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Causation in behavior1

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human behavior in organization

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Causation in behavior1

  1. 1. CAUSATION IN BEHAVIOR : THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH Presented by: JEOFFREY C TACIO Professor: Jo B. Bitonio DM 217 Human Behavior in Organization
  2. 2. SCOPE OF DISCUSSION: <ul><li>Understanding versus Evaluating Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between person and situation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior and accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>The Causal Sequence in Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Understanding versus Evaluating Behavior <ul><li>Understanding behavior is knowing what caused it or what made the person do it </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating behavior is when we approve or disapprove it </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding and Evaluating behavior – common daily reactions of people </li></ul><ul><li>Our value system furnish frames of reference of means of which we appraise ourselves and others </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Psychology as science </li></ul><ul><li>-explore behavior in order to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Why a man kills his wife, or why someone steals </li></ul><ul><li>First step in scientific approach: divorce value judgment from behavior analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Approach - focus on objective to be achieved, having a future of reference (more effective-since concern is influencing future behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Legalistic Approach – focuses on behavior which has already occurred and has a past reference. </li></ul>
  5. 5. FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOR
  6. 6. <ul><li>Behavior – product of two things, the nature of the individual and the nature of situation </li></ul><ul><li>Situation is the source of stimuli and behavior is the organism’s response to the stimulation from the environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>FACTORS AFFECTING THE NATURE OF AN INDIVIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity, culture, response and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivities, intelligence and personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Race, specie, group </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Individual Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>-Biological or cultural in nature </li></ul><ul><li>-Due to common experiences </li></ul><ul><li>* In psychology, it is more concerned with the contribution of the organism to behavior and also with determining the likeness and difference that exist within specie, races and groups. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>INTERACTION BETWEEN PERSON AND SITUATION </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Persons reaction to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>--it depends on the condition at the moment and his nature (personality) </li></ul><ul><li>-- in combined stimuli ---selects stimuli that dominates and acts. Meaning, an individual organizes or interprets the environment in w/c he lives </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Perception- product of interaction between stimulus and organism, rather than reaction of organism to the stimuli - a thing is viewed in quite different ways </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding behavior requires not only determining stimulus but also discovering how new stimuli are organized </li></ul><ul><li>Perception gives the stimuli this meaning and peoples’ responses are determined by these meaning </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 1:
  13. 13. Figure 1: Variation in the perception of objects. This figure maybe seen as two Xs or as an upright V superimposed on an inverted V. If it is suggested that a W can be seen on top of an M, these will appear. Mention of a diamond will again change the perception. What really is pictured depends upon a person’s point of view.
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ex : A supervisor – maybe viewed differently, hot tempered, authoritarian or simply someone who is doing his job. ( Though he treats his men alike) </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: a. Depends upon the environment </li></ul><ul><li>temperature, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>b. State of fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>c. Previous contact with him or other </li></ul><ul><li>supervisors (past experiences) </li></ul><ul><li>d. Employee’s personality (basic </li></ul><ul><li>nature of the organism) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore : UNDERSTANDING A BEHAVIOR NOT ONLY REQUIRES DETERMINATION OF STIMULUS BUT ALSO HOW THE STIMULI WAS ORGANIZED . </li></ul>
  15. 15. BEHAVIOR and ACCOMPLISHMENT
  16. 16. <ul><li>Accomplishment - product of behavior and not the cause of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Mcgregor states that the source of management failures is the tendency to blame people rather than search for cause </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishment as cause when it plays a part in organism’s planning, something that is anticipating hence precedes the behavior </li></ul>
  17. 17. THE CAUSAL SEQUENCE IN BEHAVIOR
  18. 18. <ul><li>Includes: Includes: Includes: Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Light, sound, job, Heredity, maturation, Body movements, Change in </li></ul><ul><li>routines, other biological needs, talking, facial stimulation, </li></ul><ul><li>people, actions of and many learnings expression, emo- survival, </li></ul><ul><li>supervisor, and any such as knowledge, tional responses, escape, </li></ul><ul><li>aspects of the skills, certain needs and thinking. accidents, </li></ul><ul><li>environment to attitudes, and values. attack from </li></ul><ul><li>which a person is others, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive. </li></ul>A Accomplish- memt B Behavior O Organism S Stimulus Situation
  19. 19. BASIC CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR OFTEN UNKNOWN TO THE INDIVIDUAL
  20. 20. <ul><li>It does not reach level of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Not by merely analyzing demands or expressed purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently goes back to situation entirely unrelated to the present difficulty </li></ul>
  21. 21. EXCUSES ARE NOT CAUSES
  22. 22. <ul><li>Many purposes or reasons for behavior are justifications or excuses rather than causes </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes man knows that expressed reasons are false, but often intrigued by reasons thus believing they are the causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologist prefers to analyze situation and behavior than verbal reports </li></ul>
  23. 23. SUMMARY
  24. 24. <ul><li>1. Psychological approach to behavior is characterized by acceptance of causation in behavior that demands analysis of the events that precede behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2. Analysis of situation and to the study of individual and his past experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>3.To criticize or condemn the behavior, to say that the new generation has no moral values or honor, not only fails to recognize causation but suggests no remedy for the behavior. </li></ul>
  25. 25. THANK YOU

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