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Strategic Planning: 
Concepts, 
Theories & 
Practices
Strategic Planning: Concepts, 
Theories & Practices 
1. Planning & Development in the Third World 
a. 1950’s: The First De...
Enabling Objectives 
• Describe the focus of national socio-economic 
planning and development in 
the Third World during ...
Why there is a need to adopt 
development planning? 
State of their underdevelopment. The conditions are: 
a. Predominantl...
What is 
Development 
Planning? 
Represent 
ative plans 
include the 
Rehabilitat 
ion Plan 
for the 
1950s 
Socio- 
Econo...
PHILIPPINE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 
2011-2016 
The Philippine Development Plan 
2011-2016 adopts a framework of 
inclusive growth...
Development Planning 
Through this Plan, we intend to pursue rapid and 
sustainable economic growth and development, impro...
Educational Planning in the 
Third World 
As evidenced by the development 
experiences of the Third world 
countries “Econ...
More than half the 
economic growth of the last 
decade in industrialized 
countries was due to factors 
other than the cl...
It was for this reason that educational 
objectives were subsumed in national 
development plans centered on the 
task of ...
Impact of the Over-all Integrated 
Education Systems 
a. The evolution of over-all integrated 
education system 
b. Develo...
Major Economic Crisis in the 
’70s and’90s 
• Austerity and belt tightening measures 
were adopted led to a limitation in ...
Problems Encountered 
• Excessive quantitative 
orientation 
• Over centralization 
• Weaknesses in implementation 
• Eval...
Philippine Planning Experiences 
• Public Administration (PA) from the western 
concept was introduced in the Philippines ...
PA Assisted Projects 
The Kroeger group of American consultants and 
experts contributed tangibly the introduction of 
Ame...
PA Assisted Projects 
• Organization and establishment of: 
- Institute of PA at UP 
- Bureau of Lands 
- National Media P...
National Economic Council (NEC) 
• Created in 1935 by virtue of CA No. 2 
• Tasked as the economic adviser and to 
formula...
• Failed to adopt the Five year Economic and 
Social Development Program FY 1957-1961 and 
the Three year Program of Econo...
Integrated Reorganization Plan 
(IRP) 
• Creation of the Commission on 
Reorganization (COR) in 1968 to promote 
simplicit...
• In Sept 1972, Pres. Marcos declared 
Martial Law and picked up the old 
reorganization plan and named it 
Integrated Reo...
• Regionalization as a policy was then 
adopted to reduce disparities among 
the different regions of the country. 
into 1...
• The IRP gave emphasis on the regional 
planning and development in the country. 
Three models are made based on the 
deg...
Local Government Units 
• RA 7160 Local Government Code further 
strengthened the planning structures in local 
levels. Th...
Problems encountered by LDCs 
• Lack of power and authority to 
allocate and implement plans 
• Plans are not religiously ...
Planning in Higher Education 
• Educational planning was operated on ad hoc 
basis 
• In 1970 The Phil Commission to Surve...
Proliferation of SUCs 
• 1972 23 SUCs P 706 Million 
• 1984 78 SUCs 
• 1984 100 SUCs 
• 1990 P 4.6 B 
• 1995 P 7.4 B 
• 20...
in line with the Aquino Administration’s 
Higher Education Reform Roadmap, 
which aims to further improve the 
quality of ...
• The proliferation of SUCs 
contributed significantly to the 
ballooning of the Phi. Budget and 
increase of external deb...
• LOI No. 1461 in 1985 
Each university or college shall identify 
an area of specialization and its 
capability to implem...
• In 1994 the CHED was created by RA 7722. 
• The result of the Congressional Commission on 
education (EDCOM) study revea...
• Elem & HS were failing to teach the 
competence of average citizen need to 
become responsible, productive and self-fulf...
Thus, the EDCOM recommended 
the restructuring of the DECS 
into three major agencies: 
1) CHED 
2) The Technical Educatio...
• CHED supervised higher education 
institutions were required to submit 
their ten year development plan 
• In the privat...
• In a report of the GMA News Research posted 
on December 1, 2006, it states that "in 15 years, 
the number of SUCs in th...
Why does the Philippines Needs the 
K+12 Education System?
Sufficient Instructional Time 
If K- 12 will be implemented, 
students will be able to get 
sufficient instructional time ...
Recognition as 
Professionals Abroad 
Finally, with K- 12, 
Filipino graduates will 
be automatically 
recognized as 
prof...
Set your 
creativity and 
innovation in 
motion 
grow
Reference: 
Eusebio M. Miclat (2000) 
Development Planning and 
Budgeting 
Papyrus Publishing Company, 
Rosales, Pangasina...
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Strategic Planning: Concepts Theories and Practices

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DM 214: Unit A
December 6, 2014

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Strategic Planning: Concepts Theories and Practices

  1. 1. Strategic Planning: Concepts, Theories & Practices
  2. 2. Strategic Planning: Concepts, Theories & Practices 1. Planning & Development in the Third World a. 1950’s: The First Development Decade 2. Philippine Planning Experiences
  3. 3. Enabling Objectives • Describe the focus of national socio-economic planning and development in the Third World during 1950’s and 1960’s; • Specify the contributions – benefits and problems of socio economic planning and development in the Third World Countries
  4. 4. Why there is a need to adopt development planning? State of their underdevelopment. The conditions are: a. Predominantly agricultural economy and were exporters of primary products. b. The existence of a vast expanse of poverty and illiteracy among the masses of people and the limited public resources c. Development planning was seen as indispensable means of national cohesion. It could mitigate economic and social inequities, create greater opportunities for the people giving them a collective achievement d. Crucial role in the functioning of the government and in the evolution of coherent and effective public administration
  5. 5. What is Development Planning? Represent ative plans include the Rehabilitat ion Plan for the 1950s Socio- Economic Developme nt Plan for the 1960s; The Developme nt Plan for the 1970s the Human Developme nt Plan for the 1990s; the Good Governan ce Plan during the initial years of the 21st century. the Poverty Eradication Plan for the 1980s
  6. 6. PHILIPPINE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2016 The Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 adopts a framework of inclusive growth, which is high growth that is sustained, generates mass employment, and reduces poverty. With good governance and anticorruption as the overarching theme of each and every intervention. The Plan translates into specific goals, objectives, strategies, programs and projects all the things that we want to accomplish in the medium term.
  7. 7. Development Planning Through this Plan, we intend to pursue rapid and sustainable economic growth and development, improve the quality of life of the Filipino, empower the poor and marginalized and enhance our social cohesion as a nation. Our strategic development policy framework thus focuses on improving transparency and accountability in governance, strengthening the macro economy, boosting the competitiveness of our industries, facilitating infrastructure development, strengthening the financial sector and capital mobilization, improving access to quality social services, enhancing peace and security for development, and ensuring ecological integrity.
  8. 8. Educational Planning in the Third World As evidenced by the development experiences of the Third world countries “Economic is not economic growth alone. There are some non-economic ingredients of economic development”
  9. 9. More than half the economic growth of the last decade in industrialized countries was due to factors other than the classical inputs of labor and capital, to improvements in the quality of labor due to scientific research, technological innovation and EDUCATION AND TRAINING (A. King, 1967)
  10. 10. It was for this reason that educational objectives were subsumed in national development plans centered on the task of orchestrating the tremendous expansion of education systems with the aims of: a. Universalizing education b. Providing national economies with the qualified manpower they needed
  11. 11. Impact of the Over-all Integrated Education Systems a. The evolution of over-all integrated education system b. Development of educational administration and organization of planning structures within the education system; and c. Sharpened administrative perception on the problem of efficiency in the system (R.Singh, 1990)
  12. 12. Major Economic Crisis in the ’70s and’90s • Austerity and belt tightening measures were adopted led to a limitation in the resources made available to education • With the dwindling Financial resources due to increased debt payments education planning was confronted challenge to link between reduced public budget for quality education
  13. 13. Problems Encountered • Excessive quantitative orientation • Over centralization • Weaknesses in implementation • Evaluation dimension is slow
  14. 14. Philippine Planning Experiences • Public Administration (PA) from the western concept was introduced in the Philippines through National Economic Council and International Cooperation Agency (ICA) • Signing of MOA of the Quirino – Foster Agreement in Nov. 1950 • The economic and technical cooperation agreement between Phil & United States was signed in 1951. • The assistance gave emphasis on the improvement of PA in the country
  15. 15. PA Assisted Projects The Kroeger group of American consultants and experts contributed tangibly the introduction of American version of PA in the country. • Improvement on budgeting, auditing, and revenue collection and assessment, general services, justice system and civil service; • Police management and the setting of NBI; • Census management;
  16. 16. PA Assisted Projects • Organization and establishment of: - Institute of PA at UP - Bureau of Lands - National Media Production Center - Wage and Position Classification Office • Organization of the Government Survey and reorganization Commission in Congress L.D. Kroeger et al, 1959
  17. 17. National Economic Council (NEC) • Created in 1935 by virtue of CA No. 2 • Tasked as the economic adviser and to formulate economic program • For 13 years , NEC failed to come out with comprehensive plans by it’s lack of purposeful effort and political will on the part of the national leadership
  18. 18. • Failed to adopt the Five year Economic and Social Development Program FY 1957-1961 and the Three year Program of Economic & Social development FY 1959-1961 • In 1955 NEC was revitalized. The New NEC as tasked to: a) advise the President on matters concerning the economy, b) formulate definite & consistent national economic policies and to prepare comprehensive economic and social development program
  19. 19. Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) • Creation of the Commission on Reorganization (COR) in 1968 to promote simplicity, economy and efficiency in the government to enable it to pursue programs consistent with the national goals of accelerated social and economic development and to improve the service in the transaction of the public business
  20. 20. • In Sept 1972, Pres. Marcos declared Martial Law and picked up the old reorganization plan and named it Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) under PD No. 1 • The NEC, Presidential Economic Staff (PES) and some offices under the Budget Commission were integrated into a new super body called the NEDA chaired by the Pres of the Republic. The Secretary of the NEDA sits as the director general
  21. 21. • Regionalization as a policy was then adopted to reduce disparities among the different regions of the country. into 17 administrative regions. The establishment of RDCs, as the planning and implementing machinery in the region
  22. 22. • The IRP gave emphasis on the regional planning and development in the country. Three models are made based on the degree of political & administrative authority over regional offices and LGUs namely: 1) RDC 2) MMDA 3) ARMM
  23. 23. Local Government Units • RA 7160 Local Government Code further strengthened the planning structures in local levels. The LDCs as planning bodies are lodged with the responsibility of formulating development plans, appraising and establishing priority socio-economic development programs and projects and coordinating and monitoring the implementation of said programs and projects with the participation of NGOs
  24. 24. Problems encountered by LDCs • Lack of power and authority to allocate and implement plans • Plans are not religiously followed • Limited amount of funds in the local development fund
  25. 25. Planning in Higher Education • Educational planning was operated on ad hoc basis • In 1970 The Phil Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) observed that educational planning has not been the strength of Philippine Education (B. Reyes, 1974) • PCPSE recommended to FM to give further emphasis to educational planning through the promulgation of Education Development Decree of 1972
  26. 26. Proliferation of SUCs • 1972 23 SUCs P 706 Million • 1984 78 SUCs • 1984 100 SUCs • 1990 P 4.6 B • 1995 P 7.4 B • 2010 P 23.8 B • 2014 P 38 B • 2015 P 43.3 B 81 Provinces As of 2004, PASUC's membership comprises 111 SUCs and 11 satellite associations
  27. 27. in line with the Aquino Administration’s Higher Education Reform Roadmap, which aims to further improve the quality of the country’s tertiary education system through the provision of key services and facilities 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 http://www.gov.ph/2014/10/02/suc-budget-up-by-p5-2b-in-2015/
  28. 28. • The proliferation of SUCs contributed significantly to the ballooning of the Phi. Budget and increase of external debt • SUCs have become big spenders
  29. 29. • LOI No. 1461 in 1985 Each university or college shall identify an area of specialization and its capability to implement taking into account its available resources, namely: faculty, employees, finances, buildings, and equipment etc.
  30. 30. • In 1994 the CHED was created by RA 7722. • The result of the Congressional Commission on education (EDCOM) study revealed that the quality of Phil education was declining continuously.
  31. 31. • Elem & HS were failing to teach the competence of average citizen need to become responsible, productive and self-fulfilling • Colleges and technical and vocational schools were not producing the manpower needed to develop the economy
  32. 32. Thus, the EDCOM recommended the restructuring of the DECS into three major agencies: 1) CHED 2) The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) 3) Dept of Basic Education (DBE)
  33. 33. • CHED supervised higher education institutions were required to submit their ten year development plan • In the private education sector the preparation of a long term plan is “sine qua non” as this is a requirement before a college or university is granted permit to operate. “sine qua non” is a noun which means an essential condition; a thing that is absolutely necessary
  34. 34. • In a report of the GMA News Research posted on December 1, 2006, it states that "in 15 years, the number of SUCs in the country increased by 160 percent-from 138 main and satellite campuses in 1990 to 364" in 2005. • The unfortunate reality, however, is that the quantity of SUCs does not guarantee quality education. The unregulated propagation of SUCs is not matched with the corresponding increase in the budget for these institutions, thereby diminishing the quality of service that these academic institutions should be known for. SEN. FERDINAND R. MARCOS, JR S.B. NO. 2188
  35. 35. Why does the Philippines Needs the K+12 Education System?
  36. 36. Sufficient Instructional Time If K- 12 will be implemented, students will be able to get sufficient instructional time to do subject- related tasks which makes them more prepared and well- trained on that subject area. On the other hand, if we remain on the old system, Filipino students would continually get low achievement scores. For instance, international test results revealed that we often come at the tail end in the exams compared to other countries. More Skilled and Competent Labor Force Another good reason why we should support K- 12 is that the graduates of this program will be more prepared to enter the labor force., they will be equipped with the skills needed for a specific job even without a college degree. At the age of 18, the age when they graduate from high school, they will be employable and competitive already. Thus, adding up to the nation’s manpower.
  37. 37. Recognition as Professionals Abroad Finally, with K- 12, Filipino graduates will be automatically recognized as professionals abroad because we are following the international education standard as practiced by all nations. K- 12 is very beneficial to us Filipinos. Therefore, we must have the strong will in supporting K- 12 Educational Plan for the betterment of our education system and economy. If we want change in our society, we must start it with our education system.
  38. 38. Set your creativity and innovation in motion grow
  39. 39. Reference: Eusebio M. Miclat (2000) Development Planning and Budgeting Papyrus Publishing Company, Rosales, Pangasinan http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/strategic-planning-concepts-theories- and-practices
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