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Prepared  by Engr. Gener  Gemino Human Behavior in Organization Professor  Jo B. Bitonio
Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the...
Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>The Perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Among the essential personal characteristics that a...
Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>The Target </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the target that is being observed c...
<ul><li>Factors in the perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></...
Link Between Perception and Decision Making <ul><li>Individuals in organizations as they make choices from among two or mo...
How should decisions be made? <ul><li>Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem. </...
Assumptions <ul><li>1. Problem Clarity  – The problem is clear and unambiguous. The decision maker is assumed to have a co...
Assumptions <ul><li>3. Clear Preferences –  Rationality assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weigh...
Assumptions <ul><li>5.  No time or cost constraints  – The rational decision maker can obtain full information about crite...
How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>In the real world most decisions don’t follow the rational m...
How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>Bounded Rationality  – Individuals make decisions by constru...
How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>Intuition –  An unconscious process created out of distilled...
How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>Here are the eight conditions that will enable people to lik...
How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>7. When there are several plausible alternative solutions fr...
That’s all folks! (:
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Perception

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Perception

  1. 1. Prepared by Engr. Gener Gemino Human Behavior in Organization Professor Jo B. Bitonio
  2. 2. Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  3. 3. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>The Perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Among the essential personal characteristics that affects one’s perception are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences and expectations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>The Target </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Examples of these characteristics are looks, size, sounds and the like. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Factors in the perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul>Perception <ul><li>Factors in the target </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>- Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Factors in the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Work setting </li></ul><ul><li>Social Setting </li></ul>
  6. 6. Link Between Perception and Decision Making <ul><li>Individuals in organizations as they make choices from among two or more options. But individuals in organization tends to whip out decisions and the quality of their final choices are largely influences by their perceptions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How should decisions be made? <ul><li>Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the decision criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate weights to the criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best alternatives. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assumptions <ul><li>1. Problem Clarity – The problem is clear and unambiguous. The decision maker is assumed to have a complete information regarding the decision situation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Known Options – It is assumed the decision maker can identify all the relevant criteria and can list all the viable alternatives. Furthermore, the decision maker is aware of all of the possible consequences of each alternative. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Assumptions <ul><li>3. Clear Preferences – Rationality assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect their importance. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Constant Preferences – Its assumed that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect their importance. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Assumptions <ul><li>5. No time or cost constraints – The rational decision maker can obtain full information about criteria and alternatives because it’s assumed that there are no time or cost constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Maximum Payoff – The rational decision maker will opt for the alternative that will help him obtain the highest perceived value. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>In the real world most decisions don’t follow the rational model, since people are usually content to find an acceptable or reasonable solution to their problem rather than an optimizing one. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>Bounded Rationality – Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>In bounded rationality, the final solution represents a satisfying choice rather than an optimum one. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>Intuition – An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. </li></ul><ul><li>There is growing recognition that rational analysis has been overemphasized and that, in certain instances, relying on intuition can enhance decision making skill. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>Here are the eight conditions that will enable people to likely employ intuitive decision making? </li></ul><ul><li>1. When a high level of uncertainty exists. </li></ul><ul><li>2. When there is little precedent to draw on. </li></ul><ul><li>3. When variables are less scientifically predictable. </li></ul><ul><li>4. When facts are limited. </li></ul><ul><li>5. When facts don’t clearly point the way to go. </li></ul><ul><li>6. When analytical data are of the little use. </li></ul>
  15. 15. How are decisions are actually made in organizations? <ul><li>7. When there are several plausible alternative solutions from which to choose, with good arguments for each. </li></ul><ul><li>8. When time is limited and there is pressure to come up with the right decision. </li></ul>
  16. 16. That’s all folks! (:

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