The many failed development interventions inthe 50s into the 90s spurred the introduction ofother development reforms. The “governance”paradigm was introduced and advocated by theUnited Nations (UN), World Bank (WB), AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) and other internationalinstitutions. The word “governance” suddenly “hasbecome something of a mantra in recent years,uttered by donors, reformers and pundits alike.”(Frechette 2000: 25)PA as Governance(1990s into the 2000)
From “governance”, the concept of “goodgovernance” has emerged and became prominentin international aid circles around 1989 or 1990. Itserved as a general guiding principle for donoragencies to demand that recipient governmentsadhere to proper administrative processes in thehandling of development assistance and put inplace effective policy instruments towards that endhandling of development assistance and put inplace effective policy instruments towards thatend. (Doornbos 2003) when there is goodgovernance, there is sustainable development..“Good Governance”
An ADB document (2005) affirmed thatgood governance is synonymous withsound development management. Theythen identified some key principles ofdevelopment which may be considered aselements of good governance. These are:accountability, participation,predictability, and transparency.
Basic Elements of GoodGovernanceKey Dimensions Specific Areas of Action1. Accountability meansmaking public officialsanswerable for governmentbehavior and responsive tothe entity from which theyderive authorityEstablishing criteria tomeasure performance ofpublic officialsInstitutionalizing mechanismsto ensure that standards aremet.•Public Sector Management•Public EnterpriseManagement•Public FinancialManagement• Civil Service Reform2. Participation refers toenhancing people’s access toand influence on public policyprocessesUndertaking development forand by the people• Participation of beneficiariesand affected groups• Interface betweengovernment and the privatesector• Decentralization of publicand service delivery functions(empowerment of LocalGovernments)• Cooperation with nongovernment organizationKey Dimensions and Specific Areas of Actions
Basic Elements of GoodGovernanceKey Dimensions Specific Areas of Action3. Predictability refers to theexistence of laws,regulations and policies toregulate society and the fairand consistent applicationof these • Law andDevelopmentEstablishing and sustainingappropriate legal andinstitutional arrangementsObserving and upholdingthe rule of law Maintainingconsistency of publicpolicies• Legal Frameworks forPrivateSector Development4. Transparency refers tothe availability ofInformation to the generalpublic and clear governmentrules, regulations, anddecisionsEnsuring access to accurateand timely information aboutthe economy andgovernment policies• Disclosure of InformationKey Dimensions and Specific Areas of ActionsSource: ADB, 2005
Governance entails a larger scope and has a widermeaning. Though the term “governance” hasbeen used to refer mostly to “government,”when correctly used, “governance” really goesbeyond government. It involves theinstitutionalization of a system through whichcitizens, institutions, organizations, and groups ina society articulate their interests, exercise theirrights, and mediate their differences in pursuit ofthe collective good. (ADB 1995 as cited in ADB2005:
UNDP describes governance as “theexercise of political, economic andadministrative authority to manage anation’s affairs. It embraces all of themethods- good and bad – thatsocieties use to distribute power andmanage public resources andproblems.” (UNDP 1997: 9)
• Kofi Annan (1997), in his inaugural speech in the 1stInternational Conference on Governance for SustainableGrowth and Equity in United Nations, New York, in July 28-30,1997 affirms this when he said that:“Good governance and sustainable development are indivisible.That is the lesson of all our efforts and experiences, from Africato Asia to Latin America. Without good governance – withoutthe rule of law, predictable administration, legitimate power,and responsive regulation -- no amount of funding, no amountof charity will set us on the path to prosperity…We are fullyengaged in efforts to improve governance around theworld…good governance is indispensable for building peaceful,prosperous and democratic societies.”• Annan concluded that “good governance is perhaps the singlemost important factor in eradicating poverty and promotingdevelopment.”
Good GovernanceGood governance has eight major characteristics. Itis participatory, consensus oriented, accountable,transparent, responsive, effective and efficient,equitable and inclusive and follows the rule oflaw. It assures that corruption is minimized, theviews of minorities are taken into account andthat the voices of the most vulnerable in societyare heard in decision-making. It is also responsiveto the present and future needs of society.Source :The United Nations Economic and SocialCommission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
Figure 1 Characteristics of good governanceThe United Nations Economic and SocialCommission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP
Cariño (2000), in her reflections on the term“governance,” identified actors and factors thatpushed for governance. She acknowledges thatgovernance is not the sole responsibility of thegovernment per se but the role of the market andcivil society are of equal importance too and shouldalso be recognized.She then identified the factors or processes thatpushed for governance and some of these are: thequest for growth and development, theenvironmental movement, globalization andconsolidating peace. These are practically the samevalues or virtues found in the UN Charter. Likewise,governance promotes the virtues ofdecentralization, participation, responsiveness andaccountability among others.
Based on a long-standing research program ofthe World Bank, the Worldwide GovernanceIndicators capture six key dimensions ofgovernance (Voice & Accountability, PoliticalStability and Lack of Violence, GovernmentEffectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of law,and Control of Corruption) between 1996 andpresentSource Wikipedia Accessed May 25, 2013
The Worldwide Governance Indicators are acompilation of the perceptions of a very diversegroup of respondents, collected in large number ofsurvey and other cross-country assessments ofgovernance. Some of these instruments capture theviews of firms, individuals, and public officials in thecountries being assessed. Others reflect the views ofNGOs and aid donors with considerable experiencein the countries being assessed, while others arebased on the assessments of commercial risk-ratingagencies.Source Wikipedia Accessed May 25, 2013
2008 World Map of the Control of Corruption Index, which measures the degree towhich corruption is perceived to exist among businesses, public officials andpoliticians. Colors range from dark green (90th-100th percentile to light green (75th-90th percentile), yellow (50th-75th percentile), orange (25th-50th percentile), pink(10th-25th percentile) and red (0th-10th percentile). Percentile rank indicates thepercentage of countries worldwide that rate below the selected country. Highervalues indicate better governance ratings.Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kray and Massimo Mastruzzi (2008)Source Wikipedia Accessed May 25, 2013
The Local Governance PerformanceManagement System (LGPMS) is a self-assessment, management and developmenttool that enables local governments— provinces,cities and municipalities— to determine theirstate of performance and state ofdevelopment, using governance anddevelopment indicators.This is being spearheaded by theDepartment of the Interior and LocalGovernment, through the Bureau of LocalGovernment Supervision, in partnership withmajor stakeholders, i.e. LGU users, nationalgovernment agencies, local government leagues,civil society organizations, business communityand international development partners.
This is a project which recognizes LGUs with goodperformance in internal housekeeping, particularly in theareas of local legislation, development planning, resourcegeneration, resource allocation and utilization, customerservice, and human resource managementand development, as well as, in valuing the fundamental ofgood governance.The Seal advances the primacy of performance,accountability, transparency and participation. In the 2011implementation, assessment focused on sound financialmanagement measured through the absence of an adverseor a disclaimer COA opinion on local; financial transactionand on transparency and accountability measuredthrough the observance of the Full Disclosure Policy.Seal of Good Housekeeping(SGH)
The LGPMS?Governance Aspect• Administrative Governance - Local Legislation; DevelopmentPlanning; Revenue Generation; Resource Allocation & Utilization;Customer Service; Human Resource Management & Development• Social Governance - Health Service; Support to Education; Supportto Housing & Basic Utilities; Peace, Security & Disaster RiskManagement• Economic Governance - Support to Agriculture Sector; Support toFishery Services; Entrepreneurship; Business & Industry Promotion• Environmental Governance – Forest Ecosystem Management;Freshwater Ecosystem Management; Coastal EcosystemManagement; Urban Ecosystem Management• Valuing Fundamentals of Good Governance – Transparency;Participation; Financial Accountability
Pangasinan Bags 4 Hall of Fame Awards for GoodGovernance. The Regional Development Council(RDC) conferred four Hall of Fame (HOF) Awards tothe province of Pangasinan for its outstandingperformance in various local governance categoriesfor year 2010, 2011 and 2012 during the 1st QuarterConference of the RDC in Bauang, La Union lastMarch 12, 2013. Province of Pangasinan receivedone of the following HOF awards: Region I BestPerforming LGU in Local Governance, Region I BestMillennium Development Goals (MDG) Implementer,Region I Champion for Best LGU Practice, and RegionI Best Project Implementer.“We will continuereaping awards.”Pangasinan News March 17, 2013Gov. Amado T. Espino, Jr.
From the above discussion it should be clear that goodgovernance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in itstotality. Very few countries and societies have comeclose to achieving good governance in its totality.However, to ensure sustainable human development,actions must be taken to work towards this ideal withthe aim of making it a reality.Conclusion
Alex Brillantes, Jr. and Maricel Fernandez Is therea Philippine Public Administration or BetterStill, for whom is Public Administration? UPNCPAG June, 2008Reference: