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Methods of Research

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Methods of Research

  1. 1. Republic of the Philippines PANGASINAN STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate School Urdaneta City
  2. 2. • TITLE PAGE i • CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEET ii • CERTIFICATE OF ADMISSION III TO CANDIDACY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv • DEDICATION v • TABLE OF CONTENTS vii • LIST OF TABLES x • LIST OF FIGURES xi • ABSTRACT xii
  3. 3. ON PAGINATION • In case of the preliminaries, use roman numerals for the pagination. The page number should be typed at the bottom of the page. • Use Arabic in the case of main body up to curriculum vitae. The chapter page should be at the bottom while the succeeding pages should be at the per right hand corner of the pages.
  4. 4. 1. Lectures, forum, journal and research reports and studies; 2. Problems in the organization, community and of the country confronted by t he decision-maker, manager, planner, and the front line workers; 3. Consultation and dialogues with advisors, professors, researchers, etc; 4. Participation in university or agency-commissioned researchers; 5. Government programs and projects which need to be evaluated; 6. Priority research agenda circulated by government agencies like the NEDA, CHED, DepEd, TESDA, DOST, etc 7. Replication studies
  5. 5. MDMPrinciples s and Processes of Development Management, Ethics and Accountability in Public Service, Project Development & Management, Human Resource Development & Management, Fiscal Administration, Strategic Planning, Local Governance & Regional Administration, Information Technology Management, Public Policy & Program Management, Organizational Studies, Human Behavior in Organizations, and Change and Disaster Management, Quality Assurance in Public Service, Urban and Rural Development Planning, Policy Analysis, Research, · Project Evaluation and Analysis, Program Design and Implementation, · Community-based Resource Management, Knowledge Management, · Conflict and Negotiation Management, · Planned Change in Development, Qualitative and Quantitative Decision Making, Social Entrepreneurship, · Social Marketing, Organizational Analysis, Networking and Resource Mobilization, Strategic Human Resource Management, Conflict Management, · Business Planning, Value Chain Research, Enterprise Development, Project Development and Evaluation, Marketing Planning,
  6. 6. Major: Does the research problem contribute to the development or improvement of the quality of life of the people?
  7. 7. Minor: 1. Immediacy (timeliness)-is it urgent? Is it needed now? do we need it or do we like it? 2. Relevance – Is it useful or functional to national, regional and local development? 3. Availability of resources – Do we have sufficient fund, facilities and expertise to undertake the project? Can we derive external support?
  8. 8. 4. Accelerates development – Does it spur growth and development in specific area or sector?, if so, in what sector or area? 5. Positive bias towards the disadvantaged – Does it help culturally and economically help the disadvantaged more than the advantaged? 6. Availability of existing data (related data) How does it integrate, complement, supplement, etc with existing data, theory or practice?
  9. 9. 7. Obsolescence- How soon will the study be finished? For how long is the subject matter of the study last? Is the result still useful, functional and workable? 8. Utility and future use – Are the research useful now and in the future?
  10. 10. 1. The research topic should be presented to the GS Panel Members (Dean, Adviser and 3 members), with the option of inviting faculty members of related disciplines. 2. The research topic should in consonance with the curriculum being enrolled in. 3. The relevance, resources to the area of specialization, capability and competence as well as the background of the student
  11. 11. La Union Police Community Relations on Global Warming
  12. 12. Rationale Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem Research Hypothesis Scope and Delimitation of the Study Significance of the Study Definition of Terms
  13. 13. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM Rationale • Type the word Chapter 1 from the top of the page. The First letter should be capitalized, bold, centered between margins, and sue Arabic for the chapter numbered. The first page is numbered at the bottom while the succeeding pages are the upper right-hand of the page. • Type the word THE PROBLEM in bold, capital letters, centered between margins. It should be two single spaces from the chapter number.
  14. 14. • Type the phrase Rationale in bold letters, three single spaces from the chapter title. Only the first letter of the important words should be capitalized aligned at the left margin. The textual discussion is double spaced. • Global, National and Local situations • Legal Bases • Linking statement why the student would like to conduct the study( Situation: problem or issue that the program is to address sits within a setting or situation from which priorities are set )
  15. 15. In Region I, the last three(3) typhoons that hit the country was the central point of the calamity and the province of La Union was not exempted. Millions of properties were heavily damaged and loss of lives were experienced due to high level of waters in the rivers, slides covered the highways and large bridges were destroyed. These ere all caused by environmental problems like deforestation, river siltation, bad waste management and the last typhoon that the hit Luzon area, typhoons Cosme, Ondoy and Pepeng.
  16. 16. In the first district of La Union, the locale of this study was also hardly hit the past three (3) typhoons. The municipalities of Sudipen, Bangar, Luna, Balaoan and San Gabriel were flooded because of the swelling of the ambaruyan river. Every time there is a typhoon in Region I the first district is not spared, hence this researcher was challenged to study the La Union Police Community Relations on Global Warming. Justification/Clinching Statement
  17. 17. All dissertations/thesis must be theory oriented and must develop, test/validate or modify a theory. • Theoretical Framework Type the phrase Theoretical Framework. Only the first of the important words are capitalized. The letters should be bold. It is aligned at the left side. It should be typewritten three single spaces from the last line of the last topic included in the review of studies. Use double space in the main text.
  18. 18. • The theory that the researcher used was (name of theory). It was developed by ____ (identify the origin, source or developer of the theory), and it was used to study ___ (identify the topics where one finds the theory being applied). This theory indicates that ___ (id the propositions of hypotheses in the theory). As applied to my study, this theory holds that I would expect my independent
  19. 19. La Union Police Community Relations on Global Warming a program theory is an explanation of how the program is supposed to work and how it will bring about the intended change for the program's target audience (Bickman, 1990; Rossi, Lipsey, & Freeman, 2004). A logic model is a visual representation-a diagram-of the basic elements of the program theory.
  20. 20. La Union Police Community Relations on Global Warming• Logic models can take different forms, but the distinctive format of listing columns labeled Resources, Activities, Outputs, Outcomes, and Impacts (or similar categories) has been popularized through efforts of numerous organizations and evaluators, both inside and outside of Extension (e.g., Bennett, 1975; United Way of America, 1996; University of Wisconsin-Extension, 2005; W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2004).
  21. 21. Program Theory
  22. 22. Long Term Outcomes
  23. 23. Links for Theory in Public Admibistration http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/theories- in-public-administration-56856132 http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/theoretical -framework-37836171 http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/theories- in-public-administration
  24. 24. Conceptual Framework • Type the Phrase Conceptual Framework in bold letters. Only the first letter of the important words is capitalized. It is left aligned. It should be typewritten three single spaces after the last of the Theoretical Framework Use double space.
  25. 25. Conceptual Paradigm • This should be written in separate page. Write/place the figure number (Roman) and title below the figure. Only the first letters are capitalized.
  26. 26. La Union Police Community Relations on Global Warming
  27. 27. External Influences Outcomes
  28. 28. • Situation: problem or issue that the program is to address sits within a setting or situation from which priorities are set • Inputs: resources, contributions and investments that are made in response to the situation. Inputs lead to • Outputs: the activities, services, events, and products that reach people and users. Outputs lead to • Outcomes: the results or changes for individuals, groups, agencies, communities and/or systems. • Assumptions: beliefs we have about the program, the people, the environment and the way we think the program will work • External Factors: environment in which the program exists includes a variety of external factors that interact with and influence the program action.
  29. 29. • Type boldly the phrase Statement of the Problem three single spaces from the last line of the Background of the Study, aligned at the margin. Only the first letter of the important words should be capitalized. • The first paragraph is about the general statement of the problem, written after two single spaces from the sub-heading. The text should be double spaced. In the case of specific problems they should numbered. Every paragraph should be indebted by around seven characters.
  30. 30. Statement of the Problem This study sought to assess, the implementation of La Union Police Community Relations Programs and Projects addressing the issues in La Union, basis for proposed intervention measures for more effective implementation of programs and projects relative to solutions on global warming.
  31. 31. Specifically it sought to answer the following sub- problem 1.What is organizational profile of the Police Community Relation in the province of La Union in terms of the following 1.1 manpower 1.2 programs/ projects 1.3 logistics 1.4 networking? 2. What is the level of effectiveness in the implementation of the programs and projects by La Union Police Community Relation addressing the issue of global warming for the past three years 2007-2008-2009, in terms of the following. 2.1 planning 2.2 implementation of Programs/ Projects 2.3 monitoring?
  32. 32. 3. How does the community residents of the first district of La Union perceived the level of effectiveness of the LU-PNP in addressing the issue of global warming along 3.1 Planning 3.2 Implementation of Programs/ projects 3.3 Monitoring? 4. What are the problems being encountered by the PNP in the implementation of the Police Community Relations Office in the 2nd district of La Union in addressing global warming and how serious are these?
  33. 33. 5. Based on the findings whet intervention measures can be proposed for a more effective implementation of the Police Community Relations.
  34. 34. • Type the phrase Research Hypothesis three single spaces after the last line of the statement of the problem. The first letter of the important words should be capitalized and bold. It is aligned at the left side. The main text should be double space The La Union PNP-PCR programs can contribute in the prevention and solutions to global warming.
  35. 35. • Type the phrase significance of the Study three single spaces after the last line of the Research Hypothesis. The first letter of the important words should be capitalized and bold. It is aligned at the left side. This should contain both theoretical and practical significance. The text should be double spaces. • The addressee of the Significance of the Study should be written in bold letters and followed by a period intended five single spaces from the left and only the first letter is capitalized.
  36. 36. Findings of this study benefits the following entities/ individuals. Philippine National Police. This study benefits the Philippine National Police in their quest to improve their programs relative to the issue of global warming and as reference for policy directions and redirections. La Union Police provincial Office. This serves as the basis for the La Union Police Office to improve the programs/projects addressing problems of the environment for sustainable development. Local Government Units. This study provides inputs to the LGUs planning on environmental programs for the first district of La Union. Community. It serves as support to the existing activities of the various barangays in line with the conservation and preservation of national resources. Other government agencies. This study serves as references for all researchers in proposing programs and policies relative to the solutions of issues on global warming. Researcher Himself. It serves as his best contribution to all the people of the first district of La Union and to its mother agency the PNP.
  37. 37. • Type the phrase Scope and Delimitation of the Study three single spaces after the last line of the Significance of the Study. The first letter of the important words should be capitalized and bold. The text should be double spaces.
  38. 38. This study is focused on the implementation of the La Union PNP Police Community Relations Programs and projects addressing issues on global warming in the first district of La Union. It includes organizational set-up of the Police Community Relations in terms of manpower, programs and projects, monitoring and networking, the level of implementation of the PCR programs and projects by the LU-PPO in addressing issues on global warming, the effectiveness of the PCR programs as perceived by the community residents of the first district of La Union and the problems encountered by the La Union PNP in the implementation of the identities programs an projects on global warming. This study covers the last three years of implementation of the programs and projects addressing issues on global warming. The respondents are the PNP Personnel assigned in the first district, the PCR Personnel and the community residents of the first district represented by the Barangay Captains. Non- government offices and the church leaders. It is delimited in the preparation of the proposed intervention measures to improve the level of implementation of the programs and projects addressing the issues on global warming.
  39. 39. • Type the phrase definition of terms three spaces after the last line of the scope and delimitation of the study. The first of the important words should be capitalized and bold. It is aligned with the left margin. The first letter of the terms should be capitalized. The terms in title of the study should be defined first followed by the most important variables. Use double spaces and indent five spaces from the left. Do not number the terms.
  40. 40. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined operationally for more clarity and better understanding of the readers on this study. La Union Police Community Relations on Global Warming La Union Police Community Relations Global Warming Police Community Relations
  41. 41. 1.What is the organizational profile of the Police Community Relation in the province of La Union in terms of the following 1.1 manpower 1.2 programs/ projects 1.3 logistics 1.4 networking? organizational profile manpower programs/ projects logistics networking manpower Logistics
  42. 42. What are the terms to be to defined? 3. What is the level of effectiveness in the implementation of the programs and projects by La Union Police Community Relation addressing the issue of global warming for the past three years 2007-2008-2009, in terms of the following. 2.1 planning 2.2 implementation of Programs/ Projects 2.3 monitoring?
  43. 43. 3. How does the community residents of the first district of La Union perceived the level of effectiveness of the LU-PNP in addressing the issue of global warming along 3.1 Planning 3.2 Implementation of Programs/ projects 3.3 Monitoring? What are the terms to be to defined?
  44. 44. Level of Effectiveness Factors in Determining Project Effectiveness 5 4 3 2 1 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 1. Project Mission clearly defined gods and general directions. 2. Top Management Support-Willingness of top management to provide the necessary resources and authority power for project success. 3. Project Scheduled Plan-A detailed specification of the individual actions steps for project implementation. . 4. Client Consultation-Communication, consultation, and active listening to all impacted parties 5. Personnel-Recruitment, selection, and training of the necessary personnel for the project team 6. Technical Tasks-Availability of the required technology and expertise to accomplish the specified technical action steps 7. Client Acceptance-The act of "selling" the final project to its ultimate intended users. 8. Monitoring and Feedback-Timely provision of comprehensive control information at each stage in the implementation process 9. Communication-The provision of an appropriate network and necessary data to all key actors in the project implementation 10. Troubleshooting-Ability to handle unexpected crises and deviations from plan.
  45. 45. Level of effectiveness in program implementation refers to clearly defines project mission, top management support, project scheduled plan, client consultation, quality personnel, technical tasks, client acceptance, monitoring of feedbacks, communication and prevention and intervention measured as 81-100% as highly effective; 61-80 % (+) effective; 41-60 as (-) effective; 21-40% slightly effective; and below 20% Ineffective
  46. 46. 4. What are the problems being encountered by the PNP in the implementation of the Police Community Relations Office in the 2nd district of La Union in addressing global warming and how serious are these? What are the terms to be to defined?
  47. 47. 5. Based on the findings whet intervention measures can be proposed for a more effective implementation design to by the Police Community Relations. What are the terms to be to defined?
  48. 48. La Union Police Community Relations. It refers to the branch of the Police Provincial Office that is in-charge in undertaking community oriented activities essential for partnership with the community. Global Warming. It refers to the most popular issue on earth being felt by the people as a result of over use, mis use and abused environment caused by the people themselves. Planning. Refers to the strategies of the La Union PNP- PCR in framing up program relative to global warming. Program/ Projects. It refers to the on- going programs and projects contributory in addressing the issues on global warming.
  49. 49. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature Foreign Literature Local Literature Related Studies Foreign Studies Local Studies Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies
  50. 50. REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES • Type the word chapter 2 at the top of the page and placed in the centre. • The first letter should be capitalized, bold and use Arabic for the chapter number. • Type the phrase REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES three single spaces from the chapter number. All letters are capitalized, bold and placed in the center. • There should be an introductory paragraph which follows. Chapter 2
  51. 51. Related Literature Type the phrase Related Literature three single spaces after the last of the introductory paragraph of the chapter. For subheadings, only the first letter of the important words should be capitalized and all letters are bold. It is left aligned and occupy at most half of the centerline and in single space if more, than one line. Present reviewed literature by topics. The lines should be double space.
  52. 52. Related Studies • Type the phrase Related Studies in bold letters. Only the first letter of the important words should be capitalized. It is aligned left at the left side. It should be typewritten three single spaces from the last line of last topic included in the review of literature. • Present reviewed studies by topics. The lines should be double space.
  53. 53. 3. METHODOLOGY Research Design Respondents of the Study Research Instrument and its Validation Statistical Treatment of Data
  54. 54. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • The first letter of the word Chapter should be capitalized and use Arabic for the Chapter number, It should be placed at the top of the page and placed in the center. It should be bold. • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • All letters of the word RESEARCH METHODOLOGY are capitalized bold and placed in the center, It should be three single spaces from the chapter number. Three should be an introductory paragraph, double spaced which follows. Chapter 3
  55. 55. • Only the first letter of the important words is capitalized. Use bold letters. It is aligned at the left side. It should be three single spaces from the last line of the introductory paragraph. Use double space in the text. • In experimental research, aside from the research design it should also include the materials place of the study, and treatments. These topics should be intended. • Only the first letter of the important words is capitalized. Use bold letters. It is aligned at the left side. Should be three single spaces from the last line of the research design. Use double space in the text.
  56. 56. Respondents of the Study • Only the first letter of the important words is capitalized. Use bold letters. It is left aligned. It should be three single spaces from the last line of the Respondents of the study. Use double space in the text.
  57. 57. Research Instrument and its Validation • Only the first letter of the important words is capitalized. Use bold letters. It is aligned. It should be three single spaces from the last line of the paragraph under data gathering instrument. The text should be double spaced.
  58. 58. Statistical Treatment of Data • Only the first letter of the important words is capitalized. Bold letters are to be used. It is left aligned . it should be three single spaces from the last line of the paragraph under gathering procedure . the text should be double. Spaced.
  59. 59. PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA • The first letter of the word Chapter should be capitalized and use Arabic for the chapter number. It should start at the top of the page and placed in the center. It should be bold. • For the title, all letters are capitalized, bold and placed in the center there should be three spaces from the chapter title and number. There should be an introductory paragraph which is double spaced. • The sub-headings which are left aligned should be written in bold and should be presented in accordance with the statement of the problem. • The table number and title should be at the center and in inverted pyramid form. In case of experimental research, the table number should be intended pyramid single spaces from the left margin and to be follow by the table title. In case of two line- title the second line should be intended 4 spaces from the first letter of the first line.
  60. 60. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • The first letter of the word Chapter should be capitalized and use Arabic for the chapter number. It should start at the top of the page and placed in the center. it should be bold. • For the CHAPTER TITLE, all letters are capitalized, bold and placed in the center. It should be three single spaces from the chapter title and number. There should be an introductory paragraph which is double spaces. •
  61. 61. • The word SUMMARY should be at the center and capitalized. It should include the general and specific problems of the study in paragraph form. it should also include the null hypothesis, research design and statistical tools used in the study. • The phrase SALIENT FINDINGS is also at the center and all letters capitalized. There should be a brief introductory paragraph. Each finding should be numbered and arranged according to the specific problems in the study. • The CONCLUSION is also at the center and all letters capitalized. There should be a brief introductory paragraph. Each conclusion should be numbered and should correspond to the problem statement/objectives of the study. • The word RECOMMENDATIONS is also at the center and all letters capitalized. There should be a brief introductory paragraph. each recommendation should be numbered and should correspond to the problem state/objectives of the study and conclusion if necessary.
  62. 62. • The bibliography should be written in capital letters, bold, and placed at the centre. It should be classified as to books, magazines, unpublished materials and others sources. These classifications should be at the center and capitalized. • In the case of the books, start with the author, title of the book, and place of publication and year. • For journals, author first. Title of the article, journal title, volume and number and year of publication. • For unpublished thesis/dissertation write the author title of the thesis/dissertation, institution and year. • In case of electronic sources, website, article, source if any and year are to be included. • Other sources include results on interview and discussion with experts indicate topic discussed, name of interviewee and date.
  63. 63. A. BOOKS Abueva, Jose V. The Philippines Into the 21st Century: 1998 Future Scenario for Governance, Democracy and Development 1998-2005. Philippines: University of the Philippines Press
  64. 64. B. JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS ACCU News Volume 37 No. 2 April-June 2006 P O Box 24-171 2006 Bangkok 10240 Thailand. 2006. AWCF Trainer’s Manual on Transformative Leadership Training for Cooperatives: Transformative Cooperatives, Asian, Women in Cooperative Development Forum, NATCCO. 227 JP Rizal St Project 4, 1109 Quezon City, Philippines 2001 Simon, Herbert A. 1946 “The Proverbs of Administration” Public Administration Review. American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) Washington, D.C. UP NCPAG
  65. 65. • Creswell, John W. (2003) Research Design. Second Edition. SAGE Publication
  66. 66. C. UNPUBLISHED MASTERS THESES AND DISERTATION Beltejar Aida P. Caring for the Workers. Phycosocial 2015 Support to Humanitarian Workers in Coping with Disaster. The Case of the Philippine Red Cross in the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban
  67. 67. D. ELECTRONIC SOURCES ADB’s Elements of Governance http://www.adb.org/Governance/gov_elements.asp#participation
  68. 68. • The word Appendices should be written in bold, capitalized letters and placed in the center. It includes the letters, data gathering instrument, maps appendix table, and other materials used which are not the main body.
  69. 69. A. Requesting for Content Validation of Questionnaire B. Requesting for Permission to Conduct Research Letter C. Questionnaire APPENDICES
  70. 70. • The word CURRICULUM VITAE should be written in bold. Capitalized letters and placed in the center, it contains the name, address, birthday, birthplace, civil status, name of parents, name of spouse (if applicable). Name of children (if applicable). Educational attainment, eligibility and work experience/extra curricular activities.

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