RealismRegionalismNaturalism Edith Wharton Kate Chopin Charlotte Perkins Gilman Mary E. Wilkins Freeman Ambrose Bierce Bret Harte Jack London Mark Twain
Remember the Romantics? 1828-1865 Included Transcendentalists and Anti-Transcendentalists Included Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman, Hawthorne, and Poe Believed in the individual, emphasized the imagination, emotions, and creativity, etc.Now, on the Realists…
Edith Whartona good transition from Romanticism to Realism & Regionalism Ethan Frome shows harsh realities of life in a small town in the East Ethan is a Transcendentalist (in some ways) who is affected by harsh realities of life
Realism & Realists1865-1910Reaction against RomanticismTurned from strange things to ordinary things (a slice of life and how life is really lived)
Realismany effort to offer an accurate and detailed portrayal of actual life based on careful observation of life (often focused on middle & lower classes)
What does Realism mean? “Letfiction cease to lie about life; let it portray men and women as they really are.” “Realism is nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material.” --William Dean Howells (1837 –1920) American realist author and literary critic
RealismFinds the drama and tension beneath the ordinary surface of lifeBelieved that humanity’s freedom of choice is limited by the power of outside forces
Realism Realist authors are more descriptive than symbolic. Readers were attracted to the realists because they saw their own struggles in print. They also had little patience for the slow-paced narratives, allegory, and symbolism of the Romantics writers (can you relate?). Realists’ writing was often regional.
Regionalismaccurately represents the speech, manners, habits, history, folklore, and beliefs of people in specific geographic areas
Regionalism Because America was leaping into a new modern age with the industrial revolution (standardization, mass production of goods, etc.),people feared that local folkways and traditions would soon be forgotten.
Connection: Realism & RegionalismResponding to these sentiments, realistic writers set their stories in specific American regions, rushing to capture the “local color” before it was lost.Regionalism grew out of Realism
Local Color Captures the special atmosphere of the area and its people Often contains regional dialects, well- known places, customs, etc. of a particular area Because of lack of communication and transportation, it shows how people lived in other parts of the country
Naturalists 1900-1914 Extension of Realism A reaction against the emphasis on the “ordinary” lives realist writers portrayed Naturalist writers insisted that the extraordinary is real, too.
Naturalismoffshoot of Realism; sought to describe people and events realistically; emphasizes how instinct and environment influence human behavior; the fate of humans is beyond individual control
NaturalistsInstead of middle-class realities, naturalists wrote about thefringes of society—the criminal, the fallen, the down-and-out.
Naturalists Were Darwinists—they believed that individuals have no choice in life because a person’s life is dictated by heredity and the external environment We inherit compulsive instincts such as hunger, the drive to accumulate possessions, and sexuality; and then we are subject to the social and economic forces in the family, class and surroundings into which we were born.
In other words, people arecaught within the forces of nature or society that are beyond their understanding or control
Naturalism Facts-only approach (avoids idealistic solutions to problems) “Brutal Realism” The protagonist, a pawn to multiple compulsions, usually disintegrates, or is wiped out, by the end of the story. Aimed at bettering the world through social reform (bringing a situation to the eyes of the public so as to improve it)
Realism- any effort to offer and accurate and detailed portrayal of actual life based on careful observation of life (often focused on middle & lower classes) Regionalism- accurately represents the speech, manners, habits, history, folklore, and beliefs of people in specific geographic areas Naturalism- offshoot of Realism; sought to describe people and events realistically; emphasizes how instinct and environment influence human behavior
Genre American Perceived Presents Freedom the life of Author (s) individual as… choice? as… Transcendentalists R. W. Emerson A god We would Do whateverR H.D. Thoreau have it pleasesO Walt Whitman be, want you –M it to be limitlessA possibilitiesNT Dark Romantics Nathaniel Hawthorne Filled with the Potentially ChoiceI Edgar Allan Poe potential dark possible,C for sin but tendsS to the dark side Realists/Regionalists Edith Wharton Simply a As it really is Choices areR Mark Twain person limited by Charlotte Perkins Gilman outsideE Mary Wilkins Freeman forcesA Ambrose Bierce (class,L race, etc.)I Naturalists/Regionalists Kate Chopin A helpless Determined No choices –S Jack London object only by we are heredity pawns ofT and ourS environ- background ment and current environ- ment
Jack London Northern California London was the first American author to make a million dollars from his writing. He was also known to drink a quart of whiskey/day, which caused him to have numerous accidents, including once falling off of a pier into the San Francisco Bay.