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Introduction DM 211 Project Development and Management


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Introduction DM 211 Project Development and Management

  1. 1. DM 211 Project Development and Management
  2. 2. Why have a Project Plan? • Developing an initial course of action toward a welldefined set of objectives • A mechanism to aid in detecting variance both in the planned progress of the work and also in the target objectives. • The purpose of a project plan is NOT to predict the future. You lay out. • A process that will constantly test this course during its execution for its match with the current, changing environment.
  3. 3. Development Planning Models Economic Planning Model (1935-1971) Development Planning Model (1972) Corporate Business Planning Models Educational Planning Model Eclectic Model Source: Miclat (2005)
  4. 4. Development Planning and Administration Development administration has always been one of the central features of the various long and Medium Term Philippine Development Plans since the seventies. The paradigm for bureaucratic reform continues to evolve in various intellectual and practical debates but government continues its work amidst all these. Until recently, all Philippine development plans since the seventies had a specific chapter devoted solely to development administration
  5. 5. Eclectic Model Nine Major Steps 1. Preparation  Organization and staffing  Training 2. Environmental Scanning     External environment Internal environment SWOT analysis Strategic planning framework 3. VMGO, policy, objective, and target setting 4. Policy/Strategy formulation 5. Program/Project Identification
  6. 6. Eclectic Model Nine Major Steps 6. Investment Programming 7. Budgeting 8. Implementation and Monitoring 9. Evaluation and Plan Update
  7. 7. Development Administration (1950s to 1960s) • Development Administration (DA) as a field of study emerged in 1950s and 1960s with the third world countries as the focal point Nef and Dwivedi (1981) on the other hand, attributed the concept of DA to Goswami in 1955 and later popularized by Riggs and Weidner. They coined the term development administration” to refer to developing countries which are largely found in Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
  8. 8. Khator (1998) however, argued that DA was built upon several critical assumptions that: (1) development needs are the most important needs of developing countries, (2) the development needs of developing and developed countries are inherently different, (3) development can be administered, (4) developmental know-hows are transferable; and (5) the political, social, and cultural context of development can be easily altered Source:
  9. 9. Two foci in Development Administration Likewise, Fred Riggs, in his “Frontiers of Development,” identified two foci in development administration: development of administration and the administration of development. Most development administration scholars focused more on the latter and it subsequently became synonymous to the administration of development in third world countries. (Khator 1998)
  10. 10. “Management of Innovation” Given the situations above, DA maybe considered as “Management of Innovation” because it was aimed at helping countries that are undergoing reconstruction and social transformation
  11. 11. Administrative Reform De Guzman (1986) described administrative reform as one of the core values of DA, and analyzed the structural and behavioral characteristics of the Philippine public bureaucracy. He argued that the “implementation of administrative reform should have two major dimensions: reforming the structures of the bureaucracy and reforming the behavior of those in the bureaucracy.” (De Guzman 1986 as cited in Brillantes 1994: 8)
  12. 12. Project Plan Development: taking the results of other planning processes (historical information, organizational policies, constraints, assumptions) and putting them into a consistent, coherent document—the project plan Project Plan Execution: carrying out the project plan Integrated Change Control: coordinating changes across the entire project
  13. 13. Project Plan Development • to coordinate all project planning documents • to guide project execution • Project plans assist the project manager in leading the project team and assessing project status • Project performance should be measured against a baseline plan
  14. 14. Attributes of Project Plans • • • • Just as projects are unique, so are project plans Plans should be dynamic Plans should be flexible Plans should be updated as changes occur Plans should first and foremost guide project execution
  15. 15. Common Elements of a Project Plan • Introduction or overview of the project • Description of how the project is organized (Quality of Code) • Management and technical processes used on the project (project structure, use of tools) • Work to be done, schedule, and budget information (development practices)
  16. 16. Good Project Planning Key Two keys to succeed in good project planning : Always think about and say something about each one of the checklist areas (and others that are applicable), regardless of the size of the project, the industry involved, and the product or service being produced. Source: Clearly, the scale of the plan elements will differ, depending on project scope. Plan accordingly.
  17. 17. How Detailed should my Project Plan be? Detailed planning versus light planning. Just-in-time planning Measurable and testable goals. • Do planning at a sufficient level of detail to search out issues and problems during the early planning process itself. • Build into the plan the hooks for measuring if you are drifting off course during the plan's execution. • Finding the sweet-spot for planning at-a-distance teams and outsourced services/development
  18. 18. What is Risk? Risk is a measure of two factors: the probability of an event occurring, and the severity of the consequences of that event. Thus, an event can be either one that is very likely to occur with moderate consequences each time it does, or one that is extremely unlikely but with catastrophic consequences on each occurrence. Removing a risk means either eliminating the possibility of occurrence of an event or rending the event completely harmless when it does occur.
  19. 19. How do keep risk from disrupting implementation of project? Start the process early, as soon as one other core team member is available for brainstorming. Brainstorm with core team, identifying as many risks as possible. Use previous product experience, personal experience, regulatory input, and common sense.
  20. 20. How do keep risk from disrupting implementation of project? Create a risk analysis document that, at a minimum, contains the identified risk, the event that causes it, a measure of probability, a measure of severity, and a mitigation or elimination strategy.
  21. 21. How do I keep Risk from Disrupting my Project? Explicitly incorporate the mitigations into either planned project process activities or product requirements. Make the risk analysis part of the project plan that is agreed upon by all stakeholders and team members. Periodically review and amend the risk analysis with new information gained from reviews, inspections, audits, and marketing or customer input.
  22. 22. Project Plan Execution • Involves managing and performing the work described in the project plan • The majority of time and money is usually spent on execution • The application area of the project directly affects project execution because the products of the project are produced during execution
  23. 23. What Went Wrong? Many people have a poor view of plans based on past experiences. Senior managers often require a plan, but then no one follows up on whether the plan was followed. For example, one project manager said he would meet with each project team leader within two months to review their plans. The project manager created a detailed schedule for these reviews. He cancelled the first meeting due to another business commitment. He rescheduled the next meeting for unexplained personal reasons. Two months later, the project manager had still not met with over half of the project team leaders. Why should project members feel obligated to follow their own plans when the project manager obviously did not follow his?
  24. 24. Important Skills for Project Execution • General management skills like leadership, communication, and political skills • Product skills and knowledge • Use of specialized tools and techniques
  25. 25. Choosing tools • Having a process helps choose tools • Choosing Inappropriate tool can do harm • Build a process if you don’t have any
  26. 26. Tools and Techniques for Project Execution • Work Authorization System - a method for ensuring that qualified people do work at the right time and in the proper sequence • Status Review Meetings - regularly scheduled meetings used to exchange project information • Project Management Software: special software to assist in managing projects
  27. 27. Measuring and Checking Progress Build into the plan the activities and processes that will support dynamic, roundrobin, never-ending measurement during execution: Frequent, measurable milestones,  Periodic testing, reviews, and issue management that will systematically capture and measure the delta between requirements and emerging design  Periodic testing of the product or system requirements with marketing or the customer, to see if the target is changing out from under you,  Scheduled midcourse corrections of the project plan itself, as you learn more, and  Early removal of technical risk through prototypes and testing
  28. 28. Integrated change control Framework for involves identifying, evaluating, Project Integration and managing changes Management throughout the project life cycle Three main objectives of change control: • Influence the factors that create changes to ensure they are beneficial • Determine that a change has occurred • Manage actual changes when and as they occur
  29. 29. Integrated Change Control Process Suggestions for Managing Integrated Change Control  View project management as a process of constant communications and negotiations  Plan for change  Establish a formal change control system, including a Change Control Board (CCB)
  30. 30.  Cont. Suggestions for Managing Integrated Change Control Use good configuration management  Define procedures for making timely decisions on smaller changes  Use written and oral performance reports to help identify and manage change  Use project management and other software to help manage and communicate changes
  31. 31. What is project management?
  32. 32. History of Project Management • Modern project management began with the Manhattan Project, which the U.S. military led to develop the atomic bomb • In 1917 Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart as a tool for scheduling work in job shops • In 1958, the Navy developed PERT charts • In the 1970s, the military began using project management software, as did the construction industry • By the 1990s, virtually every industry was using some form of project management
  33. 33. Project Management Profession • A 1996 Fortune article called project management the “number one career choice” • Professional societies like the Project Management Institute (PMI) have grown tremendously • Average salaries for project managers are over $81,000
  34. 34. What is Project Management? Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements” (PMI*, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 2000, p. 6) *The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an international professional society. Their web site is MCM 1262 IT Project Mgmt Chap 1 - 35
  35. 35. Project Management Knowledge & skills Tools & techniques
  36. 36. Core Knowledge Areas Core Knowledge Areas: Objectives Facilitating Knowledge ◦ Scope Areas: Achievement ◦ Time ◦ Human Resources ◦ Cost ◦ Communication ◦ Quality ◦ Risk ◦ Procurement ◦ Project Integration Management
  37. 37. • Structure your project properly (use framework if possible) • Maintain good coding practice in team • Use tools to increase team efficiency
  38. 38. Time Scope Cost Integration Quality Procurement Communication Risk People
  39. 39. The nine knowledge areas of project management:          Project Integration Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project Human Resource Management Project Communication Management Project Risk Management Project Procurement Management
  40. 40. Project Management Methodology Initiate Plan Initiate –potential projects are identified and evaluated in terms of importance to the organization Plan –scope, time, cost and risk management planning takes place Execute Execute –project plan is followed Control Control –project performance is measured against the project plan Close Close –final paper work completed and sign off by all stakeholders
  41. 41. The Approach to Learning Project Management Process Focus Team Focus Technology Focus PM Software Group Support Technologies Knowledge Management and Organizational Memory Systems Global Focus PM Professional Focus
  42. 42. Nine Project Management Knowledge Areas Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop – 4 core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) – 4 facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management – 1 knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas MCM 1262 IT Project Mgmt Chap 1 - 44
  43. 43. Project Stakeholders • Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities • Stakeholders include • • • • • • the project sponsor and project team support staff customers users suppliers opponents to the project MCM 1262 IT Project Mgmt Chap 1 - 45
  44. 44. Project Management Tools and Techniques • Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management • Some specific ones include – Project Charter and WBS (scope) – Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (resource constraint scheduling) – Cost estimates and earned value management (cost) MCM 1262 IT Project Mgmt Chap 1 - 46
  45. 45. Application of PM • Project management applies to work as well as personal projects • Project management applies to many different disciplines (IT, construction, finance, sports, event planning, etc.) • Project management skills can help in everyday life
  46. 46. More Advantages of Project Management* • Bosses, customers, and other stakeholders do not like surprises • Good project management (PM) provides assurance and reduces risk • PM provides the tools and environment to plan, monitor, track, and manage schedules, resources, costs, and quality • PM provides a history or metrics base for future planning as well as good documentation • Project members learn and grow by working in a crossfunctional team environment *Knutson, Joan, PM Network, December 1997, p. 13
  47. 47. Project Management Certification • PMI provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP) • A PMP has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow a code of ethics, and passed the PMP exam • The number of people earning PMP certification is increasing quickly
  48. 48. More and more people are getting the Project Management Professional (PMP) certification - increased by more than 70 percent from 2004 to 2005.
  49. 49. Growth in PMP Certification 1993-2008 350,000 318,289 300,000 267,367 250,000 # PMPs 221,144 200,000 175,194 150,000 100,000 102,047 76,550 52,443 50,000 40,343 1,000 - 1,900 2,800 4,400 6,415 10,086 18,184 27,052 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year
  50. 50. That’s why we have to learn Project Management
  51. 51. Project Management Software • By 2001, there were hundreds of different products to assist in performing project management • Three main categories of tools: – Low-end tools: Handle single or smaller – – projects well, cost under $200 per user Midrange tools: Handle multiple projects and users, cost $200-500 per user, Project 2000 most popular High-end tools: Also called enterprise project management software, often licensed on a per-user basis
  52. 52. What is a project? • A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result” (PMBOK® Guide, Fourth Edition) • Other attributes:  Is developed using progressive elaboration  Requires resources, often from various areas  Involves uncertainty • Operations is work done to sustain the business
  53. 53. What is a program? • Program: group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually (PMBOK® Guide, Fourth Edition) • Program managers oversee programs and often act as bosses for project managers • Examples of common programs in the IT field: infrastructure, applications development, and user support
  54. 54. Why Project Management ? Project Management is an in-demand skill set and one of the fastest growing professional disciplines in North America. Project Management breaks down the chaos of an overwhelming workload into manageable elements -scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communication, risk, procurement, and integration of projects
  55. 55. Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (i.e. human, financial & material) in such a way that a project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraints. ◦ The first challenge of project management is to make sure that a projects delivered within defined constraints. ◦ The second, more ambitious, challenge is the optimized allocation and integration of inputs needed to meet pre-defined objectives.
  56. 56. Five Process of PM
  57. 57. Key ones in PM: – – – – Executive support User involvement Experienced project manager Well defined scope and requirements
  58. 58. Advantages of Using Formal Project Management Practices Improvement in customer satisfaction Better cost performance, higher return on investment Better schedule performance, better allocation of time commitments and better utilization of resources, higher productivity Increased quality reducing re-work Increase in delivering required features Will make everyone happier (stakeholders, team members, management)
  59. 59. There are several ways to define project success  The project met scope, time, and cost goals  The project meets or exceeds stakeholders’ expectations  The results of the project met its main objective, e.g., making or saving a certain amount of money providing a good return on investment, or simply delivering the product/services
  60. 60. What the Winners Do? • Use an integrated project management toolbox (use standard/advanced PM tools, lots of templates) • Grow project leaders, emphasizing business and soft skills • Develop a streamlined project delivery process • Measure project health using metrics, like customer satisfaction or return on investment
  61. 61. Project Manager Skills Soft skills: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Leadership Team building Negotiation Conflict management Organization for self and others ◦ Communication both oral and written to both technical and nontechnical audiences ◦ Change management ◦ Active listening Technical Skills: Project Management software Level of understanding of the technology being used in the project (software, hardware, network, etc.) Basic knowledge of the business Cost estimating and budgeting Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  62. 62. Six Basic Functions of Successful PM’s 1. manage project scope –make sure the team works on what is needed for the project and nothing else 2. manage human resources –the team must work together, this doesn’t just happen it takes a directed effort 3. manage communications –this occurs at many levels, teammates, customers, managers, vendors, and others 4. manage schedule –must keep people on schedule delivering work on time 5. manage quality –need to make sure that all work performed meets with customer expected levels of quality 6. manage costs –must keep an eye on the budget to make sure all the work can be done and not exceed the allocated budget
  63. 63. A Project Manager Manages Projects by: Setting clear and achievable objectives Identifying requirements Adapting the project to the various concerns of the stakeholders Balancing the demands of the triple constraint
  64. 64. Project Life Cycles Conceptualization-the development of the initial goal and technical specifications. Planning–all detailed specifications, schedules, schematics, and plans are developed Execution–the actual ―work‖ of the project is performed Termination–project is transferred to the customer, resources reassigned, project is closed out.
  65. 65. Process Groups Initiating processes–authorizing the beginning or ending of a project or phase Planning processes –ensuring that the objectives of the project are achieved in the most appropriate way Executing processes –coordinating all resources (people and material) during the implementation of the project plan Controlling processes –monitoring of project variances from what was planned to actual progress Closing processes –formal acceptance of the project or a phase and updating of the project information base with lessons learned
  66. 66. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  67. 67. Process Groups Process groups supply a roadmap to follow, and the knowledge areas describe the methods (for example, car, plane, bus) of how to get to our destination, which is project success
  68. 68. Execution Planning Conceptualization Termination Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  69. 69. Initiation Phase The Initiating stage of project management includes examining the strategic fit for a proposed project. Before beginning a new project, an organization must determine that the project fits in with its strategic goals. Understanding the organization’s goals can help executives identify certain proposed projects focusing on mission-critical activities as highpriority, and other projects peripheral to organization goals as lower priority. During the Initiating stage, an executive sponsor should be identified. A high-level evaluation of the project’s business case should be developed, along with project limitations and technical and financial requirements.
  70. 70. Project Initiation • Link a Project to An Underlying Business Need • Analyze and Understand the Stakeholders • Build the Business Case • Identify Constraints • Document Assumptions • Develop a Preliminary Scope Statement
  71. 71. Planning Phase • Planning –Create the Plan & Assign Resources • The Planning stage devises a workable scheme to accomplish the project’s intended goals and outcomes. In the Planning stage, you identify the project’s milestones, deliverables, and tasks. This plan can be your work breakdown structure (WBS). You develop and refine the schedule, and identify the resources needed to implement the project.
  72. 72. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  73. 73. Project Planning • The Activities: • Develop a Work Breakdown Structure(WBS) • Estimate Resource Requirements Personnel TimeLine Budget • Determine the Milestones • Develop the Work‐plan
  74. 74. Execution Phase Execution-Update and keep track Controlling–Communicate & Report The Executing/Controlling stage coordinates people and other resources to carry out the plan as defined in the project plan. The deliverables in this stage focus on managing change, entering schedule updates, tracking progress, and communicating project information. Each team member performs defined tasks within the project scope, ensuring their contribution to the project’s success.
  75. 75. Structured Project Management Identify Risk ◦ Assess ◦ Quantify ◦ Manage Mitigation Strategies Contingency Planning Formal Change Control Processes Managing Organizational Change Communications Expectations
  76. 76. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  77. 77. Project Execution The Interrelationships ◦ Planning ◦ Execution ◦ Control The Constraints ◦ Scope ◦ Schedule ◦ Cost
  78. 78. Project Control Monitoring and Control ◦ The Work ◦ The Time ◦ The Budget ◦ The Deliverables ◦ The Communications ◦ The Quality ◦ The Completion
  79. 79. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  80. 80. Closing Phase The Closing stage includes final details for completing a project. Resolve any final project details, and obtain customer acceptance of final deliverables. Conduct a Lessons Learned session, recording information about areas for improvement and best practices. Make any final updates to the project plan. Finally, archive the project plan according to your organization’s project data archival guidelines. Source: MS Project Quick Reference Guide Source: MS Project Quick Reference Guide
  81. 81. Managing Expectation • Identify Stakeholder Requirements • Deliverables • On‐going Communications • Define Roles and Responsibilities • Manage Expectations
  82. 82. Project Closure • • • • • • Gain Acceptance for Deliverables Implement the Transition Plan Assess the Lessons Learned Archive Information Closeout the Team Conclude the Project
  83. 83. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  84. 84. MCM 1262 (2009) IT Project Mgmt Advanced Information Technology Institute Janet Yu, Frank Lo (2010) Project Management & Quality Assurance Anthony Bowen (2010) Basic Project Management Introduction and Overview of Project Management. Emran Hasan (2010) Developing better PHP projects Josefina B. Bitonio (2012) Modern Public Administration odern-public-administration Information Technology Project Management ... – CengageBrain .../schwalbe21758_1111221758_01.01_toc....
  85. 85. Information Technology Project Management ... – CengageBrain .../schwalbe21758_1111221758_01.01_toc.... Kate Pynn (2008) Project Plan Development - A FlackVentures Training Example. FlackVentures, Inc