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ICT and Development: Does access to advanced ICT benefit the poor?


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DM 218 Information Communications Technology
Master in development Management

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ICT and Development: Does access to advanced ICT benefit the poor?

  1. 1. DM 218 Information Technology Management ICT & Development
  2. 2. The world’s poorest two billion people desperately need healthcares not laptops.. Mothers are going to walk right up that computer and say” My children are dying what can you do?” They’re not going to sit there and, like browse eBay or something. What they want is for their children to live. Do you really have to put in computers to figure that out? Bill Gates – Chairman and Chief Software Architect, Microsoft
  3. 3. Defining ICT • Refer to technologies (web-based, SMS, MIS, lans) that facilitate by electronic means the creation, storage management and dissemination of information (Digital Opportunities Task force,2002) • As a vehicle for communication rather than simply a means of processing information (Curtain, 2004)
  4. 4. Types of ICTs • Old – newspapers, radio and television • New – networked computers, satellite-sources communications, wireless technology and the internet. A feature of these technologies is their capacity to be networked and interlinked to form a massive infrastructure of interconnected telephone services, standardized computing hardware, the internet, radio and TV, which reaches every corner of the globe.
  5. 5. Definition of Development A critical factor that has to be considered in the application of ICT for development is whether it serves the poor especially with respect to dimensions of poverty such as health, lack of voice and lack of information (Curtain, 2004)
  6. 6. Development Projects Development projects pertain to activities that relate to the socio-economic well being of the country or the community. This involves activities related to health, education, commerce, the environment and governance. These are projects administered within the context of an organization
  7. 7. As such, understanding the definitions of ICTs and development, Tiglao & Alampay (2003) highlights the ICT projects that have direct impact on empowering people in poor communities as well as impact on alleviating poverty and addressing the MDGs
  8. 8. Reclassification of ICT4D World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) ICT4D Typology ICT Application Political/Governance/empower ment E-government Economic/Livelihood E-business E-employment E-agriculture Social/Education E-learning E-health E-environment Infrastructure/Access E-science
  9. 9. The UN Millennium Development Goals • MDG is a system of time bound and measurable goals and targets that the 191 member states on the UNs have committed to during the UN Millennium Summit in Sept. 2000. • The goals and targets cut across three broad sectors of development: a. Economic well-being b. Social development c. Environmental sustainability and regeneration
  10. 10. • The system seeks to enhance the capability of member states in achieving development by combating poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women as well as commitment to human rights, good governance and democracy The UN Millennium Development Goals
  11. 11. • The Millennium declaration clearly recognizes the potential and crucial role that information and communication technologies can play in meeting the development goals as contained in target 18, which states that “in co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication” The UN Millennium Development Goals
  12. 12. Global Perspective of ICT for Development
  13. 13. The WSIS (2003) identified the five (5) priority themes and their respective sub-themes under its ICT4D platforms 1. Innovating for Equitable Access a. Access/connectivity/last/first mile innovation including WIFI b. Financing ICT4D c. Affordable solutions d. Open solutions/open source
  14. 14. 2. Enhancing Human Capacity and Empowerment a. Capacity building (formal and non-formal education/skills development, e-learning) b. Youth c. Women/gender d. Indigenous community/ people e. Health
  15. 15. 3. Strengthening Communications for Development a. Enhancing communication through media b. Intercultural communication c. Humanitarian aid and disaster information system d. Conflict prevention and resolution
  16. 16. 4. Promoting Local Content and knowledge a. Local culture, knowledge and content b. Indigenous knowledge c. Local media
  17. 17. 5. Fostering Policy Implementation a. e-Strategies b. e-Governance (including security) c. e-Commerce/e-Business
  18. 18. Approaches to the Use of ICT in Development 1. ICT as LEAD. In focuses on ICT as a driver of the development process. The ICT led approach usually aims to provide the poor the opportunities to receive up- to-date information or achieve an enhanced ability to communicate with others. (Telecentres seek to promote economic growth through access to better opportunities to generate income as a means of poverty reduction)
  19. 19. 2. ICT plays a supporting roles. In ICT support places development objective to the fore and seeks to use ICT to support the objective Approaches to the Use of ICT in Development
  20. 20. ICT Applications: Benefits in All Aspect of Life
  21. 21. Breakdown of ICT Projects and Their Application (Tiglao, 2004) ICT Application # of Projects % E-governance 240 59.70 E-learning 100 24.87 E-science 43 10.69 E-business 37 9.20 E-environment 22 5.47 E-health 19 4.72 E-agriculture 13 3.23 E-employment 12 2.98 402
  22. 22. ICT4D Applications 1. E-government/E-governance • Easier to access government information • Government is also the largest single contributor to the local economy • Diversity in e –governance projects • Diversity in the technologies used
  23. 23. Websites • Philippine government portal ( • 1,694 LGUs have a web-presence (91% are at stage 1 –static) • Notable websites that won awards from NCC are Naga City, Nueva Ecija province, Zamboanga del Sur province, municipalities of Gerona, Tarmac, Abra de Ilog, Occidental Mindoro
  24. 24. Short Messaging Systems (SMS) • Used for complaints, suggestions, and request for information ex. Patrol 117, DepEd DETxt, TextSSS, Patrol 2920 and Text NAIA
  25. 25. Computerization and Specialized Databases 1. e-LGUs projects a. Real property tax systems b. Business permits and licensing system c. Treasury operations management systems d. Tax mapping system e. Geographic information system
  26. 26. Best Practices Naga City. The city’s website, which updates and informs the citizens on city services, financial and bidding reports, city legislations, investment data, statistics and procedures in local bureaucracy
  27. 27. 2. E-business a. E-ticketing b. B2b: b2bpricenow, bayantrade, virtual malls (,,,,online portal EXPERTRADE, electronic yellow pages ( c. For SMEs:, Asia Pacific Economic Council (APEC), APEC Centre for Technology Exchange for Small and Medium Enterprise (ACTETSME)
  28. 28. 3. E-learning – a. Distance learning b. ICT Skills Development c. Networking Knowledge Institutions and d. Providing access and exposure to the technologies DOTC Mobile Information Technology Classroom
  29. 29. 4. E-employment: overseas and local employment Overseas: use of internet, e-mail,net meeting, cyber photos and cyber greetings.OWWA “teleugnayan centres”, SART Padala Remittance Service, SMART money (Estopace, 2004)
  30. 30. Local employment – DOLE(http://phil- LGUs: job posting in Naga City, Bulacan Province and Bohol Province (Niles and Hanson, 2003)
  31. 31. 5. E-environment. Most of the projects involved Geographic Information System (GIS) applications to map out, contour, hydrology, land use, soil type, erosion, loan cover, population, among others SMS: bantay usok, bantay dagat, bantay kalikasan NDCC/PAGASA monitor weather and environmental disturbances
  32. 32. 6. E-Agriculture. Agriculture and Fisheries Research and Development Information system (AFRDIS), national Information Network (NIN), Agriculture and Natural Resources Information Network (AGRINET), Farmer’s Information and Technology services (FITS), Geographic Information System to identify soil patters and topographies and mapping properties
  33. 33. 7. E-Science. Projects pertains to the access of the ICT infrastructure: Multipurpose Community TeleCenter project (, ATIKHA’s use of video phones for OFW families (Doyo, 2002), broadband access such as in PREGINET and CATNET and IFDCI’s use of satellite and omni directional antennas (Hocson, 2002)
  34. 34. 8. E- Health. E-health initiatives can be classified into main categories: a. Health information and education (internet, SMS, dedicated hotlines) DOH SARs hotlines and textlines) b. Specialised databases and information systems (Infectious Disease Data Management Systems) e-conferences Qu4Rad (, ICT enhanced management information system on HIV/AIDS and sexual reproductive health services
  35. 35. LGU Web-presence (as of September 30, 2005) NATIONWIDE With Website Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Total % Cities (n=117) 20 75 20 0 0 115 98.3 Provinces (n=79) 18 47 14 0 0 79 100 Municipalities (n= 1500) 1,215 229 50 0 0 1,494 99.6 Total (n=1696) 1,253 351 84 0 0 1,688 99.5 Source: National Computer Centre (2005)
  36. 36. Genesis and History of DOT Force
  37. 37. • At the Summit in Kyushu- Okinawa in 2000, the G8 Charter on Global Information Society was adopted • The G8 leaders agreed to established a Digital Opportunity Task Force (DOT force)
  38. 38. 43 members participated DOT Force Representatives 17 government representatives + 1 Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, USA, and a representative from European Commission Developing countries governments (Bolivia, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania) 7 representatives from Internationals /multilateral organizations ECOSOC, ITU, OECD, UNDP, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WB 11 representatives from private sectors Three global networks: GIIC, GBDE and WEF 8 Representative from non profit sector One representative from each G8 country
  39. 39. DOT Force focused on the three main objectives 1. To enhance global understanding and consensus on the challenges and opportunities posed by information and communication technologies, and the role that these technologies can play in fostering sustainable, participatory development, better governance, wealth creation, and empowerment of local communities and vulnerable groups
  40. 40. 2. To foster greater coherence among various initiatives, both G8 and other currently underway or proposed to address these challenges and opportunities 3. To enhance the effective mobilization of resources to address these challenges and opportunities
  41. 41. Barriers to take up of ICT for Development • No robust inventory of documented development outcomes • Many projects have been viewed as “technology transfer” rather than aiming to achieve development outcomes. This means that project “success” or “failure” has been measured in terms whether a technical system was deployed or not. The actual development outcome (or relevance) of the system was neither monitored nor measured
  42. 42. • There is the “iceberg phenomenon” meaning that ICTs have been hidden beneath the surface of other development projects. When viewed as enables of other development sectors, ICTs were rarely liked to impact indicators. This phenomenon suggests that ICT in many development projects is best viewed as a crosscutting issue • A focus in project evaluation on management issues and project cycles together with the use of inadequate tools, methodologies and timeframes, has hidden ICT’s contribution to longer-term social change
  43. 43. • There has also a desire to hide failures on the part of those involved, in many cases. Although any ICT for development initiatives have failed, few failure have been documented. This is due to lack of incentives in the development system to encourage project managers, development agencies or implementing partners to critically report and make public project shortfalls or failures UNDP Evaluation Office 2001
  44. 44. •Does access to advanced ICT benefit the poor?