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  1. 1. Ecolog y 1
  2. 2. Origin of theword…”ecology”  Greek origin  OIKOS = household  LOGOS = study of…  Study of the “house/environment” in which we live. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 2 MSNIMT
  3. 3. Ecology is study ofinteractions between non-living components in the environment…  light  water  wind  nutrients in soil  heat  solar radiation  atmosphere, etc. AND… Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 3 MSNIMT
  4. 4.  Living organisms…  Plants  Animals  microorganisms in soil, etc. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 4 MSNIMT
  5. 5. To study Ecology involves… For non-living  For living (biotic) (abiotic)  animal behavior  Climatology  Taxonomy  Hydrology  Physiology  Oceanography  mathematics  Physics (population studies)  Chemistry  etc.  Geology  soil analysis, etc. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 5 MSNIMT
  6. 6. Levels of Environmental Organization Organism Population Community Eco system Biome  Biosphere Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 6 MSNIMT
  7. 7. OrganismIndividual refers to a single organism, thislevel can include any living organism from aplant to an animalPopulation All the organisms in an ecosystem belonging to the same species which live in one place at one time Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 7 MSNIMT
  8. 8. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 8 MSNIMT
  9. 9. CommunityAll the populations in an ecosystem Community refers to groups of organisms from different species living in the same area interacting with each other Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 9 MSNIMT
  10. 10. Ecosystem All the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 10 MSNIMT
  11. 11. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 11 MSNIMT
  12. 12. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 12 MSNIMT
  13. 13. Habitat  The place in which an organism lives. It is the physical location of community  provides the kinds of food and shelter, the temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 13 MSNIMT
  14. 14. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 14 MSNIMT
  15. 15. Competition Food Space Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 15 MSNIMT
  16. 16. Competition Competition caused by population growth affects many organisms, including humans Limits population size Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 16 MSNIMT
  17. 17. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 17 MSNIMT
  18. 18. Limiting Factor  Anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population.  Includes living and nonliving features of the ecosystem Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 18 MSNIMT
  19. 19. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 19 MSNIMT
  20. 20. Succession Ecological succession was formerly seen as having a stable end-stage called the climax, sometimes referred to as the potential vegetation of a site, shaped primarily by the local climate. Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary.  Primary – begins in a place without soil  Secondary – where soil already exists Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 20 MSNIMT
  21. 21. Clements theory of succession/Mechanisms ofsuccessionF.E. Clement (1916) developed a descriptive theory of succession andadvanced it as a general ecological concept. His theory of succession had apowerful influence on ecological thought. Clements concept is usually termedclassical ecological theory. According to Clement, succession is a processinvolving several phases:Nudation: Succession begins with the development of a bare site, calledNudation (disturbance).Migration: It refers to arrival of propagules.Ecesis: It involves establishment and initial growth of vegetation.Competition: As vegetation became well established, grew, and spread,various species began to compete for space, light and nutrients. This phase iscalled competition.Reaction: During this phase autogenic changes affect the habitat resulting inreplacement of one plant community by another.Stabilization: Reaction phase leads to development of a climax community Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 21 MSNIMT
  22. 22. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 22 MSNIMT
  23. 23. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 23 MSNIMT
  24. 24. Primary Succession Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 24 MSNIMT
  25. 25. Secondary Succession Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 25 MSNIMT
  26. 26. Pioneer species  A group of organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an areas soil-building process Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 26 MSNIMT
  27. 27. LichensBaiju John, Asst.Professor, 27 MSNIMT
  28. 28. Climax community A community that has reached a stable stage of ecological succession According to classical ecological theory, succession stops when the sere has arrived at an equilibrium or steady state with the physical and biotic environment. Barring major disturbances, it will persist indefinitely. This end point of succession is called climax The final or stable community in a sere is the climax community or climatic vegetation. It is self-perpetuating and in equilibrium with the physical habitat. There in no net annual accumulation of organic matter in a climax community mostly. The annual production and use of energy is balanced in such a community. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 28 MSNIMT
  29. 29. Characteristics of climaxThe vegetation is tolerant of environmental conditions.It has a wide diversity of species, a well-drained spatial structure, andcomplex food chains.The climax ecosystem is balanced. There is equilibrium between grossprimary production and total respiration, between energy used fromsunlight and energy released by decomposition, between uptake ofnutrients from the soil and the return of nutrient by little fall to the soil.Individuals in the climax stage are replaced by others of the same kind.Thus the species composition maintains equilibrium.It is an index of the climate of the area. The life or growth formsindicate the climatic type. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 29 MSNIMT
  30. 30. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 30 MSNIMT
  31. 31. Biome  Large geographic areas with similar climatic condition on earth .  Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a large area creating a typical ecosystem over that area. Such major ecosystems are termed as biomes.  Biomes are defined by factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broad leaf and needle leaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and climate. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 31 MSNIMT
  32. 32. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 32 MSNIMT
  33. 33. Includes Tundra Taiga Desert Temperate deciduous forest Temperate rain forest Tropical rain forest, and grassland Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 33 MSNIMT
  34. 34. BiosphereBiosphere is the largest level in ecology, thislevel includes all ecosystems on Earth biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. Itcan also be called the zone of life on Earth, aclosed (apart from solar and cosmic radiation) andself-regulating system The biosphere is the global ecological systemintegrating all living beings and their relationships,including their interaction with the elements of thelithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 34 MSNIMT
  35. 35. Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 35 MSNIMT
  36. 36. LithosphereThe lithosphere is the rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet.It comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle thatbehaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years orgreater HydrosphereA hydrosphere in physical geography describes the combinedmass of water found on, under, and over the surface of aplanet. Approximately 71% of the Earths surface, an area of some361 million square kilometres (139.5 million square miles), iscovered by ocean Baiju John, Asst.Professor, 36 MSNIMT
  37. 37. Atmosphere-The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding theplanet Earth that is retained by Earths gravity. -The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbingultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heatretention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperatureextremes between day and night Ecosphere -In ecology the term ecosphere can refer to the Earths spheres, a planetary ecosystem consisting of the atmosphere, the geosphere (lithosphere), the hydrosphere, and the biosphere. 37