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  1. 1. widespread traffic gridlock
  2. 2. Observation is the process of watching the situation of the research through the use of the senses such as sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste. It is used to gather empirical data that could not be obtained by using other means. It also helps to verify the results of the questionnaire and the interviews to supplement the findings of the study. Ardoles (1987) identifies observation as “the earliest method on the acquisition of knowledge”.
  3. 3. Observation may be classified into two types: a. Structured Observation b. Unconstructed Observation
  4. 4. GRIDLOCK. Traffic along NLEX in Balintawak, Caloocan City on September 5, 2014. File photo by Kevin de la Cruz/Rapple
  5. 5. a.Structured Observation which involves an observation of the activities and conditions pertinent to the study. It disregards unnecessary information which is not related to the problem. Hence, an observation guide containing some listed items that are going to be observed and are relevant to the research topic will serve as the direction for solving the problem on hand.
  6. 6. b. Unconstructed Observation which does not use any observation guide hence, it is important to exercise flexibility on observing activities relevant to the study. It provides a richer and more direct description of the phenomenon under study (Filstead, 1970).
  7. 7. Rivera, Jr M. and Rivera Roela Victoria Practical Guide to Thesis and Dissertation Katha Publishing Inc. Quezon City, Philippines (2007)