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Classification of Government


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Classification of Government
Philippine Government and Politics
5:30-7:00 PM MW
L-NU Dagupan City

Published in: Education

Classification of Government

  1. 1. Classification of Government
  2. 2. Module 3 Classification of Government Philippine Government and Politics 5:30-7:00 PM MW Obj. To determine and define the classification of Government College of Arts and Sciences Social Sciences Department Political Science Program LYCEUM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
  3. 3. Legend • Blue - Presidential Republic • Yellow – Semi Presidential Republic • Green – Parliamentary Republic, Executive Presidency linked to a parliament • Orange – Parliamentary Republic • Red – Parliamentary Constitutional; Monarchy butno power • Magenta –Constitutional Monarchy in which the monarch personally exercises power, often (but not always) alongside a weak parliament • Purple – Absolute Monarchy • Brown – Countries where the dominant role of the political party or coalition codified in the constitution •Dark green – Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended •Grey – Countries that do not fit in any of the above listed systems •Light grey – No government There are many different types of government all around the world
  4. 4. Who Rules? None One Few All Anarchy Monarchy Dictatorship Oligarchy Democracy Direct Representative
  5. 5. Rule by One • One person rules over everyone. In this case, one person in in charge with the country and government. King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un
  6. 6. Monarchy • Monarchy when a King or Queen rules thru inherited power King Harald and Queen Sonja of Norway
  7. 7. Dictatorship “A form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limits.” – Encyclopedia Britannica • As elaborated by the encyclopedic definition, a dictatorship also consists of a few key factors: • No division of power • Little to no constitutional backbone • Little to no social liberties or personal freedoms • Swift and severe disciplinary policies on citizens • Manipulation of media and the usage of propaganda to increase the states influence
  8. 8. free partly free Not free Using Freedom House’s predetermined criteria which takes into account factors that are eerily similar to those outline in the definition of a dictatorship, it becomes increasingly clear that there are a number of countries across the globe that may fit the bill. Freedom House’s criteria includes factors such as: o Personal rights o Political pluralism o Functioning of government o Rule of law o Personal autonomy
  9. 9. Dictatorship a ruler who seizes power through military action autocratic ruler of Belarus
  10. 10. Rule by Few A few people rule over everyone. In this case few people rule over a country or government. Some examples of the oligarchic system of government can be found in Russia following the fall of the Soviet Union when a group of private businessmen dominate both wealth and political power in the Russian government. In the Russian example, oligarchs are identified as business magnates perceived as close to the current form of government. As of 2014, 110 Russian billionaires account for 35 percent of the country's wealth
  11. 11. Oligarchy In an oligarchy (OH-lih-gar-kee), a small group of people has all the power. Oligarchy is a Greek word that means “rule by a few.” Sometimes this means that only a certain group has political rights, such as members of one political party, one social class, or one race. For example, in some societies, only noble families who owned land could participate in politics. An oligarchy can also mean that a few people control the country. For example, a junta is a small group of people— usually military officers—who rule a country after taking it over by force. A junta often operates much like a dictatorship, except that several people share power.
  12. 12. Religious Rule • A theocracy is a government that recognizes God or a divine being as the ultimate authority. (“Theo” is a Greek word that means god.) In a theocracy, religious law is used to settle disputes and rule the people. A theocracy can also be a democracy, dictatorship, monarchy, or just about any other kind of government. For example, the Republic of Iran recognizes Islamic law, but Iran’s citizens vote to elect their leaders. Modern theocracies are usually found in countries where the population is strongly religiou Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
  13. 13. Plutocracy • Plutocracy (from Greek , ploutos, meaning "wealth", and κράτος, kratos, meaning "power, dominion, rule") or plutarchy, is a form of oligarchy and defines a society ruled or controlled by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens.
  14. 14. Meritocracy • The term was coined by the UK sociologist Michael Young in 1958 book, 'The Rise Of Meritocracy.’ Governance by elites who deserve to wield power because they possess merit (defined as 'intelligence plus effort') instead of by those who merely possess wealth or belong to privileged to classes. Such a System in theory, forms the basis of an equal opportunity society. But, in practice, unrestricted meritocracy may result in a society without rules and concentrate power in only a few hands.
  15. 15. Technocracy Government • A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control; "technocracy w as described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves by appeal to technical experts who by appeal to scientific f orms of knowledge" Technocratic Countries in Europe: Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Russia All North American Technocratic Countries: Canada, United States of America
  16. 16. Rule by Many • A lot of different people rule everyone. In this case, lot of people are in charge with the country or government
  17. 17. Democracy • Democracy means power to the people and is a limited government • Direct democracy when all people vote on every law that is passed
  18. 18. • In a Representative Democracy, citizens elect leaders to represent their rights and interests in government. The elected leaders, or representatives, do the day-to-day work of governing the country: They consider the issues, work to find solutions, pass laws, and do all of the other things necessary to keep a country going. Citizens hold the ultimate power, though, because if they don’t like what their representatives are doing, they can vote in new ones
  19. 19. Parliamentary Republic A Parliamentary Republic is a system in which a prime minister is the active head of the Executive Branch of government and also leader of the Legislature. The president's degree of executive power may range from being reasonably significant (e.g. Pakistan) to little (e.g. India) or none at all (e.g. Ireland). Where the president holds little executive power, his or her function is primarily that of a symbolic figurehead.
  20. 20. Remember: • Nearly every country in the world is ruled by a system that combines 2 or more of these (for example, the USA is not a true capitalist society, since the government actually provides some services for its citizens). Additionally, one person's opinion of the type of government may differ from another's (many argue that the USA is actually a plutocracy rather than a democracy
  21. 21. Module 7 Objective: To determine and discuss the functions of the branches of government College of Arts and Sciences Social Sciences Department Political Science Program LYCEUM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Branches of the Government
  22. 22. Republic A Republic is a sovereign state or country ] which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law. • The power of government is held by the people. • The people give power to leaders they elect to represent them and serve their interests. • The representatives are responsible for helping all the people in the country, not just a few people.
  23. 23. Philippine Republic Pres.Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino There have been five republics in the history of the Philippines: o First Philippine Republic (January 23, 1899 – March 23, 1901) oSecond Philippine Republic (October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945) oThird Philippine Republic (July 4, 1946 – September 21, 1972) o Fourth Philippine Republic (June 30, 1981 – February 25, 1986) oFifth Philippine Republic (February 2, 1987 – present)
  24. 24. Brainbelen: Published on Apr 06, 2010 9d3f-a148121f4141&v=qf1&b=&from_search=1
  25. 25. Branches of Government Executive Brach • President • Vice Pres • Cabinet Legislative Branch • Senate • House of Representatives Judicial Branch • Supreme Court • RTC/MTC • Special Courts
  26. 26. Executive Branch Source:
  27. 27. o Charged with the execution and administration of a country’s laws o The Executive Branch .Charged with the execution and administration of a country’s laws. In general, the executive branch sets the direction of national policy o Executive power in the Philippine government is vested in the office of the President of the Republic o The term of the President is for six years (no re- election). No person who has succeeded and served as President for four (4) years can run again o Vice-President: maximum two (2) terms
  28. 28. Presidential Privileges • Appoint the heads of the different executive departments • Appoint ambassadors, consuls and public ministers • Appoint armed forces personnel from the rank of colonel or naval captain • Contract / guarantee foreign loans • Negotiate foreign treaties
  29. 29. • Make appointments not otherwise provided for by law • Suspend the writ of habeas corpus • Declare martial law • Prepare the national budget • Perform acts of clemency (Acts of Clemency, Amnesty, Pardon, Commutation, Reprieve, Remission of fines and forfeitures) Presidential Privileges
  30. 30. • Pardon – forgiveness given to individual • Amnesty – forgiveness given to a big group of individuals • Commutation – reducing the penalty • Reprieve – Delay of punishment May grant pardon, amnesty or reduce the sentence of those convicted on the final judgment of the Supreme Court
  31. 31. • The President Cannot: Hold any other office or enjoy any other form of employment ; Make appointments two months prior to the next elections ; Make appointments within the 4 th civil degree of consanguinity. • The President Cannot: Increase his/her salary or that of the Vice-President during his/her term; • Ratify foreign treaties • Grant clemency in cases of impeachment
  32. 32. Causes of Vacancy • Permanent Disability; Resignation; Impeachment • Causes of Vacancy: Written declaration that s/he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the Office ; If a majority of the Cabinet makes a written declaration that the President cannot discharge the powers and duties of the Office • More on Vacancy. The President can, at a later time, inform Congress s/he is fit to perform her/his duties again • Congress can judge otherwise by a two-thirds vote of both houses voting separately.
  33. 33. Causes of Vacancy • Even More on Vacancy, if the President falls seriously ill. The public will be informed of his/her state of health • Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations shall have access to the President • The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces shall have access to the President
  34. 34. • President can be impeached if found to accept bribes, betray his countrymen, lose of confidence, performed crimes against people, violation of the constitution, graft and corruption
  35. 35. Vice President • To replace the President when he dies, resigns, or is impeached
  36. 36.
  37. 37. The Legislative Branch Source:
  38. 38. The Legislative Branch • From the Latin lex, legis meaning law • The legislative branch broadly deals with the making, deliberation over, enactment, amendment and repealing of laws
  39. 39. Basic Structures There are two basic structures for legislative branches of government: 1. Unicameral – The legislative branch consists of one chamber/house 2. Bicameral – Legislative power is vested in two chambers/houses
  40. 40. The Philippine Congress The Philippine Congress is the country’s legislative department (Art. VI, Sec. 1) Congress is bicameral oUpper House: Senate oLower House: House of Representatives
  41. 41. Senate Composition Qualifications Term of Office o 24 Senators elected at large o Natural-born citizen o At least 35 years old on election day o Literate (can read and write) o Registered voter o Philippine resident for 2 years prior to election day o 6 years o Maximum: 2 terms
  42. 42. House of Representatives o 200 district reps, 50 party list o Natural-born citizen o At least 25 years old on election day o Literate (can read and write) o Registered voter of the district o District resident for 1 year prior to election day o 3 years o Maximum: 3 terms Composition Qualifications Term of Office
  43. 43. House of Representatives o 200 district reps, 50 party list o Natural-born citizen o At least 25 years old on election day o Literate (can read and write) o Registered voter of the district o District resident for 1 year prior to election day o 3 years o Maximum: 3 terms Composition Qualifications Term of Office
  44. 44. In Case of Vacancy • Vacancy can be filled through regular election • Special elections can be called for the purpose of filling the vacancy • In either circumstance, the one elected merely sits for the unexpired term Article VI, Section 9
  45. 45. The Legislative Branch o It passes law o It punishes and determine crimes against the state o It determine the taxes people should pay o It determine the budget to be spent for puclic o can create and abolish courts except SC o The power to declare war
  46. 46. Parliamentary Privileges Congressmen have two parliamentary privileges while Congress is in session: 1. Privilege from arrest o Immunity from offenses punishable by not more than six years imprisonment 2. Privilege of speech and debate o Immunity from libel and slander Article VI, Section 11
  47. 47. Transparency Elected Congressmen must: 1. Fully disclose their financial and business interests 2. Disclose potential conflicts of interests that arise in the course of legislation 3. Keep from any other office or employment (appointed or otherwise), forfeit his/her seat to do so (Article VI, Sections 12-13)
  48. 48. Structure and Dynamics o Senate President and House Speaker elected by majority vote o Other officers, procedures and the discipline of its members is at the discretion of each house o Quorum: Majority o Each House maintains a journal and record of proceedings o Neither House can adjourn without the other’s consent while in session (Article VI, Section 16)
  49. 49. Powers of Congress 1. Appointment of Public Officials (Article VI, Sections 17-19 (esp. 18) 2. Legislative inquiry and investigation(Investigations in aid of legislation: Article VI, Section 21) 3. Declare the existence of a state of war : (Article VI, Section 23)
  50. 50. Powers of Congress 4. Ratify the country’s international treaties (Senate) Treaties: Article VII, Section 21 (The Executive Branch) 5. Authorize limited emergency powers for the President (Emergency Powers: Article VI, Section 23)
  51. 51. Powers of Congress 6. Approve the government budget (Article VI, Sec. 4-52) 7. Undertake projects under the CDF 8. Propose, review, and adopt bills for enactment into law (Article VI, Sec. 27).
  52. 52. Powers of Congress 9. Overturn a Presidential veto with respect to proposed legislation ( Article VI, Sec. 32) 10. Allow for referenda ( Article XVII, Sections 1- 2) 11. Propose amendments to the constitution and call for a constitutional convention
  53. 53. Legislative Limitations Congress may not: 1. Increase appropriations recommended by the executive branch 2. Pass tax exemptions without the concurrence of a majority of its members 3. Grant titles of nobility 4. Pass ex post facto bills 5. Pass bills of attainder
  54. 54. How a Bill Becomes Law ~House of Representatives~ 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading Source:
  55. 55. How a Bill Becomes Law ~Senate~ Source:
  56. 56. How a Bill Becomes Law Source:
  57. 57. How a Bill Becomes Law Source:
  58. 58. How a Bill Becomes Law ~House of Representatives~ 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading PresidentAPPROVE VETO 30 DAY PERIOD Source:
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Source:
  61. 61. The Judicial Department Article VIII, Section 1: Judicial power will be vested in the Supreme Court and all lower courts Judicial power: the power to apply the laws to contests or disputes concerning legally recognized rights Loosely, the judiciary refers to the court system
  62. 62. Judicial Power  Generally entails two activities: o Settling legal controversies o Determining whether there has been grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction by any branch of government
  63. 63. Scope of Judicial Power Adjudicating Power o The power to settle legal disputes Power of Judicial Review o Refers to the power of the Supreme Court to interpret and make judgments with respect to the law Incidental Powers o Powers necessary for the discharge of the judicial function
  64. 64. The Supreme Court Composition o 1 Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices o Sits en banc or in divisions Qualifications o By appointment o 40 years of age o Natural born citizen o Judge or legal practitioner for 15 years
  65. 65. Powers of the Supreme Court SC has jurisdiction over: o Cases involving ambassadors and public ministers o Petitions for certiorari, mandamus, quo warranto, prohibition & habeas corpus Review judgments of lower courts o Cases involving constitutionality, legality of any tax, reclusion perpetua and errors on questions of law
  66. 66. o Assignment of judges to the lower courts o Order a change of venue for a trial o Promulgate rules of court o Appoint officials of the judiciary and hire employees for the judicial branch Powers of the Supreme Court
  67. 67. Judicial and Bar Council o Tasked with nominating appointees to the Judiciary (SC  3) o Composition: o Chief Justice o Secretary of Justice o Representative from Congress o IBP Representative o Prof. of law o Private Sector Representative
  68. 68. Rendering Court Decisions o Once a decision is reached, a SC Justice is assigned to write an opinion o The opinion is certified by the Chief Justice and served to the parties concerned o Dissentions and abstentions must be explained o The opinion must explain facts of law
  69. 69.