LEADERSHIPDM 212 Human Resource Development & ManagementRosary Gracia P. Perez Discussant
LEADERSHIPDefining LeadershipIt is the process of directing andinfluencing the task-relatedactivities group members. Thereare four important implications ofthe definitions.It is the process of directing andinfluencing the task-relatedactivities group members. Thereare four important implications ofthe definitions.
First, leadership involves other people-employees orfollowers. By their willingness to accept directions from theleader, group members help define the leader’s status andmake the leadership process possible; without people tolead, all the leadership qualities of a manager would not berelevant.
Second, leadershipinvolved an unequaldistribution of powerbetween leaders andgroup members. Groupmembers are notpowerless; they can anddo shape group activitiesin number of ways. Still,the leader will usuallyhave more power.
Thus, a thirdaspect of leadership isthe ability to use thedifferent forms ofpower to influencefollowers’ behaviors innumber of way.
The fourth aspect combines thefirst three and acknowledges thatleadership is about values. Moralleadership concern values andrequires that followers be givenenough knowledge ofalternatives to make intelligentchoices when it comes time torespond to leaders’ proposed tolead.
Leadership versusManagementA clear distinction betweenmanagement and leadership maynevertheless prove useful. Thiswould allow for a reciprocalrelationship between leadershipand management, implying thatan effective manager shouldpossess leadership skills, and aneffective leader shoulddemonstrate management skills.
One clear distinction could providethe following definition: Management involves power by position. Leadership involves power by influence.
Abraham Zaleznik, forexample, delineateddifference between leadershipand management. He sawleaders as inspiring visionaries,concerned about substance;while he views managers asplanners concern withprocess.
Warren Bennis further explicated a dichotomybetween managers and leaders. He drew twelvedistinctions between the two groups: Managers administers, leaders innovate. Managers ask how and when, leaders ask what and why Managers focus on system, leaders focus on people Managers do things right, leaders do the right things
Managers maintain, leaders develop Managers rely on control, leaders inspire trust Managers have a short-term perspective, leaders have a longer-term perspective Managers accept the status-quo, leaders challenge the status-quo
Managers have an eye on the bottom line, leaders have an eye on the horizon Managers imitate, leaders originate Managers emulate the classic good soldier, leaders are their own person Managers copy, leaders show originality
Paul Birch, also sees a distinctionbetween leadership and management.He observed that, as a broadgeneralization, managers concernedthemselves with tasks while leadersconcerned themselves with people.Birch does not suggest that leaders donot focus on "the task." Indeed, thethings that characterize a great leaderinclude the fact that they achieve. Thedifference lies in the leader realizingthat the achievement of the task comesabout through the goodwill and supportof others (influence), while the managermay not.
Bruce Lynn, postulates adifferentiation between Leadership and‘Management’ based on perspectives torisk. Specifically,” A Leader optimizesupside opportunity; a Manager minimizesdownside risk." He argues that successfulexecutives need to apply both disciplinesin a balance appropriate to the enterpriseand its context. Leadership withoutManagement yields steps forward, but asmany if not more steps backwards.Management without Leadership avoidsany step backwards, but doesn’t moveforward.
References Andres, Tomas D. Enhancing Organization Performance andProductivity Management Tools And Techniques, New Day Publisher,Manila Philippine 2001. Abasolo, Pacita A. Personal Management: The EfficientManagement of Employees, GIC Enterprises, Manila Philippines 1991. Maxwell, John C. The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader,Maxwell Motivation, Inc. U.S.A 1999. Padilla,Renaldo A. Civic Welfare Training Volume II, Rexbookstores, Manila Philippines 2005. Stone, James A.F, Management, Pearson Education Asia Pte,Ltd. New Jersey, U.S.A. 2001.