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Perspective in Strategic Planning


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down-board thinking, paradigm shift, holistic and global orientation

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Perspective in Strategic Planning

  1. 1. Perspective in Strategic Planning by: Dr. Eusebio F. Miclat, Jr. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU (2004) Reporter Lennie H. Torres Professor: Josefina Bitonio, DPA DM 214 Strategic Planning/ ME 217 Strategic Planning 1st Semester 2013
  2. 2. 3 Perspective in Strategic Planning 1. Down-board thinking 2. Paradigm Shift 3. Planning Orientation a) System Approach b) Mega-level Environment c) Outside-In Planning
  3. 3. Down – Board Thinking • Effective strategic planning create scenarios and consider the consequences of this scenarios in the light of competition and the response of other environmental factors. • Similar to the way a chess master thinks when he plays the game. He does not only think and decide on his immediate moves but he must look “down-board” and considers his opponent’s possible responses to his moves and plans a number of several moves ahead. (L.D. Goodstein et al.,1993)
  4. 4. “ If we can not predict the future, we had best create it”. Peter Drucker • Managers and planners should not be wearing the horse’s blinders but instead peeps the submarine’s periscope and the grandmaster’s down-board thinking of looking into the future several steps ahead of the present.
  5. 5. Paradigm Shift - set of ideas, usually unwritten, that people have learned and developed through education and experiences that defines the conventional methods about the rules of nature and life (J.F. Cali 1993). - acts a mental filter or sieving devise that delimits the way we think about things by erecting asset of boundary conditions that are often more perceived than real. Paradigm reforms Collective action Dreams Improve incomes stability dynamism decent economic growth Business progress
  6. 6. Paradigm Shift - requires disassembling our old and conventional ways of seeing, doing, thinking, and assessing a thing because they no longer apply with reality and the present. The “ new paradigm” calls for a broad, flexible, eclectic, creative and futuristic mental framework.
  7. 7. “CHANGE”
  8. 8. Educational Paradigm TEACHING LEARNING KASA (knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes) Rote master Process Learning and dynamic citizenship Budgeting : Input Oriented Output oriented
  9. 9. Planning Orientation There are three types of planning orientation: 1. system 2. mega level 3. outside in approaches
  10. 10. System - an organized unitary whole composed of two or more independent parts, components or sub-systems and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra system (F. Kast and J. Rosenzweig, 1979)
  11. 11. Elements of a System 1. Inputs 2. Conversion process 3. Outputs 4. Outcomes a) Effect -immediate consequences of program output (UN, 1978) b) Impact –change in the standard of living of the target group or within target area stemming from the program(UN, 1978) `
  12. 12. System Approach - Affords the managers and planners a holistic and integrated perspective. Example of integrated perspective
  13. 13. Demands Mandate Resources Manpower Funds Materials Physical Others Teaching-learning Co-curricular Research execution Training programs Technology apply Innovative management systems Physical plan implementation Quantitative number of graduates, trainees and research Qualitative manifest competence researches published technologies commercialized Board exams Employed graduates/ trainees Research awards Self-reliance Self-sufficiency Citizenship Better quality of life Internal Organization ExternalEnvironment Feedback INPUTS CONVERSION PROCESS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES Effects/Impact A Systems Planning Framework of a University (Miclat, Jr., 1998)
  14. 14. Mega-Level Environment - Looks its role in different level of planning environments. There is no permanent one-to-one correspondence. Rather the levels of planning environment vary and slide depending on the highest level of planning environment one adopts in planning.
  15. 15. 3 Scopes of Planning Levels (based on who the primary client is and who benefits) -R.A. Kaufman, 1996 1.MEGA LEVEL – Society 2.MACRO LEVEL – Educational System 3.MICRO LEVEL – Individual Learner, 4.Teacher, or Group on a one-to-one correspondence. Micro Level Macro Level Mega Level
  16. 16. - They argue that mega level planning views the society and the educational clients as the basis of everything the education system or organization uses, does, and delivers. In the macro level, planning is primarily looking after the organization but without any substantial commitment to both the client and the society. Finally, micro level, planning is concerned only with individuals or group jobs and tasks
  18. 18. Outside-In Planning • planning in this way is as if one were looking into the organization from the outside – from the vantage point of society back into the organization and its results and efforts. ( Kaufman and associates (2002) • proactive. • It is a paradigm or frame of reference that continuously challenges the status quo while identifying possible scenarios and new opportunities that bring about positive change and growth to society.
  19. 19. According to Gene Bellinger's Theory of systemic thinking.. Traditional Management Perspective VS. Management Perspective in a Learning Organization
  20. 20. Traditional Perspective to control company within a hierarchical framework to plan and organize by setting clear priorities, and then work to bring daily activities in line with his bigger-picture decisions. Traditional management achieves this objective by clearly defining job duties and responsibilities for each position, and implementing training to ensure that each employee thoroughly learns the routines Management Perspective to understand both human and business systems and integrate them gracefully involves understanding elements of every aspect of the business and grasping how the puzzle pieces fit together. involves understanding elements of every aspect of the business and grasping how the puzzle pieces fit together.
  21. 21. Management Perspective A leader who operates from a balanced management perspective will know the right questions to ask. -His big-picture orientation will enable her to zero in on imbalances, and thoughtfully investigate areas where change is necessary. Management perspective involves using a firm grasp of the company's overall direction to plan and organize day- to-day operations. perspective seeks to inspire a team of employees to learn and excel. A management perspective inspires learning by defining on going improvement as a priority and by creating conditions in which learning can successfully occur, such as scheduling time specifically dedicated to training and building employee skills.
  22. 22. Seeing the Big Picture -Whether a manager operates as a traditional CEO or a visionary leader, his job is to see the big picture and communicate it to his employees.
  23. 23. Planning and Organizing • A leader using a holistic, systems- oriented approach will plan and organize by working to bring concurrent processes into a useful balance, with a focus on understanding rather than controlling. • Whether a manager operates traditionally or holistically, he will be responsible for integrating the larger perspective into recurring daily processes.
  24. 24. • Holistic management inspires learning by focusing on building problem-solving capabilities and encouraging employees to think for themselves and improve on existing systems Inspiring Learning
  25. 25. Shaping a Vision `• Management perspective is the force behind shaping a company's vision, or the overall set of values that guides long- term plans as well as short-term specifics. • A manager may shape a vision by articulating and disseminating it as a written policy. • A manager is also responsible for communicating this vision to employees, by encouraging them to familiarize themselves with a written or oral vision statement and by working to bring all of the company's operations in line with this vision.
  26. 26. References: Miclat, Jr. Eusebio F. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU, 2004 Reference: