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Strategic Planning Models


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Strategic Models for the government, corporate and education

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Strategic Planning Models

  1. 1. byEusebioF. MiclatJr. DevelopmentPlanning & Budgeting, PSU (2004)
  2. 2. Roxanne Liza E. Garcia Marz Josef B. Mazon Vic Justin D. de Guzman Randy Roger A. Gandol Reporters: Professor: Jo B. Bitonio DM 214/ME 217 Strategic Planning
  3. 3. - defined as the series of steps or phases of procedures and activities undertaken or followed in doing a particular activity. - can be reflected or drawn in illustration, graphical or symbolic terms atypical of a model.
  4. 4. - provides proper guidance in what ought to be done in practice. - also dictate explicitly what people ought to do in order for them to act accordingly and behave rationally so as to ascertain the successful completion of the step or process of activities.
  5. 5. - In the field of economics and public administration, strategic planning is viewed as development planning. In this perspective, development planning is the process of determining in advance the best possible way of achieving specified development objectives within given time period at the least possible cost.
  6. 6.  The most comprehensive and perhaps most “revolutionary” of the development plans was the Five-Year Integrated Socioeconomic Program for the Philippines (1961-1964), launched in the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal
  7. 7.  Its vision remained the prosperity of the people and its principal goal the expansion of the gross domestic product by the compound rate of 6 percent per year over the 1961-1965 period.  To achieve this goal, its principal instrument was an annual investment of P2,410 million or a total of P12,053 over the plan period. This investment was to come from domestic saving, which must increase from 12.7 percent of gross income in 1960 to about 16 percent by 1965. What domestic saving could not finance, some 11 percent of the programmed investment would come from foreign investment. Other instruments for plan execution were monetary, fiscal, and trade policies.
  8. 8.  The Four-Year Development Plan FY 1972-1975, under President Ferdinand Marcos had two distinguishing characteristics: (1) its espousal of a new development strategy and (2) its use, for the first time in Philippine planning, of a formally specified macroeconomic model to underpin its estimates.  The Plan carried about the same vision and goals as previous plans: higher per capita income (with GNP increasing at an average rate of 6.9 percent and per capita income increasing at an average of 3.7 percent, assuming a constant 3.1 percent increase in population), greater employment, more equitable income distribution, internal stability, and regional industrialization and development
  9. 9.  The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 1987-1992 under the administration of President Corazon Aquino had the same vision as previous plans—the uplift and prosperity of the people.  For the first time, however, the alleviation of poverty was mentioned as a major goal. Other goals were: the generation of more productive employment, the promotion of equity and social justice, and the attainment of sustainable economic growth where sustainable economic growth was defined as growth of the gross national product at 6.8 percent per year on the average
  10. 10.  The vision that illumined the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 1993-1998, prepared in the administration of President Fidel Ramos, was prosperity for Filipinos and the uplift of many from the clutches of poverty.  The Plan cast the goal in positive terms, however: “The goal of all economic development efforts is the development of the human person and the improvement of the quality of life
  11. 11.  The overriding objective of the Medium- Term Philippine Development Plan (2001-2004), prepared under the leadership of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, has expanded to include the eradication of poverty as a major goal.
  12. 12.  The goal has four components, namely, (a) macroeconomic stability with equitable growth based on free enterprise, (b) agriculture and fisheries modernization with social equity, (c) comprehensive human development and protection for the vulnerable, and (d) good governance and the rule of law
  13. 13.  "Angat Pinoy 2004" or the Medium- Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) lays the groundwork of the Estrada Administration for sustainable development and growth with equity. Sustainable development means growth without sacrificing environmental sustainability while growth is needed to generate sufficient employment and livelihood for everyone. And equity, so that this growth will benefit everyone.
  14. 14.  The general principles for Angat Pinoy 2000 are the acceleration of rural development, expanded access to basic social services, infrastructure development and a globally competitive industry and services. All of these must be accompanied by responsible fiscal management .
  15. 15. PGMA'S 10-POINT DEVELOPMENT AGENDA 1. Creation of six to ten million jobs BY A. tripling loans for small business owners, and B. B. development of one to two million hectares of land for agricultural business 2. Education for all, THRU A. the construction of new school buildings, and classrooms, B. provision of books and computers for students, and scholarships to poor families 3. Balance the national budget in view of the country's debilitating deficit woes; Strong Republic 2004–2010 THE BASIC TASKS “The basic task of our Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 2004- 2010 is to fight poverty and build prosperity for the greatest number of Filipino people. We must open up economic opportunities, maintain socio-political stability, and promote good stewardship --- all to ensure a better quality of life for all our citizens. We will focus on strategic measures and activities that will spur economic growth and create jobs. This can only be done with a common purpose to put our economic house back in working order.” - President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
  16. 16. 3. balance the national budget in view of the country's debilitating deficit woes; 4 . decentralization of progress and development across the country through the development of transportation networks like the roll-on, roll-off ferries and digital infrastructure ; 5. provision of power and water supply to all barangays; 6. decongestion of Metro Manila by forming new cores of government and housing centers in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao;
  17. 17. 7. development of Clark and Subic as the logistics center in Asia; 8. automation of the electoral process; 9. peace agreements with rebel groups; and, 10. "closure of wounds" caused by divisions due to EDSA 1, 2 and 3.
  18. 18. Economic Growth & Job Creation Energy Social Justice & Basic Needs Education & Youth Opportunity Anti-Corruption & Good Governance Fight poverty and build prosperity for the greatest number Trade & Investment Agribusiness Environment & Natural Resources Housing Construction Tourism Infrastructure Fiscal Strength The Financial Sector Labor Energy Independence Power Sector Reforms Responding to Basic Needs of the Poor National Harmony: Automated Elections National Harmony: The Peace Process National Harmony: Healing the Wounds of EDSA Basic Needs: Peace and Order Rule of Law Education Science & Technology Anti-Corruption Bureaucratic Reforms Culture Responsive Foreign Policy Constitutional Reforms Defense Against Threats to National Security Source: NEDA 2004
  19. 19.  DP 2011-2016 is good governance and anti- corruption in achieving inclusive growth, which creates massive employment opportunities and significantly reduces poverty.  “Inclusive growth, not the trickle-down and jobless growth that we had in the past years, is the primary aim of the Plan
  20. 20. The PDP 2011-2016 translates the President’s “Social Contract with the Filipino People” into effective, efficient and inclusive
  21. 21. The NEDA is the Philippines' social and economic development planning and policy coordinating body. The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), as mandated by the Philippine Constitution, is the country’s independent economic development and planning agency. It is headed by the President as chairman of the NEDA board, with the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning, concurrently NEDA Director- General, as vice-chairman. Several Cabinet members, the Central Bank Governor, ARMM and ULAP are likewise members of the NEDA Board
  22. 22. Six government agencies are attached to the NEDA for purposes of administrative supervision. These are the:  Tariff Commission (TC); Philippine National Volunteer Service Coordinating Agency (PNVSCA); National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB); National Statistics Office (NSO); and Statistical Research and Training Center (SRTC). Moreover, the, Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) is attached to the NEDA for policy and program coordination or integration.
  23. 23. NEDA, 1993
  24. 24.  Development Planning Model (NEDA, 1993)  Development Planning Process Model (NEDA, 2001)  Strategic Framework for Special Development (2011- 2016)
  25. 25. Plans Program Projects Fig.1 Development Planning Model (NEDA, 1993) Policies Strategies Implementa tion Monitoring Evaluation Situational Analysis Goal Objective
  26. 26. 1. Goal-setting 2. Situational information 3. Policy/Strategy formulation 4. Plans/Programs/Projects 5. Implementation 6. Evaluation
  27. 27. NEDA, 2001
  28. 28. Situation Analysis Project Preparation Goals Objectives Targets Policies Strategies Program Project Identification Investment Programming Budgeting Implemen- tation and Monitoring Evaluation and Plan Update Feedback loop Figure 2. Development Planning Process Model (NEDA, 2001) Studies Planning Programming Budgeting Implementation Evaluation researches
  29. 29. 1. Situational analysis 2. Goal/ objective/ target setting 3. Policy/ strategy formulation 4. Program/ project identification 5. Investment programming 6. Budgeting 7. Implementation and monitoring 8. Evaluation and plan update
  30. 30. - require the conduct of survey and research studies - the survey calls for the gathering of socio cultural, demographic, economic, physical and natural data and information in the environment - shall also be undertaken indicating root and present performances, programs and projects, manpower resources, budget and buildings, facilities and equipment - the data are analyzed and projected in order to identify issues and parameters, constraints and problems, and resources and opportunities which are used as inputs in planning.
  31. 31. - a goal is a broad statement of an image of the future the organization seeks to achieve. - objectives which emanates from the goal, refers to medium-range expectation which is pursued to satisfy the goal - target is the most specific statement of purpose which is measurable and achievable.
  32. 32. More specific policy statements and strategies formulated for each area of concern to as social, economic, physical, political and developmental administrative aspects for a particular period.
  33. 33. - in order to effectively channel resources to development programs and projects considered strategic in the over all attainment of goal. - prioritization of program and project is done through the conduct of feasibility studies to a listing of priorities viewed as responsive to the development needs of the people.
  34. 34. - is the process of rational listing of programs and projects planned to be undertaken within a given time frame for the purpose of enhancing the process of asset generation and capital accumulation for some desired future benefits for the institution. (Miclat, 2005).
  35. 35. - the costing of identified priority program and projects.
  36. 36. - Results, in terms of outputs, after a year of implementation, and outcomes after about four to five years of implementation, in terms of effects and impacts, are evaluated. These outputs and outcomes are feed backed to managers and planners for decision-making and planning process of updating the plan.
  37. 37.  Trade, Industry and Tourism  Agribusiness  Infrastructure Development  Governance  Special Development  Sustainably Managed Environment
  38. 38. Production/ Investment Promotion Strategies Framework for More Vibrant Agribusiness OUTPUT PROCESS INPUT Vibrant Agri- business Food Security and Safety Value Adding/ Creation Institutional Development and Linkages Good AP/MP Adoption of Appropriate Faming System Value Adding/ Creation Value Adding/ Creation Value Adding/ Creation Value Adding/ Creation Value Adding/ Creation Value Adding/ Creation Value Adding/ Creation Production Investment Promotion
  39. 39. INPUT Policies and Plans Livelihood Assistance Law Enforcement and Regulation R&D/ Impact Assessment Studies Capability Development IEC and Social Mobilization PROCESS Large Ecosystem Management Multi-stakeholder Forestry Management Coastal Resource Management Public-Private Partnership Disaster Risk Management Climate Change Adaptation OUTPUT Habitat Protection and Restoration Environment and Natural Resources Integrity Employment and Livelihood Watershed and Water Supply Conservation Natural/ Man-made Hazards Prevention Pollution Reduction S U S T A I N A B L E M A N A G I N G E N V I R O N M E N T S T A K E H O L D E R S
  40. 40. Strategies Framework for Infrastructure Development Agricultural Development Tourism/ Industrial Development Human Resource Development Infrastructur e Support Poverty Reduction Ports, Airports, Access Roads, Power & Comm. AccessRoads,Power, Communication &WaterSupply Irrigation,FC, FMRs,Power& Communication
  41. 41. National/Local Policies and budget for Social Services (Health, Education, Social Welfare and Protection & Housing) Social facilities, Typhoon resistant , School building, hospitals, communication facilities Scholarship programs Training programs/ capacity building Livelihood/ financial assistance Legal instruments/ policies Infrastructure Support Facilities Health and Nutrition and Population programs /services  NGA-LGU Collaboration  LGU Support  Advocacy/IEC  Public – Private Partnership Job/Employment Opportunities Skilled/Competent Manpower Adaptive/Resilient Communities Road Network/Rural Service Centers Social Protection Schemes INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUT
  42. 42. RLAs SUCs LGUs NGOs POs Capacity Programs Incentive Systems Disaster Management Trainings Information Sharing/ Interactive Forum Legal Instrument; Policies( Good Governance, Transparency , etc. Guidelines/ Circulars; Manuals on Resource Allocation and Revenue Generation Institutional Development/ Partnership Public Information; Advocacy Campaigns Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Adaptation Civic Spiritedness/ Volunteerism Performance Evaluation Monitoring the implementation of laws, rules and regulation More Adaptation; Prepared Communities Competent LGU Officials and Personnel Operational and Reliable Public Financial Management System Peaceful and Orderly Environment Accountable and Transparent RLAs and LGUs Open and Responsive Communication Schemes RLAs INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
  43. 43.  The development of business strategies, including models to conceptualize this development, is an important subject in strategic planning. Most models are normative, showing the stages that are seen as necessary or at least desirable in the development of business strategies. It often departs from the business mission, which is seen as the central objective of the organization, to which the goals and strategies are subordinated.  The business mission determines what to analyze. After the analysis, goals are formulated and worked out step by step towards individual actions. Steiner is generally regarded as the founding father of strategic planning. In his model, published in 1979, several of the above-mentioned stages can be recognized (see Figure 1). (G. A. Steiner, 1979)
  44. 44. 1. Plan to plan 2. Expectations of major outside interest 3. Expectations of major inside interest 4. The data base 5. Evaluation of the environment and the company
  45. 45. 1. Plan-to-plan and gathering substantive information needed in the development. - substantive planning premises consist of 4 sub-steps of data gathering known as corporate appraisal or credit. 1. the collection of expectations of major outside interest groups, namely, society, community, stockholders, customers, suppliers and creditors. 2. Generation of expectation of major inside interest group like managers, employees and staff. 3. Collection of data about the past performances of the company, its current situation and the future. 4. Analysis of strengths and witness of the organization and threats and opportunities in the environment.
  46. 46. - Covers the entire range of managerial activities such matters as motivation, compensation, management appraisal and control processes.
  47. 47. 6. Master and program strategies 7. Medium-range programming and programs 8. Short-range planning and plans
  48. 48. 9. Implementation of plans 10. Review and evaluation of plans
  49. 49. The second model is equally used in the corporate world of business. It has seven general step in corporate into a systems model shown in figure (N. Capon et al..1987)
  50. 50. Information Inputs Planning Tools Planning Organization Planning Activities Organizational Planning Environment Planning Process outputs Planning Outputs/ Performance Interface Process Input Output
  51. 51. 1. Information Inputs -data collected externally and internally for planning purposes. 2. Planning Tools - models and conceptual frameworks employed to organize and analyze the information inputs. 3. Planning Organization - concerned with the people and organizational positions that are involved in planning and their degree of involvement and influence in the process.
  52. 52. 4. Planning Activities - the what and how of planning 5. Organizational Planning - covers the internal environment in which planning takes place. - includes relationships between planning and line management
  53. 53. 6. Planning Process Outputs - comprise the plans as to their contents, tools, and strategies. 7. Planning Outputs / Performance Interface - concerned with what happens after the plans are produced. - it deals with the evaluation process of organization’s performance versus planned goals and represents the key feedback component of the planning process.
  54. 54. This model is recommended for use by medium- sized and small business and industrial organizations and for government and non-profit organizations. This model differs from others in its emphasis on application and implementation, values-driven, decision-making, and on creatively envisioning the ideal organizational future.
  55. 55. to make certain that there is organizational commitment to the process especially by top management and major stakeholders. A. Environmental Monitoring - gathering of data on the macro, industry, competition, and organization’s internal environment. B. Application considerations - continuous application aspects as to the integration and checking of the plans.
  56. 56. - examination and analysis of the beliefs and values of the stakeholders, top management and the planning team. - involves developing a clear statement of what business the organization is into and attempting to fulfill in society or the economy - should answer the questions of “what”, “whom”, “how” and “why”.
  57. 57. - involves the organizations initial attempt to spell out in detail the paths by which the mission is to be accomplished - done by analyzing the organization’s strengths and weaknesses and of the external environment threats and opportunities (SWOT).
  58. 58. - identification of gaps between the current organizational performance and the desired future. - to facilitate allocation of resources and identify possible trouble spots.
  59. 59. - developed as a response to unanticipated factors in the planning process. - Involves the concurrent initiation of several tactical and operational plans.
  60. 60. - developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory in cooperation with the Oregon Education Coordinating Council to increase both intra-system and inter-system planning effectiveness in the state.
  61. 61. INFORMATION SYSTEM Strategic Planning Model (Bell et al., 1989)
  62. 62. - includes identification of problems, definition of policy objectives, and assignment of institutional roles and resources. 1. Needs Identification 2. Problem Definition 3. Problem Analysis
  63. 63. 4. Program Selection 5. Generate Alternative Strategies 6. Program Design 7. Program Implementation 8. Evaluation
  64. 64. -focuses on a school or school district as the frame of planning reference
  65. 65. Priority Selection Beliefsand Values External Scanning External canning Critical Success Factors Vision#1 StrategicGoals StrategicObjectives Vision#2 NeedsAssessment Whatis?Whatshouldbe? DecisionRules Achievable Affordable Meaningful 80%SuccessDevelopActionPlans -Brainstorming -ForceFieldAnalysis -CostBenefit -SelectBestAlternative AllocateResources and OperatePlans M i s s i o n S W O T A n a l y s i s Strategic Planning Model (Herman and Herman, 1994)
  66. 66. 1. Vision #1 2. a. Beliefs and values b. Environmental scanning: Internal and External c. Critical Success factors 3. Vision #2 4. Mission Statement 5. Strategic Goals 6. SWOT Analysis
  67. 67. 7. Strategic Objectives 8. Decision Rules and Priority Selection 9. Action Plans 10. Allocate resources and operate plans
  68. 68. Ideal Vision MICRO MACRO MEGA Identifyand SelectNeeds Make/But/Obtain Resources DefineCurrent Mission DeriveMission Objective Identify SWOT DeriveLongand Short-Term Missions DeriveStrategic Plans DeriveTactical andOperational Plans Implement Determine Effectiveness/ Efficiency ContinuousImprove- mentFormative Evaluation Revise/Improve AsRequired Strategic Planning Model (Kaufman et al., 2002)
  69. 69. 1. Ideal Vision 2. Identify and select needs 4. Derive mission objectives 3. Define current mission 5. Identify SWOT 6. Derive long and short-term mission 7. Derive strategic plan
  70. 70. 8. Derive tactical and operational plans 9. Make / buy / obtain resources 10. Implement 11. Continuous improvement / formative evaluation 12. Determine effective and efficiency. Revise / improve as required
  71. 71. Organization and Staffing Investment Programming Environment Scanning Policy Strategy Formulation Program/ Project Identification Vision Budgetin g Implementatio n Evaluatio n Plan Update Effect Impact Training Project Preparation INTERNAL EXTERNAL S.W.O.T. FRAMEWORK MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES TARGETS INPUT OUTCOME OUTPU T PROCES S
  72. 72. Reference: Miclat, Jr. Eusebio F. (2004) Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU, 2004 Gonzalo M. Jurado (2003) Growth Models, Development Planning, and Implementation in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Development Number 55, Volume XXX, No. 1, First Semester 200 Nico Nieboer Strategic planning models: a step further Delft University of Technology OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies Delft The Netherlands accessed July 24, 2013 Educational_planning_models.doc CLSU Open University www.openuni-
  73. 73. Paul J. Myers, Ph.D. United States Army Aviation School and Center (USAALS) Organizational Change Case Study Organization Transformation Models: A Normative Approach to Organization Development accessed July 27, 2013 Good Governance for a Better Tomorrow Policy Agenda, Fiscal and Macroeconomic Updates Philippine International Convention Center Pasay City, Philippines Philippine Economic Briefing 6 March 2012