include: a location that is easily accessible to potential users; the availability of an existing structure; access to electricity; and connection to telephone lines and the Internet. Socio-cultural aspects that may affect the utilization of the telecentre, or which groups within the community have access to the telecentre, should be investigated. Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres
  37. 37. Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres  Local needs and skills assessment A participatory needs assessment can help to identify the information and training requirements of the local population. At the same time, it is important to uncover local skills and knowledge.  The communication for development approach Communication for development “begins with the needs of people in rural communities and grassroots agricultural organizations and works to establish vertical and horizontal channels of communication“ (Richardson, 1997).
  38. 38. Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres  Awareness building for ICTs To assist rural people to identify what technological applications, services and content they may need or want, they will have to be familiar with the uses of the technologies and the potential applications and content appropriate for their situations.  Links and integration with existing communication processes It is important to direct attention to how telecentre infrastructure and technology can best be configured or organized to facilitate group use.
  39. 39. Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres  Training Training for agricultural and rural development can do more than provide improved knowledge and skills for individuals - it can also improve the quality of life and the environment of rural communities by "development through collaborative learning“ (Bawden,1996).  Participatory monitoring and evaluation It is necessary to monitor and evaluate the process of telecentre development and implementation. The elements monitored should not only include the number of users and the telecentre services that are most utilized, but also the impact of the telecentre on the quality of life in rural areas.
  40. 40. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa Carmona is located on the southeastern part of the province of Cavite. A rapidly industrializing municipality that is located very close to Metro Manila. In this respect, it is an area where ICTs and competition among the various industry players are more observable. The lay out of the land is also relatively flat and much smaller compared to Puerto Princesa, and very few of its barangays are considered rural.
  41. 41. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa Puerto Princesa is a city located in the western provincial island of Palawan, Philippines. Though the provincial seat of government for Palawan, the city itself is one of 38 independent cities within the Philippines not controlled by the province in which it is geographically located and is therefore an independent area located within Palawan. One of the larger cities in the country with respect to land area. Despite of being a city, many of its barangays are still rural. There’s also a wide variety in barangays, with some located in the coast, some in farm lands, and others in mountainous areas.
  42. 42. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa Applying the Capabilities Approach to Access to ICTs
  43. 43. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa ICT Carmona n = 62 Puerto Princesa n = 53 Total Telephone 82% 96% 89% Cell phone 82% 70% 77% SMS 68% 62% 65% PC 37% 40% 38% E-mail 11% 21% 16% Location and Percentage ICT Use As far as ability to use ICTs are concerned , more people use phones than cell phones, and they use personal computers and email the least. Also, more People in Puerto Princesa have used the telephone and email even though they are farther than Carmona from Manila.
  44. 44. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa ICT Male (n = 47) Female (n = 68) N % N % Telephone 42 89 60 88 Cell phone 31 66 57 84 Knows SMS 27 57 48 71 Computers 15 32 29 43 Has e-mail address 4 9 14 21 Gender and ICT Use Women are more likely to be using cell phones, SMS, computers and email; except for the use of telephones where men have slight advantage. Filipino women have more access to ICT bodes well for development, because women, being the primary caregivers, are more likely to transmit these benefits to the rest of the family and community.
  45. 45. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa Has Used a Phone (%) Has Used a Cell phone (%) Can send SMS (%) Has Used a PC (%) Has email Account (%) Elementary (n = 15) 73 33 13 7 0 High School (n = 42) 83 79 62 19 2 College (n = 51) 100 86 82 65 31 Vocational (n = 5) 80 80 60 20 0 School for the Disabled (n = 1) 0 100 100 0 0 No Answer (n = 1) 100 100 100 100 100 Educational Attainment and Percentage ICT Use
  46. 46. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa Monthly House Hold Income Has Used a Phone (%) Has Used a Cell phone (%) Can send SMS (%) Has Used a PC (%) Has email Account (%) Less than 5000 (n = 13) 69 62 38 23 15 5000-10000 (n = 44) 89 75 68 23 5 10001-20000 (n = 15) 100 93 73 40 13 More than 20k (n = 20) 95 100 85 80 45 Does not know (n = 7) 86 57 57 43 0 No Answer (n = 13) 92 54 54 46 23 Income and Usage of ICT Use (per cent)
  47. 47. The Case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa ICT 12-49 years old (n = 87) % 50 and above (n = 27) % Telephone 91 85 Cell phone 86 44 Knows SMS 80 19 Computers 46 15 Has e-mail address 21 0 Age and Percentage Use of ICT The elderly (aged 50 and above) are less likely to use telephones, cell phones and computers. For the elderly and less educated, what may be the key is indirect access to the technology, and to the information and knowledge that comes with it.
  48. 48. What is GIS?  A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.  GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.  A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared.  GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework.
  49. 49. Five Components of GIS
  50. 50. Hardware Hardware capabilities affect the processing speed, ease of use and the type of output available. A GIS can run on a wide range of hardware types, ranging from desktop computers to large computer servers. Other hardware components include graphics devices, plotters, printers and scanners.
  51. 51. Software GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze, and display geographic information. Key software components are  a database management system (DBMS)  tools for the input and manipulation of geographic information  tools that support geographic query, analysis, and visualization  a graphical user interface (GUI) for easy access to tools
  52. 52. Data Data is the core of any GIS. There are two types of data used in a GIS spatial and tabular (also known as attribute data). The availability and accuracy of data will affect the results of any analysis. A GIS can integrate data from a number of different sources and store in a database management system.
  53. 53. Approaches Procedures are the defined methods used to analyze the data and produce accurate results. The procedures include access protocols, standards and guidelines.
  54. 54. People GIS technology is of limited value without the people who manage the system and to develop plans for applying it. GIS users range from technical specialists who design and maintain the system to those who use it to help them do their everyday work.
  55. 55. How GIS Works Spatial data refers to geographic areas or features. Features occupies a location. Non-spatial data has no specific location in space. It can however, have a geographic component and be linked to a geographic location.Tabular and attribute data are non- spatial but can be linked to location. Spatial and Non-spatial Data
  56. 56. How GIS Works Themes •Themes link features with their attributes •Themes are linked by geography •Collections of themes form a GIS database
  57. 57. How GIS Works Geographic databases (themes) can be used to solve problems like:  Visualizing customer locations is critical to businesses trying to make better marketing decisions. Site Location • Analyzing location is key to making decisions about where to set up a business or service.
  58. 58. How GIS Works Geographic databases (themes) can be used to solve problems like:  Presenting information as maps reveals relationships and patterns that may otherwise be hidden. Site Location Other applications include: •tracking delivery vehicles •recording details of planning applications •modelling global atmospheric circulation
  59. 59. How GIS Works Explicit Geographic Reference  latitude and longitude  national grid coordinate Implicit Geographic Reference  postal code  census tract name  forest stand identifier  road name  Geocoding = deriving implicit from explicit references. These geographic references allow you to locate features (like a business or forest stand) and events (like an earthquake) on the surface of the earth for analysis. Geo-coding and Geo-referencing
  60. 60. How GIS Works The vector model  information about points, lines, and polygons  encoded and stored as a collection of x,y coordinates The raster model  models continuous features  a collection of grid cells Data Models RealWorld Vector Raster
  61. 61. Benefits of GIS July 30,2013 GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. There is a growing awareness of the economic and strategic value of GIS. The benefits of GIS generally fall into five basic categories:  Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency  Better Decision Making  Improved Communication  Better Recordkeeping  Managing GeographicallyKuwait University uses GIS to design and build a multibillion-dollar expansion
  62. 62. Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency GIS is widely used to optimize maintenance schedules and daily fleet movements. Typical implementations can result in a savings of 10 to 30 percent in operational expenses through reduction in fuel use and staff time, improved customer service, and more efficient scheduling. GIS helped the City ofWoodland refine its fleet scheduling, saving fuel and labor.
  63. 63. Better Decision Making GIS is the go-to technology for making better decisions about location. Common examples include real estate site selection, route/corridor selection, evacuation planning, conservation, natural resource extraction, etc. Making correct decisions about location is critical to the success of an organization. This GIS-based disaster decision support system helpsTaiwan plan for and respond to typhoons.
  64. 64. Improved Communication GIS-based maps and visualizations greatly assist in understanding situations and in storytelling. They are a type of language that improves communication between different teams, departments, disciplines, professional fields, organizations, and the public. Michels Corporation Improves Collaboration and Communication
  65. 65. Better Recordkeeping Many organizations have a primary responsibility of maintaining authoritative records about the status and change of geography. GIS provides a strong framework for managing these types of records with full transaction support and reporting tools. Montana's GIS-Based Cadastre Layered with Riches.
  66. 66. Managing Geographically GIS is becoming essential to understanding what is happening—and what will happen—in geographic space. Once we understand, we can prescribe action. This new approach to management—managing geographically—is transforming the way that organizations operate. Kuwait University uses GIS to design and build a multibillion-dollar expansion.
  67. 67. What Can You Do with GIS GIS gives us a new way to look at the world around us. With GIS you can:  Map Where Things Are  Map Quantities  Map Densities  Find What's Inside  Find What's Nearby  Map Change
  68. 68. City Planning & Development Office Dagupan City, 2013 Perez Boulevard Rive ra St. Ga lva nSt. Zamo ra St. Bu rgo sSt. A . B. Fernandez Ave. Gom ez St. RizalSt. Bon ifac io St. Nueva St. Fern ande z St. Ca reen an St. Nable St. Dagupan-BonuanBeachRd. ParasRoad Dagupan-Bonuan-San Fabian Rd. Pangasinan-La Union Provincial Road Dagupan -LingayenRoad Dagupan-Nansangaan Road Gonzales St. San Gabriel Rd. Sta Maria Rd. Longos Rd Ayusip Rd. Ju dge Jo se DeVen ec ia Sr.Ave . Ta pu ac Rd . Jove llano s St. BONUAN BINLOC BONUAN BOQUIGBONUAN GUESET CARAEL LUCAO TAMBAC BOLOSAN SALISAY MALUED PEREZ GuibangRd. He rre ro St. East Central E/S Rd. R io fe rio R oad Ca ran gla an- Teb eng Rd . Bac aya o Sur Rd. Highlander Rd. Puela y Rd. lPilarSt. Arella no St. Sapitan Rd. Don Basilio SolanoRd. SitoDumoro gRd. Don Pa bloDiazRd . Don Pro ceso Bau tistaRd. Don Pro ces o Dia z Rd. Do n Proc es o Ba utist a Rd . RizalSt.Extension Siti o Pat alan Rd. Ar en as Rd . Ca lle jon Rd . R iv er si de R d. Or ien za Rd . BRGY. I Reyes St. Intra mur os St. Do na Ro sa Rd . OESTE TAPUAC Bac ayao Sur- Cara ngla an Rd. Bayanih an Village Rd. Sanggu nian Village Rd. Hid alg oRd. Dagupan-CalasiaoRd. Sa n Ro qu e Vi lla ge St .Ma rin as Rd . BRGY. IV MAMALINGLING MAYOMBO POGO CHICO CALMAY POBLACION HERRERO Lingayen Gulf LASIP GRANDE POGO GRANDE BACAYAO NORTE LASIP CHICO TEBENG CARANGLAAN MANGIN BRGY.II-III PUGARO PANTAL SALAPINGAO Municipality of Municipality of Mangaldan San Fabian 0 0.5 1 Kilometers LOMBOY MunicipalityofBinmaley Municipality of Calasiao N E S W SUR BACAYAO M elendez Rd. LINGAYEN GULF
  69. 69. Legend: yellow circle: 0-65km deep green circle: 66-150km deep red circle: 151-300km deep blue circle: 300km deep and more Figure ____ SEISMICITY MAP OF DAGUPAN CITY AND VICINITY Magnitude 1.0 and above 1907-Aug 2010 Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
  70. 70. Sources: The Internet and Rural Development By Don Richardson Department of Rural Extension Studies, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada A new era of accessibility: or is it? By Sarah Niles and Susan Hanson School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 Interim Findings on Universal Access to ICT’s : the case of Carmona and Puerto Princesa By Erwin Alampay, NCPAG, University of the Philippines and The Center for Regulation and Competition, IDPM, University of Manchester Dagupan City Comprehensive Land Use Plan (2002-2032) UP Planning and Development Research foundation, Inc. July 2002