Strategic Planning Models by Dr. Eusebio F. Miclat Jr. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU (2004)


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Planning Process Model

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Strategic Planning Models by Dr. Eusebio F. Miclat Jr. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU (2004)

  1. 1. Reporters: Melchor C. Agpasa Rodel P. Hacla Brian L. Quero Professor: Jo B. Bitonio DM 214 Strategic Planning
  2. 2. <ul><li>Planning Model </li></ul><ul><li>- a set of variables classified as endogenous and exogenous, cause effect relationships among these variables and the consistency of these relations. </li></ul><ul><li>- attempts to explained when a model of its endogenous variables and exogenous variables. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>- it is explained when a model of its endogenous variables can be determined, given those of the exogenous variables. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>- first scholar to develop a typology of planning models. </li></ul><ul><li>- used the acronym SITAR for the five planning in his topology. </li></ul><ul><li>S – Synoptic Model </li></ul><ul><li>I – Incremental Model </li></ul><ul><li>T – Transactive Model </li></ul><ul><li>A – Advocacy Model </li></ul><ul><li>R – Radical Model </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>- Identical to the popular rational model </li></ul><ul><li>- includes 4 classical elements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal Setting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of means against ends </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>- suggests that planning is contained more by available means than by the definition of the goals </li></ul><ul><li>- planned change at any level – institutional, sectoral and national – typically represents small adjustments from the past. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>- emphasizes interaction and interpersonal dialogue and the process of mutual learning in planning. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>- underscores the confrontational characteristics of decision-making. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>- has two versions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous activism is guided by self-reliance and mutual aid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on situational characteristics of nations or systems that inhibit the equitable distribution of goods and services. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>- Introduced three other alternative models in addition to the rational and incremental models. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Scanning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Adaptive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General System Models </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>- more realistic that the rational model and was passive than the incremental model </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>- treats planning as a process of social learning built on individual psychological development that is best realized in small, non-hierarchical groups </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>- attempts to use the idea of a system as a unifying scientific paradigm </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>- group and classified into two groups the typologies developed by Hudson and Wilson as well as other theorists. </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Synoptic Political System </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Allocation Incremental </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Allocation Organizational Development </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Return Learning Adaptive </li></ul><ul><li>Satisficing Mixed Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>- presents the most popular rational model in educational planning literature and practice which calls it as the technicist model. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>- expert-driven, assumes a linear process of decision-making , levels to treat the organization as a “black box” and severely limits the numbers of variables examined to quantifiable indicators of educations effects. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>- views planning as a dynamic, shifting process of interaction and exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>- it rejects the assumption of rational </li></ul><ul><li> decision- making </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>- recognizes education as an open human system located in a social environment too indefinite and inconstant to allow easy generalizations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Model Process Structure Technology Technicist Analytical and administrative activities by oligarchy of specialist Centralized planning offices; clear lines of authority Systems analysis, cost benefit studies, programming techniques, MIS Political Exchange, negotiation, cooptation by various stakeholding groups Centralized goal and policy mechanism; diffuse means of articulation and less formal and aggregation of interests Combination of formal analytical and information systems and less formal information exchange Consensual Dialogue, consciousness-raising Decentralized small face to face groups Delphi, team intervention
  19. 20. <ul><li>- defined as the series of steps or phases of procedures and activities undertaken or followed in doing a particular activity. </li></ul><ul><li>- can be reflected or drawn in illustration, graphical or symbolic terms atypical of a model. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>- provides proper guidance in what ought to be done in practice. </li></ul><ul><li>- also dictate explicitly what people ought to do in order for them to act accordingly and behave rationally so as to ascertain the successful completion of the step or process of activities. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>- the process of determining in advance the best possible way of achieving specified development objectives within given time period at the least possible cost </li></ul>Development Planning - the process of determining in advance the best possible way of achieving specified development objectives within given time period at the least possible cost
  22. 23. NEDA, 1993
  23. 24. Plans P rogram P rojects Fig.1 Development Planning Model (NEDA, 1993) Policies Strategies I mplementation M onitoring E valuation S ituational A nalysis G oal O bjective
  24. 25. <ul><li>Goal-setting </li></ul><ul><li>Situational information </li></ul><ul><li>Policy/Strategy formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Plans/Programs/Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  25. 26. NEDA, 2001
  26. 27. Figure 2. Development Planning Process Model (NEDA, 2001) Situation Analysis Project Preparation Goals Objectives Targets Policies Strategies Program Project Identification Investment Programming Budgeting Implemen-tation and Monitoring Evaluation and Plan Update Feedback loop Studies Planning Programming Budgeting Implementation Evaluation researches
  27. 28. <ul><li>Situational analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Goal/ objective/ target setting </li></ul><ul><li>Policy/ strategy formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Program/ project identification </li></ul><ul><li>Investment programming </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation and plan update </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>- require the conduct of survey and research studies </li></ul><ul><li>- the survey calls for the gathering of socio cultural, demographic, economic, physical and natural data and information in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>- shall also be undertaken indicating root and present performances, programs and projects, manpower resources, budget and buildings, facilities and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>- the data are analyzed and projected in order to identify issues and parameters, constraints and problems, and resources and opportunities which are used as inputs in planning. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>- a goal is a broad statement of an image of the future the organization seeks to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>- objectives which emanates from the goal, refers to medium-range expectation which is pursued to satisfy the goal </li></ul><ul><li>- target is the most specific statement of purpose which us measurable and achievable. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>- framed, more specific policy statements and strategies formulated for each area of concern to as social, economic, physical, political and developmental administrative aspects for a particular period. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>- in order to effectively channel resources to development programs and projects considered strategic in the over all attainment of goal. </li></ul><ul><li>- prioritization of program and project is done through the conduct of feasibility studies to a listing of priorities viewed as responsive to the development needs of the people. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>- the costing of identified priority program and projects. </li></ul>Implementation Actual carrying out of funded priority programs and projects by concerned offices and individuals of the organization or the sectoral agency of government
  33. 35. <ul><li>Steiner, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>- devised and used extensively by a number of business companies in the US providing different products. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Information flow Expectations of inside group Society community Stockholders Customers Suppliers creditors The Plan to plan Decisions and Evaluation rules Evaluation of environment Opportunities Threats Company Strengths Expectations of inside groups Top managers Hourly workers staff Data Base Past Perform Current Sit Forecasts Expectations of inside groups Top managers Hourly workers staff Master Strategies Mission Purposes Objectives Program Strategies Medium Range Programming and Programs Short range planning and plans Implementa-tion of plans Review and evaluation of plan Strategic planning Tactical Planning
  35. 37. <ul><li>Plan to plan </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of major outside interest </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of major inside interest </li></ul><ul><li>The data base </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the environment and the company </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Plan-to-plan and gathering substantive information needed in the development. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- substantive planning premises consist of 4 sub-steps of data gathering known as corporate appraisal or credit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Collection of expectations of major outside interest groups, namely, society, community, stockholders, customers, suppliers and creditors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Generation of expectation of major inside interest group like managers, employees and staff. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Collection of data about the past performances of the company, its current situation and the future. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Analysis of strengths and witness of the organization and threats and opportunities in the environment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>- Covers the entire range of managerial activities such matters as invitation, compensation, management appraisal and control processes. </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>6. Master and program strategies </li></ul><ul><li>7. Medium-range programming and programs </li></ul><ul><li>8. Short-range planning and plans </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>9. Implementation of plans </li></ul><ul><li>10. Review and evaluation of plans </li></ul>
  40. 43. Information Inputs Planning Tools Planning Organization Planning Activities Information Inputs Planning Process outputs Planning Outputs/ Performance Interface Process Input Output
  41. 44. <ul><li>1. Information Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- data collected externally and internally for planning purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Planning Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- models and conceptual frameworks employed to organize and analyze the information inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Planning Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- concerned with the people and organizational positions that are involved in planning and their degree of involvement and influence in the process </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>4. Planning Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- the what and how of planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Organizational Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- covers the internal environment in which planning takes place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- includes relationships between planning and line management </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>6. Planning Process Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- comprise the plans as to their contents, tools, and strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Planning Outputs / Performance Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- concerned with what happens after the plans are produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- it deals with the evaluation process of organization’s performance versus planned goals and represents the key feedback component of the planning process </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>It puts emphasis on application and implementation, values-driven decision-making and on creatively envisioning the ideal organizational structure. </li></ul>
  45. 48. Application Considerations Environmental Monitoring Planning to plan Mission Formulation Contingency Planning Implementation Performance Audit Gap Analysis Values Scan Integra- ting Action Plans Strategic Business Modeling
  46. 49. <ul><li>A. Environmental Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- gathering of data on the macro, industry, competition, and organization’s internal environment </li></ul></ul>B. Application considerations - continuous application aspects as to the integration and checking of the plans
  47. 50. <ul><ul><li>- examination and analysis of the beliefs and values of the stakeholders, top management and the planning team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- involves developing a clear statement of what business the organization is into and attempting to fulfill in society or the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- should answer the questions of “what”, “whom”, “how” and “why” </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><ul><li>- involves the organizations initial attempt to spell out in detail the paths by which the mission is to be accomplished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- done by analyzing the organization’s strengths and weaknesses and of the external environment threats and opportunities (SWOT) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><ul><li>- identification of gaps between the current organizational performance and the desired future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- to facilitate allocation of resources and identify possible trouble spots </li></ul></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><ul><li>- developed as a response to unanticipated factors in the planning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- initiation of several tactical and operational plans </li></ul></ul>
  51. 55. <ul><li>- developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory in cooperation with the Oregon Education Coordinating Council to increase both intra-system and inter-system planning effectiveness in the state. </li></ul>
  52. 56. INFORMATION SYSTEM STRATEGIC PLANNING CONTROL TACTICAL PLANNING Program Monitoring and Evaluation Needs ID Problem Definition Problem Analysis Program Selection Generate Alternative Strategies Program Design Program Implementation
  53. 57. <ul><li>- includes identification of problems, definition of policy objectives, and assignment of institutional roles and resources </li></ul><ul><li>1. Needs Identification </li></ul><ul><li>2. Problem Definition </li></ul><ul><li>3. Problem Analysis </li></ul>
  54. 58. <ul><li>4. Program Selection </li></ul><ul><li>5. Generate Alternative Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>6. Program Design </li></ul><ul><li>7. Program Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>8. Evaluation </li></ul>
  55. 59. <ul><li>-focuses on a school or school district as the frame of planning reference </li></ul>
  56. 60. Mission SWOT Analysis V I S I O N #1 Critical Success Factors Internal Scanning External Scanning Beliefs and Values Vision #2 Needs Assessment What is? What should be Strategic Goals Strategic Objectives Priority Selection Decision Rules Achievable Affordable Meaningful 80% Success Develop Action Plans -Brainstorming -Force Field Analysis -Cost benefit -Select best alternative Allocate Resources and Operate Plans
  57. 61. <ul><li>1. Vision #1 </li></ul><ul><li>2. a. Beliefs and values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Environmental scanning: Internal and External </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Critical Success factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Vision #2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Mission Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Strategic Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. SWOT Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  58. 62. <ul><li>7. Strategic Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>8. Decision Rules and Priority Selection </li></ul><ul><li>9. Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>10. Allocate resources and operate plans </li></ul>
  59. 64. Micro Macro Mega Ideal vision Define Current Mission Identify and Select Needs Derive Mission Objective Identify SWOT Derive Long and Short Term Missions Derive Strategic Plans Derive Tactical And Operational Plans Make / Buy / Obtain Resources Implement Continuous Improvement Formative Evaluation Determine Effectiveness / Efficiency Revise / Improve As Required Scoping Planning Implementation And Continuous Improvement
  60. 65. <ul><li>1. Ideal Vision </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify and select needs </li></ul><ul><li>4. Derive mission objectives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Define current mission </li></ul><ul><li>5. Identify SWOT </li></ul><ul><li>6. Derive long and short-term mission </li></ul><ul><li>7. Derive strategic plan </li></ul>
  61. 66. <ul><li>8. Derive tactical and operational plans </li></ul><ul><li>9. Make / buy / obtain resources </li></ul><ul><li>10. Implement </li></ul>11. Continuous improvement / formative evaluation <ul><li>12. Determine effective and efficiency. Revise / improve as required </li></ul>
  62. 68. Effect Impact Evaluation Plan Update Implementation Budgeting Investment Programming Program / Project Identification Policy Strategy Formulate Vision Environment Scanning Organization And Staffing Training Project Preparation Internal External SWOT Framework Mission Goals Objectives Targets Input Process Output Outcome
  63. 69. <ul><li>a. Organizing and staffing </li></ul><ul><li>b. Training </li></ul><ul><li>a. External environment </li></ul><ul><li>b. Internal organization </li></ul><ul><li>d. Strategic Planning framework </li></ul><ul><li>c. SWOT Analysis </li></ul>
  64. 71. <ul><li>Strong people make just </li></ul><ul><li>as many mistakes as weak ones do.. </li></ul><ul><li>But the difference is: </li></ul><ul><li>The strong ones admit their </li></ul><ul><li>mistakes, laugh about </li></ul><ul><li>them & learn from them. </li></ul>