Project Implementation

Jo Balucanag - Bitonio
Jo Balucanag - BitonioProfessor/Program Coordinator
Presented to: Dr. Josefina B. Bitonio
Professor
Presented by:
Rolinda B. Valdez
DM 211Project Development and Management
 Process whereby “project inputs are
converted to project outputs”. Maybe
looked at as:
 Putting in action the activities of the
project.
 Putting into practice what was proposed in
the project proposal into the actual project
 Management of the project or executing
the project intentions
Ernesto A. Franco 2010
Project Implementation Phase
Project Activation
 This means making arrangements to have the
project started. It involves coordination and
allocation of resources to make project
operational.
Project Operation
This is practical management of a project. Here,
project inputs are transformed into outputs to
achieve immediate objectives.
www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
Project Implementation Plan (PIP)
• If PIP not carried out
during the project design
process and embodied in
the project documents,
it is carried out at the
project activation stage.
4
Project implementation plan includes:
5
The following methods may be used to
answer the above questions:
1. Gantt chart
2. Critical Path Method (CPM) or Net work analysis
3. Project Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)
4. Simple formats
What is a GANTT Chart?
• The Gantt chart is also
referred to as the progress
chart.
• It is a chart showing the
timing of project activities
using horizontal bars.
• It is one of the techniques
of project scheduling, which
depicts the frequency of
activities and determines
the period of time for
implementation. 6
How to determine a GANTT chart
• Determine the parts or
implementation phases of the
project and the sequence in which
the associated activities shall be
carried out
• Then estimate the amount of time
required for each activity
• List the activities that can be carried
out at the same time and identify
those to be carried out sequentially
7
How to construct a GANTT chart?
• Time represented on the horizontal axis, and
activities on the vertical axis.
• Bars are entered to indicate the time period
allocated for each activity and the state of
progress at any particular point in time.
8
Project Activity Time Listing
9
Activity
earliest time
Activity
latest time
Activity
code
Activity
Description
Activity
duration
Start Finish Start Finish
Progress
remark
Example: Maize farming project
Activity
• Marketing
• Threshing
• Harvesting
• Weeding
• Planting
• Preparing seedbed
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Time period/ months
10
The Simple Format
11
ACTIVITY STARTING
DATE
ENDING
DATE
COST RESPONSIBLE
PERSON
REMARKS
- Preparing seed bed
- Planning
- Weeding
- Harvesting
- Storage
- Threshing
- Marketing
Project Activity Time Listing
12
Activity
earliest time
Activity
latest time
Activity
code
Activity
Description
Activity
duration
Start Finish Start Finish
Progress
remark
Approaches to Project Implementation
Top- down Approach
 Implementation mainly done by agencies from outside the
community with limited involvement by the beneficiaries.
Bottom-up Approach
 Beneficiaries implement the project. Outside agencies may
provide the financial resources and technical assistance
Collaborative Participatory Approach
 Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to project
implementation are applied in the process.
www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
Project Implementation Plan
It includes:
a. Project implementation schedule
 What activities can produce expected
project outputs?
 What is the sequence of these
activities?
 What is the time frames for these
activities?
 Who will be responsible for carrying
out each activity?
www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
Project Implementation plan (cont.)
b) The role of the implementing agency
 Specific responsibilities of the key staff during the project implementation
and monitoring are outlined.
c) Beneficiary participation
 Involvement of the beneficiaries in planning and implementation and what is
expected is spelt out.
d) Organizational structure and staffing
Consider the following:
> project structure for purposes of management
> qualifications and skills for the staff
> job descriptions and specifications for the staff
> technical assistance if needed
www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
e) Financial management
looks at: funds management
accounting period
financial reports & statements
f) Reporting system
> Who will report?
> Whom to report?
> When to report?
 Standard design and reporting format is needed
g) Sustainability
Project should be sustained beyond the life of funding – especially if it
is a grant.
Project should not exhaust the available resources like raw materials
and labor.
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
h) Time control and remedial action
Supervisors must be particular in:
 Time control measures
 Time scheduling
 Time extension and postponement
 Damages for non-completion
 Defect or warranty period
i) Project implementation schedule and Supervision
This includes set of checks and balances to ensure that the time
schedule is being adhered to.
Characteristics of A Good Project Manager
Project Manager should:
 Know the project and its objectives
 Have working knowledge in several fields
 Be able to understand general managerial problems
 Have active interest in training and developing
subordinates
 Be able to delegate some tasks to subordinates
 Know the systematic process for managing projects
 Be able to answer the following questions:
> What is the project for?
> Why it is required?
> Whom does it serve?
> How is it justified?
> How is it going to be used?
www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
Factors Affecting
Project
Implementation
Factors Affecting Project Implementation
Factors that lead to SUCCESS of
projects
• Political Commitment
• Simplicity of Design
• Careful Preparation
• Good Management
• Involvement of
beneficiaries/ community
Factors / Problems that lead to
FAILURE of Projects
• Financial problems
• Management Problems
• Technical problems
• Political Problems
Factors Affecting Project Implementation (
Cont.)Typical Implementation Problems
 Poor scheduling of projects leading to delays in
implementation
 Misallocation of funds
 Delay / lack of counterpart funding
 Lack of accountability and transparency
 Bureaucracy in decision- making
 Selfishness/ favoritism by some project managers
 Weak monitoring systems
 Natural calamities
 Lack of teamwork
 Lack of incentives for implementers
 Policy changes
www.reading.ac.uk/ssc
January 15,2014
Ensuring proper compliance of loan requirements
> loan funds may not be withdrawn to meet project expenditures immediately after the loan has
been approved, but must wait until it has “become effective”. The loan agreement provides that
the borrower must comply with the conditions for loan effectiveness within a specified period.
Recruitment of Consultants
Steps in recruiting consultants:
>call for expression of interest
>finalize terms of reference
>request for proposals
>evaluate technical / financial proposals
>negotiate / sign the consulting services contract
>issue the notice to proceed
 There should be Operations Manual that sets out policies, practices, and procedures for
recruiting and using consultants.
DB e-Handbook on Project Implementation
Managing Project Implementation
Managing Project Implementation ( cont.)
• Procurement plans
It identifies the:
 Contracts for goods, works, and consultant services to carry out the project
 Proposed method of procurement for contracts that are permitted under the
financing agreement
 Procurement Process
It involves:
 Bid packaging
 Prequalification (turnkey contracts)
 Preparation of bid documents
 Bid opening
 Bid evaluation
 Contract award
Project Implementation Structure
Should emphasize the following:
 Establish a measurement system
Measure results of work schedule progress, budget,
compliance with technical specifications, and resource
requirements
Report the results
Predict results of deviations
Implement action to correct deviations
Continue to review procedures
Monitor and evaluate performance
The achievement of project objectives requires both
an appropriate organization structure and selection of
best staff for the work.
The project organization should provide:
> functional managers
> flexible use of staff
> operation and maintenance of a core
project team
> simultaneous operation of the functional
organization and the project
Managing
Project
Implementation
The project manager undertakes the following for
implementing the project:
 Preparing for project implementation
1. set up the project office
2. organize the project management staff
3. allocate duties and responsibilities to staff
4. establish information and accounting systems
5. commence the project activities
 Organizing the Project Management Office
PMO should be at the project site or in the nearest
place that has accommodation ,utilities, transport and
communication.
 Recruiting and training personnel
Qualified staffs still needs orientation or training
courses to improve skills and should be assigned to
the PMO full-time during project implementation
 Defining and Assigning PMO staff and
Responsibilities
Functions, responsibilities, job description of each
staff should be clearly defined in order to
make wise decisions and to function well.
cont.
 Establishing a project record system
Project manager must set up and activate project records and
administrative files.
 Obtaining funds required for the initial works
Project manager should ensure that funds are available for
immediate disbursement before undertaking any work that will entail a
financial commitment
 Recruiting and Supervising the work of Consultants
Project manager is responsible to the channels of communication
between the PMO, EA and other project participants.
Cont.
 Supervising Construction of works or installation of
Equipment
> frequent on site inspection
>check contractors compliance with technical
specifications
>review and approve equipment operations
>monitor and compare actual progress of work
compared with the schedule
 Executing Project Covenants
>”undertakings” should be carried out in an efficient and
timely manner
cont.
 Controlling cost
To execute a project within budget and to focus
attention on potential cost problems in time to take
corrective or cost-minimizing actions.
 Controlling Project changes
Should formulate specific procedures for reviewing
and approving changes in the project.
Proposed changes must be studied carefully
considering its implications, costs, schedule and
expected project benefits
Cont.
Project Monitoring and Control
The project manager should continue
to:
 Monitor the progress of project activities
 Review the plan, design of the project at
various stages
 Make extensive use of project control and
accounting systems
 Measure progress and performance
 Track equipment and materials
 Closely monitor the cost
 Prepare project progress reports
>must be detailed enough to identify
and address problems being encountered
Project Commissioning and Completion
• Transferring responsibility for
project operations upon project
completion
• Providing advice and training to
operations staff
• Closing out project team and
project systems including
reassignment of team members,
records and files completions,
reports and completion of work
authorizations
Project Evaluation
Post project evaluation may cover a variety of
key items such as:
Beneficiary impact
Financial compliance
Legal covenants
Actual achievements versus planned objectives
Targets utilizing a variety of methods
Reports
Audits
ADB e-Handbook on Project Implementation
Project Recycling
 Output diffusion which may lead to
policy/program and project
improvements
 Decision to expand, duplicate, abort or
institutionalize
project within the organization
permanently
 Identification of linkages or spillover
investments
 Preparation of follow up investment
proposals
References:
Book
Management in the Philippine Setting
by Ernesto A. Franco
National Book Store pp.85-87
WEB
www.adb.org January 15,2014
eHandbook on Project Implementation
 www.reading.ac.uk/ssc February 10,2014
 www.mhwest.com/downloads/Project_Expansion_Gr
eg_Willis
Thank You
1 of 34

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Project Implementation

  • 1. Presented to: Dr. Josefina B. Bitonio Professor Presented by: Rolinda B. Valdez DM 211Project Development and Management
  • 2.  Process whereby “project inputs are converted to project outputs”. Maybe looked at as:  Putting in action the activities of the project.  Putting into practice what was proposed in the project proposal into the actual project  Management of the project or executing the project intentions Ernesto A. Franco 2010
  • 3. Project Implementation Phase Project Activation  This means making arrangements to have the project started. It involves coordination and allocation of resources to make project operational. Project Operation This is practical management of a project. Here, project inputs are transformed into outputs to achieve immediate objectives. www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
  • 4. Project Implementation Plan (PIP) • If PIP not carried out during the project design process and embodied in the project documents, it is carried out at the project activation stage. 4
  • 5. Project implementation plan includes: 5 The following methods may be used to answer the above questions: 1. Gantt chart 2. Critical Path Method (CPM) or Net work analysis 3. Project Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) 4. Simple formats
  • 6. What is a GANTT Chart? • The Gantt chart is also referred to as the progress chart. • It is a chart showing the timing of project activities using horizontal bars. • It is one of the techniques of project scheduling, which depicts the frequency of activities and determines the period of time for implementation. 6
  • 7. How to determine a GANTT chart • Determine the parts or implementation phases of the project and the sequence in which the associated activities shall be carried out • Then estimate the amount of time required for each activity • List the activities that can be carried out at the same time and identify those to be carried out sequentially 7
  • 8. How to construct a GANTT chart? • Time represented on the horizontal axis, and activities on the vertical axis. • Bars are entered to indicate the time period allocated for each activity and the state of progress at any particular point in time. 8
  • 9. Project Activity Time Listing 9 Activity earliest time Activity latest time Activity code Activity Description Activity duration Start Finish Start Finish Progress remark
  • 10. Example: Maize farming project Activity • Marketing • Threshing • Harvesting • Weeding • Planting • Preparing seedbed J F M A M J J A S O N D Time period/ months 10
  • 11. The Simple Format 11 ACTIVITY STARTING DATE ENDING DATE COST RESPONSIBLE PERSON REMARKS - Preparing seed bed - Planning - Weeding - Harvesting - Storage - Threshing - Marketing
  • 12. Project Activity Time Listing 12 Activity earliest time Activity latest time Activity code Activity Description Activity duration Start Finish Start Finish Progress remark
  • 13. Approaches to Project Implementation Top- down Approach  Implementation mainly done by agencies from outside the community with limited involvement by the beneficiaries. Bottom-up Approach  Beneficiaries implement the project. Outside agencies may provide the financial resources and technical assistance Collaborative Participatory Approach  Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to project implementation are applied in the process. www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
  • 14. Project Implementation Plan It includes: a. Project implementation schedule  What activities can produce expected project outputs?  What is the sequence of these activities?  What is the time frames for these activities?  Who will be responsible for carrying out each activity? www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
  • 15. Project Implementation plan (cont.) b) The role of the implementing agency  Specific responsibilities of the key staff during the project implementation and monitoring are outlined. c) Beneficiary participation  Involvement of the beneficiaries in planning and implementation and what is expected is spelt out. d) Organizational structure and staffing Consider the following: > project structure for purposes of management > qualifications and skills for the staff > job descriptions and specifications for the staff > technical assistance if needed www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
  • 16. Project Implementation Plan (cont.) e) Financial management looks at: funds management accounting period financial reports & statements f) Reporting system > Who will report? > Whom to report? > When to report?  Standard design and reporting format is needed g) Sustainability Project should be sustained beyond the life of funding – especially if it is a grant. Project should not exhaust the available resources like raw materials and labor.
  • 17. Project Implementation Plan (cont.) h) Time control and remedial action Supervisors must be particular in:  Time control measures  Time scheduling  Time extension and postponement  Damages for non-completion  Defect or warranty period i) Project implementation schedule and Supervision This includes set of checks and balances to ensure that the time schedule is being adhered to.
  • 18. Characteristics of A Good Project Manager Project Manager should:  Know the project and its objectives  Have working knowledge in several fields  Be able to understand general managerial problems  Have active interest in training and developing subordinates  Be able to delegate some tasks to subordinates  Know the systematic process for managing projects  Be able to answer the following questions: > What is the project for? > Why it is required? > Whom does it serve? > How is it justified? > How is it going to be used? www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
  • 20. Factors Affecting Project Implementation Factors that lead to SUCCESS of projects • Political Commitment • Simplicity of Design • Careful Preparation • Good Management • Involvement of beneficiaries/ community Factors / Problems that lead to FAILURE of Projects • Financial problems • Management Problems • Technical problems • Political Problems
  • 21. Factors Affecting Project Implementation ( Cont.)Typical Implementation Problems  Poor scheduling of projects leading to delays in implementation  Misallocation of funds  Delay / lack of counterpart funding  Lack of accountability and transparency  Bureaucracy in decision- making  Selfishness/ favoritism by some project managers  Weak monitoring systems  Natural calamities  Lack of teamwork  Lack of incentives for implementers  Policy changes www.reading.ac.uk/ssc January 15,2014
  • 22. Ensuring proper compliance of loan requirements > loan funds may not be withdrawn to meet project expenditures immediately after the loan has been approved, but must wait until it has “become effective”. The loan agreement provides that the borrower must comply with the conditions for loan effectiveness within a specified period. Recruitment of Consultants Steps in recruiting consultants: >call for expression of interest >finalize terms of reference >request for proposals >evaluate technical / financial proposals >negotiate / sign the consulting services contract >issue the notice to proceed  There should be Operations Manual that sets out policies, practices, and procedures for recruiting and using consultants. DB e-Handbook on Project Implementation Managing Project Implementation
  • 23. Managing Project Implementation ( cont.) • Procurement plans It identifies the:  Contracts for goods, works, and consultant services to carry out the project  Proposed method of procurement for contracts that are permitted under the financing agreement  Procurement Process It involves:  Bid packaging  Prequalification (turnkey contracts)  Preparation of bid documents  Bid opening  Bid evaluation  Contract award
  • 24. Project Implementation Structure Should emphasize the following:  Establish a measurement system Measure results of work schedule progress, budget, compliance with technical specifications, and resource requirements Report the results Predict results of deviations Implement action to correct deviations Continue to review procedures Monitor and evaluate performance The achievement of project objectives requires both an appropriate organization structure and selection of best staff for the work. The project organization should provide: > functional managers > flexible use of staff > operation and maintenance of a core project team > simultaneous operation of the functional organization and the project
  • 25. Managing Project Implementation The project manager undertakes the following for implementing the project:  Preparing for project implementation 1. set up the project office 2. organize the project management staff 3. allocate duties and responsibilities to staff 4. establish information and accounting systems 5. commence the project activities  Organizing the Project Management Office PMO should be at the project site or in the nearest place that has accommodation ,utilities, transport and communication.  Recruiting and training personnel Qualified staffs still needs orientation or training courses to improve skills and should be assigned to the PMO full-time during project implementation  Defining and Assigning PMO staff and Responsibilities Functions, responsibilities, job description of each staff should be clearly defined in order to make wise decisions and to function well.
  • 26. cont.  Establishing a project record system Project manager must set up and activate project records and administrative files.  Obtaining funds required for the initial works Project manager should ensure that funds are available for immediate disbursement before undertaking any work that will entail a financial commitment  Recruiting and Supervising the work of Consultants Project manager is responsible to the channels of communication between the PMO, EA and other project participants.
  • 27. Cont.  Supervising Construction of works or installation of Equipment > frequent on site inspection >check contractors compliance with technical specifications >review and approve equipment operations >monitor and compare actual progress of work compared with the schedule  Executing Project Covenants >”undertakings” should be carried out in an efficient and timely manner
  • 28. cont.  Controlling cost To execute a project within budget and to focus attention on potential cost problems in time to take corrective or cost-minimizing actions.  Controlling Project changes Should formulate specific procedures for reviewing and approving changes in the project. Proposed changes must be studied carefully considering its implications, costs, schedule and expected project benefits
  • 29. Cont. Project Monitoring and Control The project manager should continue to:  Monitor the progress of project activities  Review the plan, design of the project at various stages  Make extensive use of project control and accounting systems  Measure progress and performance  Track equipment and materials  Closely monitor the cost  Prepare project progress reports >must be detailed enough to identify and address problems being encountered
  • 30. Project Commissioning and Completion • Transferring responsibility for project operations upon project completion • Providing advice and training to operations staff • Closing out project team and project systems including reassignment of team members, records and files completions, reports and completion of work authorizations
  • 31. Project Evaluation Post project evaluation may cover a variety of key items such as: Beneficiary impact Financial compliance Legal covenants Actual achievements versus planned objectives Targets utilizing a variety of methods Reports Audits ADB e-Handbook on Project Implementation
  • 32. Project Recycling  Output diffusion which may lead to policy/program and project improvements  Decision to expand, duplicate, abort or institutionalize project within the organization permanently  Identification of linkages or spillover investments  Preparation of follow up investment proposals
  • 33. References: Book Management in the Philippine Setting by Ernesto A. Franco National Book Store pp.85-87 WEB www.adb.org January 15,2014 eHandbook on Project Implementation  www.reading.ac.uk/ssc February 10,2014  www.mhwest.com/downloads/Project_Expansion_Gr eg_Willis