Local Government


Published on

for Philippine Councilors League, MPA Class Legazpi City

Published in: Education
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Local Government

  1. 1. Local Government Lecture – Presentation for Philippine Councilors League MPA - Legazpi City
  2. 2. Local government in the Philippines has its roots in the colonial administration of Spain, which lasted in the Philippines for 327 years. The establishment of Cebu City in 1565 started the local government system
  3. 3. The Philippines has had a long tradition of centralized government. Since the arrival of the Spaniards in 1521, the period of Spanish and American colonization, the Philippine commonwealth and republic up to the Marcos dictatorship in 1972, the Philippines has been ruled from the national capital, derisively referred to as “Imperialist Manila”.
  4. 4. Marcos Administration 1965-1986 The inertia of centralization, brought about by deeplyrooted administrative and bureaucratic procedures and hierarchical and organizational arrangements, is exacerbated by a culture predisposed to dependency and centralized arrangements and paradigms in the belief that the canter knows best.
  5. 5. Earlier attempts to decentralize power and authority to local institutions through various means are testimony to the fact that the problem of over centralization, while longrecognized, has continued to persist throughout the years.
  6. 6. This attempt was actually an administrative formalism since real power continued to be concentrated in Manila with local units heavily dependent upon central government. In fact, before the enactment of the 1983 code, local governments were becoming restive and, more important, assertive in demanding that the umbilical cord that tied them to Manila be severed as this was the root cause of their stunted growth
  7. 7. Following the overthrow of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986, a strong sense of optimism accompanied the ascendancy to power of Corazon Aquino. The “Policy Agenda for People-Powered Development”, which was adopted by the Cabinet in June 1996, outlined the general strategy for structural reforms of the Aquino administration: • decentralization of government structures and minimum government intervention; • an expanded role for the private sector as the prime engine for sustained growth; and • greater involvement of people in the decision-making, planning and implementation of programs through community organizations and NGOs.
  8. 8. The general strategy was based on the emerging paradigm of “growth with equity”, where development efforts are focused on meeting minimum basic needs of the poor rather than on simply achieving macro economic targets. It rejected the “trickle down economics” of the 1970s which assumed that development would occur as a “natural consequence” of sustained economic growth.
  9. 9. Growth with Equity with a pledge to change things through what they call “institutional,” “structural,” and “radical” reform. Corazon C. Aquino promised “structural reforms,””people empowerment,” and a centerpiece comprehensive agrarian reform to put an end to land tenancy.
  10. 10. sustained GDP growth boosts tax revenues and provides the government with extra money to improve public services such as education and healthcare. It makes it easier for a government to reduce the size of a budget deficit sustained economic growth Every program was defined according to the term limits thus is devoid of the strategy and continuity needed. Every short-term solution was
  11. 11. Development or modernization models – such as privatization, deregulation, and structural adjustment programs (SAPs)
  12. 12. Since that time, “devolution and decentralization have marked Philippine government policies over the past ten years after EDSA. The emergent thinking is that while central government provides the broad policy framework and social environment, it is the Local Government Units (LGUs), private sector and civil society entities who shall act as the prime engines for growth, equity and sustainability (Quizon:1997).
  13. 13. These decentralization processes are of three major types: 1. Shift from national to local. The shift from national to local aims to “bring the government closer to the people” and involves the two processes of deconcentration and devolution. Deconcentration, also known as administrative or sectoral decentralization, takes place when the central government transfers power, authority and responsibility or the discretion to plan, decide, manage from a central point to lower or local levels that are within the central or national government itself. For instance, the agrarian reform program gives DAR provincial officers quasi-judicial powers for handling land transfer and resolving land disputes.
  14. 14. Devolution of authority, assets and personnel of various national government agencies (NGAs) to local government units (LGUs) to provide primary responsibility for basic services and facilities. This involves the mandatory delivery of five basic front-line services - health, social welfare, natural resources and environment, agricultural extension and public works. Other services include education, tourism, telecommunications and housing programs and projects.
  15. 15. Devolution, also called political decentralization, involves the transfer of power and authority from the national government to Local Government Units (LGUs), which are defined in the 1987 Constitution as the territorial and political subdivisions of the state. The nature of power transfer is political and the approach is territorial. Taken within this context, devolution is inherently tied to the concept of local autonomy.
  16. 16. 2. Shift to Public Private Partnership (PPP)
  17. 17. The airport is being privatized under the public-private partnership model. The project includes the construction of a new 8 million-passenger international terminal in the first phase, with a further expansion after 2023. The airport breached its 4.5 million capacity in 2010 and served 6.9 million passengers last year
  18. 18. 3. Shift from state to civil society. This refers to the process by which civil society participates directly in government programs and systems of governance, as characterized by: (i) the focus on self-organized sectors of civil society (e.g., NGOs, POs, professional associations, the academe and others); and (ii) the institution of participatory mechanisms that go beyond elections and similar traditional norms.
  19. 19. The O. B. Montessori Child and Community Foundation, Inc. is a 30-year-old foundation that has been spreading the quality affordable version of the Montessori system of education in less privileged areas of the country, called the Pagsasarili Prechools. Starting with 7 project sites in slumimproved areas of Metro Manila, it has partnered with local government units, DSWD, DepEd, and CHED to cover 9 other regions of the Philippines to establish about 150 self-sustaining preschools, including the Pagsasarili Basic Education for Pulung-bulu public school in Angeles City, Pampanga http://www.philstar.com/education-and-home/2014/02/13/1289770/ngos-whohelp-reduce-poverty-incidence
  20. 20. Membership in Local Special Bodies (LSBs). NGOs and POs are represented in Local Special Bodies, primarily but not limited to the Local Development Council, the Local School Board, the Local Health Board, the Prequalification, Bids and Awards Committee and the Local Peace and Order Council.
  21. 21. Sectoral Representation to Local Sanggunians. NGOs and POs are expected to play an active part in the selection and fielding of sectoral representatives to local sanggunians from labor (industrial or agricultural), women and one representative from either the urban poor, indigenous peoples or the disabled.
  22. 22. The Local Government Code of 1991 represents the most radical and comprehensive policy instrument of the Aquino administration to further its “people power agenda.” With its avowed objective of reversing the centrist tendencies of the Marcos and other previous administrations, the Code incorporates all three above forms of decentralization.
  23. 23. In the words of then Senator Aquilino Pimentel, “our only hope for developing the country is to move power, responsibility and resources from the central to the local level. This is what we tried to do in the Local Government Code.”
  24. 24. Given this perspective, the 1991 Local Government Code and its implementation is nothing less than an instrument to promote sustainable development and address the related problems of poverty, inequity and security.
  25. 25. Local Government Administration and the Challenges of Rural Development” Local Governance serves its big importance for the development of a certain country as it is considered as the basic governing entity.
  26. 26. It is the means of reaching people and a way of uniting them. It is the avenue of the common people to address their needs and for them to know that they are part of this what we called government (Lagura: 2012)
  27. 27. It must act as the immediate medium of peace and prosperity, a problem solver and a provider of cure or remedies in any problems of the diverse people living in the country, thus such a big responsibility to be one of the persons involved in local government sector
  28. 28. It part of a larger set of anti-poverty laws and programs which also bear on its implementation. Its companion laws include: the Cooperative Code of the Philippines; the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law; the Magna Carta for Small Farmers (RA 7606) and the Magna Carta for Countryside Development (Kalakalan 20).
  29. 29. On the other hand, the related national programs of government include: Human and Ecological Security, Philippine Agenda 21 and the Localization of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) and various councils and commissions, such as the Philippine Council for Countryside Development, the Presidential Commission to Fight Poverty and the Presidential Commission for the Urban Poor.
  30. 30. Fidel V. Ramos talked about “pole vaulting” the economy Under the Ramos administration, this package of anti-poverty measures have been consolidated through the adoption of the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) as the integrated national action agenda for poverty alleviation.
  31. 31. The achievements of President Joseph Estrada are the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999, the second RP-US Visiting Forces The country heard a “radical restructuring” Agreement, and the Retail Trade Liberalization Act. He was the (not just reforms) and a 13th President of the decisive end to Philippines. He also signed many corruption other acts and treaties during his four years in office from 1998 to 2001. Joseph E. Estrada
  32. 32. Gloria M. Arroyo Gloria M. Arroyo’s 9-year term pledged “longterm structural reforms,” one million jobs every year, food for every family, and a “strong republic.” The “Strong Republic” Nautical Highway Job creation emergence of many domestic and international airports Holiday Economics The relatively peaceful and orderly Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001
  33. 33. In July 2010, Aquino III pledged a “transformational presidency” that would free the nation from the quagmire of corruption and poverty and set the pace for reforms in governance Aquino III, who was elected with a big margin of votes under a defective automated election system, tried to raise hopes that he will be a “transformational” president with a straight road (“daang matuwid”) for social change. The “social contract” that he promised to fulfill, http://www.thepoc.net/poc-presents/blog-watch/features/9287-achievements-offormer-president-gloria-macapagal-arroyo
  34. 34. Role of the Local Government in Development Sec. 2. Declaration of Policy. – the territorial & political subdivisions of the State shall enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their fullest development as self-reliant communities & make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals; provide a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization whereby LGUs shall be given more powers, authority, responsibilities, and resources.
  35. 35. LGUs Role in Development (c) national agencies and offices are required to conduct periodic consultations with appropriate LGUs, NGOs,& POs before any project or program is implemented (g) capabilities of LGUs, especially municipalities & barangays, shall be enhanced thru active participation in the implementation of national programs & projects.
  36. 36. LGUs Role in Development (i) LGUs shall share with the national government the responsibility in managing & maintaining ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction
  37. 37. • Four Outstanding Features Devolves to LGUs the responsibility for delivery of of have always belonged to the the Code basic services that national government • Grants LGs significant regulatory powers that traditionally always belonged to the national government agencies • Significantly increases the financial resources available to LGUs thru increased IRA • Recognizes & encourages the active participation of the private sector, NGOs, & POs in the process of governance
  38. 38. LGUs Role in Development Sec. 16. General Welfare. – LGUs shall ensure and support preservation & enrichment of culture, promote health & safety, enhance right of people to a balanced ecology, encourage & support dev’t of appropriate & self-reliant scientific & technological capabilities, improve economic prosperity & social justice, promote full employment among residents, maintain peace & order, & preserve the comfort & convenience of inhabitants.
  39. 39. LGUs Role in Development Sec. 17. Basic Services & Facilities. – LGUs shall discharge the functions & responsibilities of national agencies & offices devolved to them; exercise powers & discharge functions & responsibilities incidental to efficient & effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated
  40. 40. Significant Contents and Provisions Devolved Services • DSWD, DOH, DA, DENR, DPWH, DepEd, DOT, DOTC Regulatory Powers • DAR, DENR, DOH, DA-NMIC, DPWH, DORC – LTFRB, HLURB, PGFC Governmental and Corporate Powers • Management of economic enterprise • Domestic and foreign grants NGO-LGU Role in Governance • Participation to LDG, LSB, LHB • BOT/BT Human Resource Development • OS, staffing pattern • Capability building
  41. 41. Local Government Code of 1991: 23 Years After
  42. 42. Where are we now?  Notable achievements  Top 10 Cities in the Philippines with Highest Per Capita Income  Top 10 Next Wave Cities  ISO Certified
  43. 43. Notable documenting AIM’s experience in In a paper Achievements in Local the Awards, Brilliantes (2010) cited the Governance following initiatives to illustrate the wide variety of projects and programs that have been undertaken as a result of the devolution process.
  44. 44. 1. Taking Care of People and the Environment in Negros Oriental is an example of how development and improving the lives of the quality of life of the people and meeting their basic needs is the best approach to counterinsurgency. This involved the construction of a Community Primary Hospital in the hinterlands of Negros Oriental that provided basic health services to the people coupled with the Community Based Resource Management approach that empowered local fisherfolk in the province to lead in environmental protection.
  45. 45. 2. Energizing the Purok in Sampaloc Quezon through a Kapit Bisig Program was the municipality’s approach to solving its insurgency through the establishment of an organizational machinery beginning with the Purok to the municipal council. This was supported by NGOs and people’s organizations with specific sectoral concerns such as peace and order, health, agriculture and livelihood.
  46. 46. 3. Saving the Mangroves of Kalibo, Aklan involved the reforestation of a fifty hectare swampland undertaken by families of fisherfolk who were organized by a local NGO, Kalibo Save the Mangrove or KASAMA.
  47. 47. 4. Saving the Marikina River shows us how a dirty and dying river was brought back to life and transformed into a major tourist attraction by sheer political will of the government and support of all sectors.
  48. 48. 5. The Mandaluyong Public Market was constructed through the Build-OperateTransfer scheme. The LGU, in partnership with the private sector built a public market/mall that approaches world class standards. The City provided the land. The private sector built and operated it. The City’s revenues have increased because of the numerous business and license taxes paid to the city by the establishments operating in the mall.
  49. 49. 6. Transforming Malalag into a Provincial AgroIndustrial Center in Davao Del Sur is an example of how a holistic approach towards building the capability of the local government unit, the barangay officials and the partner agencies in local administration and management, human resource development, local legislation, service delivery and local enterprises can improve the quality of life of the people.
  50. 50. 7. Acquiring a Complete Equipment Pool in Munoz, Nueva Ecija demonstrates synergy in action : it shows how a municipal government actually met its basic infrastructure equipment needs by creatively acquiring through memorandum receipt underutilized equipment of national and provincial government agencies in the area.
  51. 51. 8. Floating Bonds for Low Cost Housing in Victorias, Negros Occidental shows us how a small municipality, with the support of the people, used the bold economic strategy to float bonds in order to provide shelter and housing to its people, a minimum basic need. Victorias is one of the first local government units to float bonds for a housing project in the country.
  52. 52. 9. Improving the Productivity of Naga City was one of the municipality’s version of reinventing government by demonstrating how, by focusing on four major areas of local government productivity, the full potentials of the various departments and offices of the entire city government for effective, efficient and adequate delivery of public services can be unleashed.
  53. 53. 10. Lote Para sa Mahirap (Land for the Poor) : Land Banking in San Carlos City was a program specifically designed for the very poor of the City. Although a product of concerted efforts of the different units and locally based national government agencies and NGOs, it was actively participated in by mostly fire victims. The beneficiaries have mostly been pedicab drivers, fish and vegetable vendors, construction and dock workers. They paid only five pesos a day, and after full payment, were issued the land title.
  54. 54. 11. Solid Waste Management Program in Sta. Maria Bulacan is an innovative pioneering program in slid waste management which veers away from the traditional concept of garbage disposal. The program introduces a new dimension of waste disposal management by emphasizing the concepts of waste reduction, recovery and reuse.
  55. 55. 12. Eco-Walk for the Environment in Baguio City is a year round environmental awareness program for children. It addresses the need for schoolchildren to develop relationships with the environment through a series of guided hikes to the Busol watershed, Baguio City’s major, but denuded, watershed. The project evolved into a community undertaking involving many different sectors, including civil society, the church, NGOs and POs.
  56. 56. 13. Health Insurance Project of Guimaras Province provides medical insurance to the low income sectors of one of the more depressed provinces of the country. It makes health care services accessible and affordable to low income households through a cost sharing scheme among the beneficiaries, and the provincial and municipal governments.
  57. 57. 14. Carabao and Tractor Pool in Puerto Princesa was a time sharing scheme of sorts among farmers in partnership with the city agriculturists office, which maintained a pool of carabaos (water buffalos) and tractors for use in their farms. Productivity has subsequently increased, not to mention the sense of community and responsibility it develops among its members.
  58. 58. 15. Talahib Handicraft in Jones Isabela has shown how a small municipality can go into business creating wealth out of “talahib” (wild grass stalks) by making them into handicrafts. This project has provided livelihood to the people who have since been invited to participate in many national trade fairs.
  59. 59. Local Government Code in Action: Naga City’s Empowerment Ordinance A success story in the implementation of the Local Government Code Naga City’s enactment of its Empowerment Ordinance in 1995 which led to the design and implementation of several initiatives involving partnership between local government and civil society. The City chose to develop its own “Empowerment Ordinance” to establish the structure to achieve active partnership between the city government and the people of Naga City.
  60. 60. NGO and PO participation has been marginal, the picture is not totally bleak. Following are some notable exceptions of effective LGU-NGO/PO collaboration in local governance (Tordecilla, IPG, 1997). 17. Irosin, Sorsogon. The declaration of Irosin as a zone of peace and development and a juetengfree town through the support of almost all of the sectors in the municipality particularly the basic sector cooperatives. The declaration was a direct output of the Irosin Municipal Multi-
  61. 61. Top 10 Cities in the Philippines with Highest Per Capita Income http://www.pinoymoneytalk.com/philippinescity-per-capita-income/#sthash.ysjsy0AT.dpuf
  62. 62. Rank City Region 2009 Per Capita Income (in PHP) - PHILIPPINES (AVERAGE) 3,951 1 MAKATI CITY NCR 16,535 2 TAGAYTAY CITY IV-A 10,061 3 PASIG CITY NCR 8,816 4 SAN JUAN CITY NCR 7,367 5 PARANAQUE CITY NCR 7,197 6 OLONGAPO CITY III 7,191 7 MANDALUYONG CITY NCR 6,944 8 MUNTINLUPA CITY NCR 6,791 9 SANTIAGO CITY II 6,549 Per capita income refers to the total income earned divided by the city’s total population. In a sense, the figures show how effective and efficient the local government unit (LGU) is in producing income. True, LGUs are not in the business of making money, but the data show how efficient (or inefficient) they are in using their Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) — or budget allocated to them by the national government — and how productive their initiatives are in generating economic
  63. 63. breakthrough The landscape of digital is constantly changing and being redefined with every new development, technology breakthrough, success and failure. We need digital public sector leaders who can properly navigate this
  64. 64. Top 10 Next Wave Cities™ (NWC) for 2012. According to the Department of Science and Technology-Information and Communications Technology Office (DOSTICTO) and Information Technology and Business Process Association of the Philippines (IBPAP), the top 10 locations for the next wave of growth are, in alphabetical order: Baguio City, Davao City, Dumaguete City, Iloilo City, Lipa City, Metro Bulacan (Baliuag, Calumpit, Malolos City, Marilao, and Meycauayan City), Metro Cavite (Bacoor City, Dasmariñas City, and Imus City), Metro Laguna (Calamba City, Los Baños, and Sta. Rosa City), Metro Naga (Naga City and Pili), and Metro Rizal (Antipolo City, Cainta, and Taytay). Sustainable growth of the information technology and business process management (IT-BPM) industry, government and industry
  65. 65. Remember too that in our increasingly interconnected globalizing world, economic growth does not happen in isolation. Events in one country and region can have a significant effect on growth prospects in another. http://tutor2u.net/economics/revisionnotes/as-macro-economic-growth.html
  66. 66. Country’s first ISO Certified Cavite provincial government country's first ISOcertified LGU. By: Philippine News Agency Cavite Provincial www.interaksyon.com/.../cavite-provincialgovernment-countrys-first-is.
  67. 67. LGU Jagna is ISO 14001:2004 jagna.gov.ph/2011/07/lgu-jagna-is-iso-140012004-certified/ The Municipality of Jagna is the second LGU in the whole Philippines to have been awarded an ISO 14001:2004 certification
  68. 68. Nothing Small in Muntinlupa: "The Model LGU" (The Best Practice of the City Government of Muntinlupa) the local government implemented a program entitled, MUNTINLUPA CITY Improving Productivity and Efficiency of LGU Through ISO 9001:2000.
  69. 69. Laoag City Earns ISO Certificate Oct 5, 2012 - Philippines News Agency ( General News | Newswire ) Published Laoag City in Ilocos Norte that bagged International Organization for Standardization (ISO) certification,
  70. 70. Ilocos Norte is first fully ISO certified • piaregion1.wordpress.com/.../ilocos-norte-isfirst-fully-iso-certified-Feb 5, 2013 - LAOAG CITY, Feb. 4 Ilocos Norte Mayors Endorse All ISO Certification of LGUs Oct 4, 2013
  71. 71. San Fernando City [La Union] gets 3 ISO Certifications philippinetimesofsouthernnevada.com/...philip pines/.../san-fernando-city... Dec 18, 2013 The certifications are ISO 9001:2008 for Quality Management Systems,... for the ISO certification
  72. 72. Metro Cities
  73. 73. Former capital of the country (1948–1976). Largest city in Metro Manila in population and land area. Hosts the House of Representatives of the Philippines the Batasang Pambansa Complex and the metropolis' largest source of water, the Novaliches Reservoir
  74. 74. Capital of the country (from 1571-1948 and 1976– present). Historically centered around the walled city of Intramuros, by the mouth of the Pasig River. Host to the seat of the chief executive, the Malacañang Palace. By far the most densely populated city in the country
  75. 75. Caloocan Historic city where Andres Bonifacio and the Katipunan held many of its meetings in secrecy. Much of its territory was ceded to form Quezon City, resulting in the formation of two non-contiguous sections under the city's jurisdiction. Caloocan is the third most densely populated city in the country, lying immediately north of the city of Manila. It serves as an industrial and residential area inside Metro Manila
  76. 76. Davao Davao City The largest city in - is also the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area and is also known as "the City of Royalties" because of home of some of the prestigious kings and queens in flora and faunas like the Durian and the Philippine Eagle. It is also the Eco Adventure Capital in the Philippines. It has an estimated population of 1,530,365 as of 2011.
  77. 77. The City Mayors Foundation ranks Davao City as the 87th fastest growing city in the world and the only Philippine city to make it in top 100. Davao has been listed by the 5th magazine as the 10th "Asian City of the Future". Davao's excellence in service and livability made this city as its best.
  78. 78. Cebu "The Queen City of Popularly nicknamed as the South." First capital of the country. Capital of the province of Cebu and regional center of Region VIII . Most populous city in the Visayas . Core of Metro Cebu. Cebu City has been honored as the 8th Asian City of the Future owing to its expansive business districts, premier entertainment destinations, and its pristine waters which attracts tourists worldwide. The city is home to the most popular Sinulog festival celebrated every January which attracts tourists and Filipinos alike.
  79. 79. Zamboanga • Nicknamed "Ciudad de las Flores" and marketed by its city government as "Ciudad Latina de Asia" for its substantial Spanish Derived Creolespeaking population called “Zamboangueño", the largest in the world. Former capital of the Moro Province and of the undivided province of Zamboanga. Former regional center of Zamboanga Peninsula. Former Republic of Zamboanga (1899–1903) under the leadership of President General Vicente Alvarez.
  80. 80. Antipolo Nicknamed "City in the Sky" for its location on the hills immediately east of Metro Manila. Well-known pilgrimage and tourist center, being host to a Marian shrine and the Hinulugang Taktak National Park. Most populous city in Luzon outside of Metro Manila
  81. 81. Pasig Hosts most of the Ortigas Center. Part of the province of Rizal until 1975, when it was incorporated into Metro Manila. Formerly hosted the capitol and other government buildings of that province.
  82. 82. Rizal Currently exercises fiscal jurisdiction over Fort Bonifacio. Was part of Rizal Province until 1975, when it was incorporated into Metro Manila. Lies on the western shores of Laguna de Bay.
  83. 83. CDO Known as the "City of Golden Friendship" and famous for its whitewater rafting or Kayaking adventures, that has been one of the tourism activity being promoted in the Cagayan de Oro River. Regional center of Northern Mindanao. Provincial capital city of the province of Misamis Orietnal.
  84. 84. Asian Metro Cities
  85. 85. Tokyo Japan 37,730,064
  86. 86. Jakarta, Indonesia 19,231,919
  87. 87. Seoul-City 22,692,652
  88. 88. Shanghai, China 18,572,816
  89. 89. Delhi, India 18,916,890
  90. 90. Mumbai India 21,900,967
  91. 91. Manila Philippines 20,654,307
  92. 92. Beijing China 12,522,839
  93. 93. Osaka, Japan 17,409,585
  94. 94. Calcutta Calcutta, India 15,644,040
  95. 95. Karachi Pakistan 13,205,339
  96. 96. Guangzhou 5,745,024
  97. 97. Dhaka-Bangladesh 14,327,157
  98. 98. Shenzhen China 9,400,000
  99. 99. Tehran, Iran 13,236,489
  100. 100. Bangkok, Thailand 10,132,974
  101. 101. Chennai India 7,663,922
  102. 102. Nagoya 8,852,544
  103. 103. Bangalore India 6,783,825
  104. 104. Hong Kong, China. 9,222,709
  105. 105. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 8,063,230
  106. 106. Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 5,381,158
  107. 107. Most Expensive Asian cities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Tokyo Nagoya Yokohama Kobe Seoul Singapore Beijing Shanghai Hong Kong Busan Ulsan Taipei Guangzhou Shenzhen Jakarta Kaohsiung Shenyang Tianjin Qingdao Dalian 1 4 6 10 21 31 35 41 58 63 77 80 84 89 90 110 112 116 119 124
  108. 108. Philippine Poverty Inequitable income distribution. The persistence of poverty is a consequence of the highly inequitable distribution of income and assets.
  109. 109. Poor performance in poverty alleviation. The performance of the Philippines in poverty alleviation is particularly disturbing when compared with the achievements of neighboring Asian countries.
  110. 110. Regional disparities in quality of life. The UNDP Human Development Report for the Philippines gave a Human Development Index (HDI) value for each of the country's regions, which was computed using levels of life expectancy, educational attainment and income . As expected, the NCR ranked highest overall. This may be attributed to the concentration of economic activity, infrastructure, education ad health facilities in the capital. Southern Tagalog, Central Luzon, Central Visayas, Ilocos and Western Visayas ranked second to sixth, respectively.
  111. 111. Rural Poverty. Poverty in the Philippines is still largely a rural phenomenon. In 1991, half of rural families were poor and rural poverty accounted for nearly two-thirds of the country's total poor.
  112. 112. On the other hand, the urban poor live closer to the poverty line than their rural counterparts and, in the assessment of the World Bank, are more likely to be pulled over the line by economic growth. However, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the lives of the urban poor, either because of the risk that income could fall unexpectedly (due to loss of employment) or expenditure needs escalate sharply (through government or private demolition of their housing settlements).
  113. 113. Empowerment of Administrators With its importance, it is imperative that certain knowledge must be acquired to those who will handle such big obligations; they are the public servants of the local government unit. Such equipment of knowledge and good governance must be practiced in any operations involved such as in planning and decision making.
  114. 114. The claim of GDP growth in the first quarter of 2012 was driven by a surge in government consumption and is therefore unsustainable. The main drivers of economic growth, productivity, and jobs creation such as agriculture and overall investment performed poorly. Unemployment has worsened alarmingly from 10.9 million in 2010 to 11.7 million today or 11.7 percent of the labor force; of those employed only 57 percent have regular jobs indicating the fast deterioration of work quality.
  115. 115. The economy will continue to rely heavily on overseas workers’ remittances – the perennial rescuer of the economy. Compared with the daily outflow of 3,000 Filipinos seeking overseas jobs in 2010, the number has risen to 4,000 this year. Government is aggressively exporting labor: it aims to double the country’s share of world seafarers from 25 percent or 347,150 seafarers to 50 percent by 2016.
  116. 116. The social divide in the country has widened: the combined wealth of the 40 richest Filipinos more than doubled growing by $24.6 billion (108 percent) to total $47.7 billion this year which is equal to 21 percent of the GDP. The number of households who rated themselves poor increased from 9.1 million (2011) to 11.1 million (April 2012) or 55 percent of the population.
  117. 117. Where do we want to go? Philippine Agenda 21 envisions a better quality of life for all through the development of a just, moral, creative, spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.
  118. 118. Growth Drivers for Sustainable Economic Growth There have been numerous research studies in what determines long term GDP growth. Every country is different, each factor will vary in importance for a country at a given point in time
  119. 119. References
  120. 120. References • Agra, Alberto C. 1995 12 Basic Features of Local Autonomy. Lecture presented to the Local Autonomy Forum, Baguio City. • Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. 1998 Decentralized Democratic Governance Under the Local Government Code: A Government Perspective, Manila: Philippine Journal of Public Administration.
  121. 121. References • Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. 1992 Local Government Code Encourages NGO Participation in Local Governance, Manila Bulletin. • Legaspi, Perla E. 2001` The Enabling Role of Local Governments. QC: UP National College of Public Administration and Governance.
  122. 122. References • Panganiban, Elena M. 1998 Metropolitanization Within a Decentralized System: The Philippine Dilemma. QC: Center for Local and Regional Governance and National College of Public Administration and Governance.
  123. 123. References • Reforma, Mila A. 1998 Reforming Government: New Concepts and Practices in Local Public Administration in the Philippines, Japan: EROPA Local Government Center. • Tapales, Proserpina D. 2003 The Nature and State of Local Government, QC: National College of Public Administration and Governance.
  124. 124. References • Tapales, Proserpina D. 1998 Participatory Governance: The Philippine Experience, Tokyo, Japan: EROPA Local Government Center. • CSC MC No. 19 1992 Guidelines and Standards in the Establishment of Organizational Structure and Staffing Patterns in Local Government Units
  125. 125. References • EO No. 503 1992 Providing for the Rules and Regulations Implementing the Transfer of Personnel and Assets, Liabilities and Records of National Government Agencies whose Functions are to be Devolved to the Local Government Units and Other Related Purposes.
  126. 126. References • Aralar, Reynaldo B. Administrative Law Simplified, MM: National Bookstore, 2009. • Sibal, Jose Agaton R., Local Government Code (As Amended), 2nd Ed., MM: Central Book Supply Inc., 2005
  127. 127. http://www.academia.edu/1543610/Local_Gov ernment_and_Regional_Administration