Proceedings of Modern materials and methods in Engineeing

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Dr. Job Thomas
Reader in Civil Engineering, School of Engineering
Cochin University of Science and Technology
Cochin -22, email: job_thomas@cusat.ac.in

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Proceedings of Modern materials and methods in Engineeing

  1. 1. MODERN MATERIALS & METHODS IN ENGINEERING ISTE Short Term Training Programme 2nd to 14th May, 2011 Coordinators Dr. Job Thomas Dr. K.K. Saju Organized by School of EngineeringCOCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Kochi – 682022, Kerala
  2. 2. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 2 02nd to 14th May 2011 Contents Sl. Title Author Page No. No. 1 Introduction to modern materials P.S. Sreejith, Cusat 1 2 Polymer nanocomposites K.E. George, Cusat 2 3 Optoelectronic thin films and materials M.K. Jayaraj, Cusat 3 4 Biopolymers, DNA and protein and its Sarita G. Bhat, Cusat 4 engineering 5 Materials for photonic applications V. P. N. Nampoori, Cusat 5 6 Strategies for sustainable manufacturing G. Madhu, Cusat 6 7 Nondestructive testing M.M. Abdulla,. Limra 8 8 Surface preparation and painting Gopinath, Limra 9 9 Advanced aerospace materials Tide PS, Cusat 10 10 Simulation of materials & manufacturing Madeshwara S K, CSM 11 processes with MSC software 11 Corrosion control by methods and A. Mathiazhagan, Cusat 12 materials 12 Sustainable material for soil and water Subha V, Cusat 13 conservation in the context of Kerala 13 Modern cements and its application M.A. Joseph, UltraTech 14 14 Lightweight concrete Glory Joseph, Cusat 15 15 Laterized concrete for fire protection George Mathew, Cusat 16 16 Sustainable materials and construction Deepa G. Nair, Cusat 17 17 FRP applications in civil engineering S. Ramadass, Cusat 18 18 Fibre reinforced concrete Job Thomas, Cusat 19 19 Earthquake proofing methods in Job Thomas, Cusat 20 skyscrapersSchool of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  3. 3. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 1 02nd to 14th May 2011 INTRODUCTION TO MODERN MATERIALS Prof. P.S. Sreejith Division of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9447812820, E-mail: pssreejith@cusat.ac.in ABSTRACTThe development of mankind is defined in terms of advances in materials: The Stone Age, The Bronze Age, and TheIron Age. The dramatic advances in architecture and building introduced by the Roman Empire were possible onlybecause of the invention of a new material - concrete. The Industrial Revolution was to a large extend made possibleby advances in the use of materials in industrial equipment, as was the rapid development of the railroads in the latenineteenth century, and the skyscrapers that began to define the skylines of American cities in the early twentiethcentury.In the last half century, the growth of materials technology has been explosive, and its impact on our daily lives,pervasive. Beginning with the invention of the transistor in the 50s, the electronics revolution, enabled by advancesin materials, has dramatically and irreversibly changed our lives. Some of us remember the sage career advice givento Dustin Hoffman in the 1960s film The Graduate - "Plastics". The use of plastics is now so widespread that it isdifficult to imagine life without them. The double edged sword inherent in the use of new technologies is apparentin todays concern with the disposal of non biodegradable plastics.While ceramics were the first Engineering Materials, finding application as building materials and pottery in theStone Age, recent technological advances combined with their unique electrical properties, hardness, durability andheat resistance are making ceramics the material of the future. One of the most recent Nobel Prizes for Physics wasawarded to Bednorz and Mueller of IBM for the discovery that certain complex ceramic materials will conductelectricity without resistive loss at temperatures substantially higher than those for conventional metallicsuperconductors. Artificial diamond is on the verge of having major impacts on fields as diverse as optics, wearcoatings, and substrates for electronic circuits. In the near future, we can expect to find major advances in the use ofceramics in applications as diverse as microelectronics, superconductors, automotive and aircraft engines, prostheticimplants, and chemical process equipment. Todays fundamental research activities in the Universities and Research Laboratories give us confidence that wehave not seen the end, but rather only the beginning, of advances in Materials Science and Technology that willprofoundly affect the way we live our lives. We can expect to see biodegradable plastics produced by geneticallyengineered microbes, structural materials that are analogs of naturally occurring materials such as shell or bone,improved bioengineered materials to replace joints, bone tendons and skin, super hard materials with hardnessgreater than that of diamond, aircraft skins that can detect and respond to changes in ambient conditions or tostructural damage, bridges made of strong, light weight fiber reinforced plastic composites, and road surfaces thatwill last for a human lifetime. We have just begun to see the impact of the Materials Revolution.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  4. 4. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 2 02nd to 14th May 2011 POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES Prof. K.E. George Department of Polymer Technology, CUSAT Mob.: 9446447851, E-mail: kegeorge@cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONToday Polymers constitute an important class of engineering materials along with metals and ceramics. Eventhoughpolymers are not as strong as metals or cannot resist high temperatures/adverse conditions like ceramics there aremany factors in the favour of polymers such as light weight, easy processability, corrosion resistance etc. Hencemore and more engineering products are now being made from polymers replacing traditional materials.One great advantage of polymers is that their properties can be varied over a wide range by blending with otherpolymers or by adding modifying additives. When the reinforcement is the objective, rubbers are usually modifiedwith particulate fillers like carbon black and plastics with fibrous fillers like glass. GRP (Glass reinforced Plastics)is usually a termoset plastic like polyester or epoxy reinforced with long fibres. But thermosets are not sutable formass production techniques such as extrusion or injection moulding. Hence the most common method ofreinforcing thermoplastics is by short fibres. With the advent of nanofillers the polymer modification scenario isundergoing a sea change. Nanofillers, due to their large surface area, are capable of reinforcing both plastics andrubbers and the loading required for efficient reinformcement is typically below five weight percentage.The principal types of nanofillers are carbon nanotube, nanoclay, nanosilica etc. REINFORCEMENT OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PET) BY CARBON NANOTUBES It is observed that carbon nanotube acts as an efficient nucleating agent for PET and hence the crystallization of thepolymer takes place at 10 to 20 C higher than that of pure PET even though the percentage crystallinity remainsmore or less unaffected. This means that carbon nanotube modified PET can be demoulded from an injection mouldat a higher temperature and hence the production rate can be increased. Further, carbon nanotube modification isfound to improve mechanical properties like tensile strength, tensile modulus, storage modulus, impact strength etc.significantly. All these improvements can be achieved when the carbon nanotube is added to PET in the moltenstage. However, if the carbon nanotube is added to a dilute solution of PET the nanofiller can be dispersed moreuniformly and hence the properties can be substantially improved. REINFORCEMENT OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP) BY NANOCLAY AND NANOSILICANanoclay and Nanosilica are found to be efficient nucleating agents for PP by enhanceing the onset ofcrystallization as in the case of PET. Also these nanofillers are found to be efficient reinforcing agents forpolypropylene. Another significant observation is that when nanofillers are added along with glass fibres synergisticcomposites are obtained. The reinforcement obtained by about 30% glass fibre alone can be matched by 10% glassfibre and 1% nanofiller.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  5. 5. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 3 02nd to 14th May 2011 OPTOELECTRONIC THIN FILMS AND MATERIALS Prof. M.K. Jayaraj Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 Mob. 9447972104, Email: mkj@cusat.ac.in ABSTRACTSynthesis of nanoparticles and thin films has been a focus of an ever-increasing number of researchers world wide,mainly due to their unique optical and electronic properties which makes them ideal for a wide spectrum ofapplications ranging from displays [1], lasers [2] to in vivo biological imaging and therapeutic agents [3]. Largenumber of different preparation methods is reported to produce nanoparticles. Over the past decade a noveltechnique known as liquid phase pulsed laser ablation (LP-PLA) has aroused immense interest [4] and it involvesthe firing of laser pulses through liquids transparent to that wavelength on to the target surface. The ablation plumeinteracts with the surrounding liquid particles creating cavitation bubbles, which upon their collapse, give rise toextremely high pressures and temperatures. These conditions are, however, very localized and exist across the nanometer scale. Compared with the ablation in vacuum, formation of nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation of targets inliquid environments has been less studied. Parameters like laser wavelength, pulse energy, pulse duration, repetitionrate and nature of the liquid medium have influences on the ablation, nucleation, growth and aggregationmechanisms. The surfacatant free pure ZnO QD’s with out any byproducts using LP-PLA technique and the growthof ZnMgO/ZnO quantum well by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) will be discussed in this talk. In this review wepresent the general deposition techniques viz, pulsed laser ablation and RF magnetron sputtering. The Rf co-sputtering technique has been used for the growth completely transparent thin film transistors[5]. These amorphousoxide based thin film transistors opens up a new area called transparent electronics or invisible electronics whichwill revolutionise the consumer electronics.Fig 1. TEM image and inset shows the SAED pattern of ZnO QD’s obtained by laser ablation with fluence 25mJ/pulse in water. PL spectra (fig Middle) of ZnO QD’s prepared without (curve I) and with (curve II) oxygenbubbling. Inset shows the photo of highly transparent ZnO QDs. PL spectra of ZnMgO/ZnO MQW and ZnO thinfilm(fig. extreme right)REFERENCES[1] K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera and N. Kumar, App. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 284.[2] J. T. Andrews and P. Sen, J. Appl. Phys, 91 (2002) 2827.[3] X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K.Chung and S. Nie, Nature Biotechnology 22 (2004) 969.[4] G.W. Yang and J.B Wang , Appl. Phys. A-Mate., 71 (2000) 343.[5] K.J. Saji, M. K. Jayaraj, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya and H. Hosono, Journal of Electrochemical society 155(6), H390 (2008)School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  6. 6. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 4 02nd to 14th May 2011BIOPOLYMERS, DNA AND PROTEIN AND ITS ENGINEERING Prof. Sarita G. Bhat Department of Bio-tehnology, CUSAT E-mail:sarithabhat@gmail.com INTRODUCTIONBiopolymers are of different types, polynucleotide, polypepetides and polysaccharides. Some biopolymers likepolylactic acid and poly hyroxy butyrates can be used as plastics, replacing the need for polystyrene andpolyethylene based plastics. An enzyme is a protein molecule that is a biological catalyst, that have severalindustrial applications-in the food industry, meat and egg industry, backing industry, in the detergent industry toname a few. Recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering has been used, via modification of amino acidsequences in the design and construction of new proteins or enzymes with novel or desired or modified functions.Protein engineering can also be used to manipulate the sizes and 3D conformations of protein molecules. Suchmanipulations are frequently used to discover structure-function relationships, as well as to alter the activity,stability, localization, and structure of proteins. COMBINATORIAL MUTAGENESISPoint and deletion mutants and hybrid proteins are constructed to obtain polypeptides with new properties. Theseproteins are either created individually, by site-directed mutagenesis, or they are generated as a large pool or libraryof millions of variants. The library is then screened or subjected to a special selection procedure to obtain the proteinor proteins with the desired characteristics. In biotechnology, one is often interested in creating enzymes with newspecificities. For example, an enzyme that can recognize a different substrate that can be converted into a valuableproduct would be attractive from a biotechnological point of view. Generally, simple mutations (to be introduced bysite-directed mutagenesis, for example) are not expected to have as drastic effects as altering an enzymes substraterecognition pattern, as many amino acid residues in the enzyme (often not close to one another in the primarystructure of the protein) affect the binding pocket of the substrate in the enzyme. Obviously, several amino acidresidues may need to be altered simultaneously to achieve the goal of altering substrate specificities. However, asany amino acid residue may be altered into 19 other ones, the number of amino acid combinations that can be madeif mutations are introduced at various residues simultaneously can become very large. For example, if four aminoacid residues are altered simultaneously, there are 19-to-the-power-of-4 (that is, over 100,000) differentcombinations in which this can occur.Generally, it is unknown which of these combinations is what one is looking for, as it is difficult to predict on thebasis of a primary sequence what the three-dimensional structure of a protein (and of the active site) will be in detail.Therefore, instead of humans trying to decide what might work best, the best progress is often made by havingessentially all different combinations made at the DNA level in different plasmids (can be done using degenerateoligonucleotides), use all these different plasmids as a mixture to transform E. coli, have E. coli express the differentproteins (each E. coli cell and its clones will express one particular protein assuming it has taken up one plasmidmolecule), and select the E. coli cell(s) that may be able to convert a new substrate. For example, if the protein islikely to be on the outside of the E. coli cell, one can select clones with proteins with high affinity for the newsubstrate by attaching the new substrate covalently to a column, wash E. coli over the column, and cells that comeoff slowest are likely to have protein with affinity for the substrate. Combinatorial mutagenesis does not limit itselfto applications involving DNA. Peptides can also be synthesized from a degenerate mix of amino acid analogs, andthe resulting mix of peptides can be screened for desired properties, in particular pharmaceutical applications.Moreover, RNA can be synthesized combinatorially, and degenerate RNA mixtures have been used to study featuresthat are needed to provide RNA with catalytic properties. In any case, combinatorial mutagenesis provides virtuallylimitless possibilities for genetic engineering, and has become an important tool in biotechnology.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  7. 7. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 5 02nd to 14th May 2011 MATERIALS FOR PHOTONIC APPLICATIONS  Prof. V. P. N. Nampoori International School of Photonics, CUSAT E-mail: nampoori@gmail.com ABSTRACT.Photonic based devices find applications in several fields. There are materials with specific properties which aresuitable for photonic applications. Two of the most important applications of photonics are optical signal processingand optical communications. This paper reviews basic theory and material properties which are relevant to opticalsignal processing and optical communication. For the benefit of those who want to enter into this fascinating field,an outline of necessary foundation theories is also included.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  8. 8. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 6 02nd to 14th May 2011 STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING Prof. G. Madhu Division of Safety and Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9447366900, E-mail: profmadhu @cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONThe Brundtland report entitled “Our Common Future” released in 1987 by United Nations World Commission onEnvironment and Development (WCED) popularized the concept of sustainable development which it defined as‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their own needs’.The realization that there exists limits to what we could put into nature (in the form of pollution) as well as what wecould take out of nature (in the form of raw materials) made industries and organizations starting to work towardspracticing sustainable material/resource strategies such as resource efficiency, eco-efficiency and sustainabledevelopment. This also has made governments more active in imposing regulations and rules related to wastemanagement and pollution. For industry, a widely-used and basic strategy to increase the efficiency with which weuse available resources is to concentrate efforts on recovery of products or materials at the end of their useful life(which includes re-use, re-manufacturing, re-cycling and energy recovery and is termed the waste hierarchy) [1].Though there are many techniques and concepts that are proposed to support a move toward sustainablemanufacturing (such as local manufacturing, low carbon manufacturing, low temperature processing, etc), thestrategies based on waste minimization; material efficiency; resource efficiency; and eco-efficiency have gainedmomentum all over the world. A variety of innovative pollution prevention techniques contribute much to thesestrategies. The most popular pollution prevention techniques are based on design for environment; toxics usereduction; and life cycle assessment [2].   DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT The concept of design for environment (DFE) directs R&D teams to develop products that are environmentallyresponsible. This effort revolves on product design. The commonly adopted strategies in DFE are product systemlife extension and material life extension. Extending the life of a product can directly reduce environmental impact.In many cases, longer-lived products save resources and generate less waste because fewer units are needed tosatisfy the same need. Doubling the life of a product translates into a pollution prevention of 50 % in processtransportation and distribution and a waste reduction of 50 % at the end of the product’s life.Many of the products are retired early due to reasons like technical obsolescence, fashion obsolescence, degradedperformance or structural fatigue caused by normal wear over repeated use, environmental or chemical degradationand damage caused by accident or inappropriate use. The specific strategies for product life extension areappropriate durability; adaptability; reliability; remanufacturability; and reusability [3].Material life extension can be achieved through recycling. Recycling is the reformation or reprocessing of arecovered material. The US-EPA defines recycling as “ the series of activities, including collection, separation, andprocessing, by which products or other materials are recovered from or otherwise diverted from solid waste streamfor use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products other than fuel”. The recycled material canfollow two major pathways: closed loop and open loop.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  9. 9. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 7 02nd to 14th May 2011 TOXICS USE REDUCTIONThe toxics use reduction (TUR) considers the internal risks and potential external pollution risks at the process andworker level. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTIt defines the material usage and environmental impact over the life of a product. Sustainable embeds corporateenvironmental responsibility into material selection, process and facility design, marketing, strategic planning, costaccounting, and waste disposal.In life cycle design, designers begin material selection by identifying the nature and source of raw materials [4].Then, they estimate the environmental impact caused by resource acquisition, processing, use, and retirement. Thedepth of the analysis and the number of life cycle stages varies with the project scope. Finally, they compare theproposed materials to determine the best choices.Minimizing the use of virgin material means maximizing the incorporation of recycled material. Sources of recycledfeedstock include in-house process scrap, waste material from another industry, or reclaimed post consumermaterial. Material substitution can be made for product as well as process materials, such as solvents and catalysts.Eg., water based solvents or coatings can sometimes be substituted for high VOC alternatives during processing.Also, materials that do not require coating, such as some metals or polymers, can be substituted in the product.Resource conservation can reduce waste and directly lower environmental impact. A less material intensive productmay also lighter, thus saving energy in distribution or use. When reduction is simple, benefits can be determinedwith a vigorous life cycle assessment (LCA).Energy-efficient products reduce energy consumption and green house gas emissions. For example, 1. Programmes to reduce the power consumption of gadgets like laser printers when inactive. 2. Upgrading lighting systems to be more energy efficient. / CFL, LED.Processes that create major environmental impact should be replaced with more benign ones. This simple approachto impact reduction can be effective. E.g., copper sheeting for electronic products was previously cleaned withammonium per sulfate, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid at facility X. The solvent system was replaced by amechanical process that cleaned the sheeting with rotating brushes and pumice. The new process produces anonhazardous residue that is disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill.Process designers should consider improving energy efficiency by:• Using waste heat to preheat process streams or do other useful work.• Reducing the energy requirement for pumping by using larger diameter pipes or cutting down frictional losses.• Reducing the energy use in buildings through more efficient heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting systems.• Saving energy by using more efficient equipment. (e.g., electric motors, refrigeration systems). CONCLUSIONS The commonly used sustainable manufacturing strategies fall into the pollution prevention category. It is necessaryextend sustainability into other germane areas such as product design and supply chain. Companies have tocontinuously re-invent themselves in order to remain sustainable. A holistic approach considering all aspects ofoperations is necessary in order to reap maximum benefits.REFERENCES[1] Arun N. Nambiar, Challenges in Sustainable Manufacturing, Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh, January 9-10, 2010.[2] Abdul Rashid, Salwa H. , Evans, Stephen and Longhurst, Philip, A comparison of four sustainable manufacturing strategies, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 1: 3, 214 — 229, 2008.[3] Freeman, H., et al., Industrial pollution prevention: a critical review. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 42 (5), 618–656, 1992.[4] Seliger, G., Kim, H-J.and Kernbaum, S. and Zettl, M., Approaches to sustainable manufacturing. Int.J. Sustainable Manufacturing, vol. 1, pp. 58–77, 2008.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  10. 10. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 8 02nd to 14th May 2011 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING  M.M. Abdulla LIMRA Group of Institutions, Kochi Mob.: 9645827414, E-mail: info@limrainstitutions.com ABSTRACTNon-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate theproperties of a material, component or system without causing damage. NDT methods may rely upon use ofelectromagnetic radiation, sound, and inherent properties of materials to examine samples. This includes some kindsof microscopy to examine external surfaces in detail, although sample preparation techniques for metallography,optical microscopy and electron microscopy are generally destructive as the surfaces must be made smooth throughpolishing or the sample must be electron transparent in thickness. The inside of a sample can be examined withpenetrating electromagnetic radiation, such as X-rays or 3D X-rays for volumetric inspection. Sound waves areutilized in the case of ultrasonic testing. Contrast between a defect and the bulk of the sample may be enhanced forvisual examination by the unaided eye by using liquids to penetrate fatigue cracks. One method (liquid penetranttesting) involves using dyes, fluorescent or non-fluorescing, in fluids for non-magnetic materials, usually metals.Another commonly used method for magnetic materials involves using a liquid suspension of fine iron particlesapplied to a part while it is in an externally applied magnetic field (magnetic-particle testing). Thermoelectric effect(or use of the Seebeck effect) uses thermal properties of an alloy to quickly and easily characterize many alloys. Thechemical test, or chemical spot test method, utilizes application of sensitive chemicals that can indicate the presenceof individual alloying elements.REFERENCES[1] Cartz, Louis (1995). Nondestructive Testing. A S M International.[2] Charles Hellier (2003). Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation. McGraw-Hill..School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  11. 11. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 9 02nd to 14th May 2011 SURFACE PREPARATION AND PAINTING  Gopinath LIMRA Group of Institutions, Kochi E-mail: info@limrainstitutions.com INTRODUCTION.Painting is the most common way to protect steel structures. Before carrying out painting work, surface preparationmust be properly taken. Here after is surface preparation procedure for steel structure painting. STEEL SURFACE TREATMENT1. Welded areas shall be checked to verify any defects that may affect the protection quality of coating paint.2. Sharp edges shall be grinded to be round, smooth. Other imperfect weld or slag shall be treated by grinding machine or sand paper.3. Noncontinuous welding line shall be filled again by welding. SURFACE PREPARATION1. Thoroughly remove oil and grease out of the surface using solvent or other proper methods.2. Thoroughly remove all “evidence” of salt and contaminants.3. Sand blast to achieve standard SA 2.5 (surface is free from oil, grease and other contaminants)4. Remove all the remaining during blasting by brush, pressed air or vacuum cleaner. Avoid re-contamination caused by clothes or hand touching.5. Sand blasting shall be taken from one area to another, so that cleaned areas must be rust preventive and painted immediately before getting rust again. Surface ready for painting must be completely clean. No oxidized or contaminated is visible.6. Surface temperature is at least 3 degrees above the dew point to avoid water condensing. (Dew point is depended on surface temperature and humidity).7. Areas that cannot reach with blasting nozzle or less important can be mechanically treated with grinding machine INSPECTION AND EVALUATION FOR STEEL SURFACE PREPARATION1. Oil and grease check :Oil and grease check shall be carried out a 2-3 locations per square meter and in 40-50% out of prepared area, as following: Drip some drops of gasoline onto checked area. Wait for 10-15 seconds then adsorb the remaining gasoline with a piece of filter paper. Drip some other drops of gasoline onto another piece of filter paper. Wait and check the two dry stains on paper by naked eyes. If two colors look the same the surface is accepted as free from oil and grease.2. Dust check: Dust check shall be carried out on whole prepared surface. Use a magnifier with 6 times magnification to survey. No visible dust is okay.3. Cleanness check: Dust check shall be naked eyes or a magnifier according to cleanness levels. It also can be checked by comparing to standard images in ISO 801-1:1998School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  12. 12. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 10 02nd to 14th May 2011 ADVANCED AEROSPACE MATERIALS Prof. Tide PS Division of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 94973 66401, E-mail: tideps@cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONAerospace materials are materials that have been developed for their use for aerospace applications. These materialsrequire exceptional performance, strength, heat resistance, even at the cost of considerable expense in theirproduction or machining. Others are chosen for their long-term reliability in this safety-conscious field, particularlyfor their resistance to fatigue. The field of aerospace materials is important as the practice is defined by theinternational standards bodies who maintain standards for the materials and processes involved.   ADVANCED MATERIALS & COMPOSITESFor many years, aircraft designers could propose theoretical designs that they could not build because the materialsrequired to construct them did not exist. Aluminum is a very tolerant material and can take a great deal ofpunishment before it fails. It can be dented or punctured and still hold together. Composites are not like this. If theyare damaged, they require immediate repair, which is difficult and expensive. An airplane made entirely fromaluminum can be repaired almost anywhere. This is not the case for composite materials, particularly as they usedifferent and more exotic materials. Because of this, composites will probably always be used more in militaryaircraft, which are constantly being maintained, than in commercial aircrafts, which require less maintenance.Making composite structures is more complex than manufacturing most metal structures. To make a compositestructure, the composite material, in tape or fabric form, is laid out and put in a mould under heat and pressure. Theresin matrix material flows and when the heat is removed, it solidifies. It can be formed into various shapes. In somecases, the fibers are wound tightly to increase strength. One useful feature of composites is that they can be layered,with the fibers in each layer running in a different direction. This allows materials engineers to design structures thatbehave in certain ways. For instance, they can design a structure that will bend in one direction, but not another. Thegreatest value of composite materials is that they can be both lightweight and strong. The heavier an aircraft weighs,the more fuel it burns, so reducing weight is important to aeronautical engineers. Despite their strength and lowweight, composites have not been a miracle solution for aircraft structures. Composites are hard to inspect for flaws.Some of them absorb moisture. Most importantly, they can be expensive, primarily because they are labour intensiveand often require complex and expensive fabrication machines. Aluminum, by contrast, is easy to manufacture andrepair. Thermoplastics are a relatively new material that is replacing thermosets as the matrix material forcomposites. One of their big advantages is that they are easy to produce. They are also more durable and tougherthan thermosets, particularly for light impacts. In addition to composites, other advanced materials are underdevelopment for aviation.   CONCLUSIONSAluminum still remains a useful material for aircraft structures and metallurgists have worked hard to develop betteraluminum alloys. Alloying metals include Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Silicon and Lithium, and may be used singlyor in combination. Aluminum-Lithium is one of the successful alloys and is approximately ten percent lighter thanstandard aluminum. Composites are materials that are combinations of two or more organic or inorganiccomponents where one material serves as a matrix while the other serves as reinforcement. The greatest value ofcomposite materials is that they can be both lightweight and strong. A number of current large aircraftmanufacturers are looking to use composites more extensively within the wings and fuselage. The Boeing 787 ismade of as much as 50% composite materials and uses a novel process of winding composite layers in thefabrication of large fuselage sections. Aircrafts have traditionally been made out of metal – usually alloys ofAluminium; now however, engineers are increasingly working with carbon fibre composites.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  13. 13. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 11 02nd to 14th May 2011 SIMULATION OF MATERIALS & MANUFACTURING PROCESSES WITH MSC SOFTWARE Madeshwara S K CSM Software Private Limited, Bangalore Mob: 9632122911,E-mail: madeshwara.sk@csmsoftware.com INTRODUCTIONWith the advent of numerous modern materials for specific applications, FEA software companies have beenconstantly upgrading themselves to model & analysis these materials with much ease. MSC Software a pioneer inengineering simulation has a wide range of products which simulates the reality of complex material systems in asimpler and accurate way.   LINEAR, NON-LINEAR & DYNAMICS ANALYSISPatran is a comprehensive pre- and post-processing environment for FEA analysis and helps engineers to virtuallyconceptualize, develop and test product designs. Used by the world’s leading manufacturing companies as theirstandard tool for the creation and analysis of simulation models, Patran links design, analysis, and results evaluationin a single environment.MD Nastran is an integrated simulation system with a broad set of multidiscipline analysis capabilities based onproven CAE technologies. MD Nastran enables product manufacturers to simulate everything from a single part tocomplex assemblies and carry out a diverse set of virtual tests. By providing a single platform for a wide range ofapplications, MD Nastran offers cost savings and efficiencies across engineering CAE teams.MD Nastran implicit module delivers a complete solution (pre-processing, solution, and post-processing) forimplicit nonlinear FEA. It provides the easiest to use and most robust capabilities for contact, large strain, andmultiphysics analysis available today to solve static and quasi-static nonlinear problems.   EXPLICIT & FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTIONMD Nastran explicit module analyzes complex nonlinear behavior involving permanent deformation of structures. Itenables you to study the structural integrity of designs to ensure that final products stand a better chance of meetingcustomer safety, reliability, and regulatory requirements.Patran & MD Nastran supports an array of material models such as Isotropic, orthotropic, anisotropic, composite,thermal isotropic, thermal orthotropic and thermal anisotropic to perform a variety of analyses. Some of the mostcommonly used material models are:• Isotropic Material • Material Stress Dependence• 2D Anisotropic Material • Elasto-Plastic Material Properties• Heat Transfer Material Properties, Isotropic • Thermo-Elastic-Plastic Material Properties• Thermal Material Property • Hyperelastic Material Properties• 2D Orthotropic Material • Gasket Material Properties• 3D Anisotropic Material • Elastoplastic + Failure property• Fluid Material Property • Elastic property for solid elementBesides modeling of different types of materials, various manufacturing process can also be simulated. Some ofthem are:• Forming • Draping of composite materials.• Deep Drawing • Generation of flat patterns on composite• Forging components.• RollingSchool of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  14. 14. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 12 02nd to 14th May 2011 CORROSION CONTROL BY METHODS AND MATERIALS Prof. A. Mathiazhagan Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT Mob.: 9895185860, E-mail: alagan @cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONCorrosion is the deterioration of a material as a result of reaction with its environment. A common example of metalcorrosion is the rusting of iron. Most research into the causes and prevention of corrosion involves metals, since thecorrosion of metals occurs much faster under atmospheric conditions than does the corrosion of nonmetals.   CORROSION CONTROL The first method involves applying a layer onto the steel that prevents an electrolyte to move at the steel surface, thislayer is called a coating. The second method is commonly known as cathodic protection; anodes, or impressedcurrent. The third method above is use of alloys that does not corrode in these environments. Method four allows thecorrosion to proceed and incorporate enough structural material in the design to last for the intended service life.Coatings are barriers and they are most common method by which corrosion protection is obtained. Barriers hearmeans that they do not allow ions to penetrate the coating and get to the steel, and it does not permit movement ofany existing ions at the steel surface.The use of anodes and/or impressed current protection systems is common. Anodes and “impressed currentprotection” systems provide protection on spots where the coating is damaged on the general under waterarea/underground soil.Most large metal structures are made from carbon steel-the worlds most useful structural material. Corrosionresistance metals and alloys are used to prevent corrosion of steel structure and other critical components. Stainlesssteel, aluminum, Titanium, Nickel and copper based alloys are widely used as corrosion resistance materials due totheir ability to form passive layer to resist corrosion.There is still today a certain corrosion allowance incorporated into the structural strength calculations. This meansthat even with defects in the anticorrosive systems there are not any structural problems occurring that for arelatively long time, which gives the owner time to plan the correct action. CONCLUSIONS  • There are many forms and mechanisms that cause corrosion. • Proper corrosion control saves money, improves operability and safety and protects the environment. • Corrosion control is complex task, requiring special expertise for successful design, construction and maintenance in all fields of engineering.REFERENCES[1] Fontana, M.G., and Greene, N.D., Corrosion Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 39-44 (1967).[2] Winston Revie, R, Uhlig’s, Corrosion handbook, John Wiley and sons Lnc, U.S (2000).[3] Jones, D. A., Principles and prevention of Corrosion, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1992, p. 439.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  15. 15. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 13 02nd to 14th May 2011 SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION IN THE CONTEXT OF KERALA Prof. Subha V. Division of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9447292584, E-mail: v.subha @cusat.ac.in ABSTRACTMore than 70 percent of the rural people in Kerala have agriculture as their main source of income. The productivityhas been affected negatively due to lack of water for irrigation during the summer season and soil erosion andflooding during the monsoon. This demand for a sustainable solution to conserve soil, and preserve water for thefuture. At the same time, about half a million people are working in the coir industry in Kerala to make ends meet,of which about 80 percent are women. The average income of such an individual is less than Rs 50/day. Themajority of these people live under minimal living conditions. This paper brings these two issues together and putsforward a novel approach to resolving the predicaments in soil and water preservation while stimulating the coirindustry, with a radically new idea of coir geotextiles.REFERENCES[1] Vishnudas, S., Hubert H.G. Savenije, Pieter Van der Zaag,. Sustainability Analysis of two Participatory Watershed Projects in Kerala. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33, pp. 1-12. 2008[2] Vishnudas, S., Hubert H.G. Savenije, Pieter Van der Zaag, Kunnathu R. Anil, Krishnan Balan,. Participatory Research using Coir Geotextiles in Watershed Management - a case study in South India. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 33, pp. 41–47. 2008.[3] Vishnudas, S., H. H. G. Savenije, P. van der Zaag, K. R. Anil, K. Balan, The protective and attractive covering of a vegetated embankment using coir geotextiles. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10: 565–574. 2006School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  16. 16. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 14 02nd to 14th May 2011 MODERN CEMENTS AND ITS APPLICATION M.A. Joseph UltraTech Cement Ltd. Cochin Division Mob.: 9961327817, E-mail: m.joseph@adityabirla.com INTRODUCTIONCement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. Modernhydraulic cements began to be developed from the start of the Industrial Revolution, driven by three main needs: • Hydraulic render (stucco) for finishing brick buildings in wet climates. • Hydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works, etc., in contact with sea water. • Development of strong concretes. TYPES OF MODERN CEMENTThe common classification of cement is given below.Portland cement • Colored cementPortland cement blends Non-Portland hydraulic cements • Portland blastfurnace slag cement • Supersulfated cements • Portland pozzolana cement • Geopolymer cements • White blended cements ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENTOrdinary portland cement is the most commonly used cement for a wide range of applications. These applicationscover dry-lean mixes, general-purpose ready-mixes, and even high strength pre-cast and pre-stressed concrete. PORTLAND BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENTPortland blast-furnace slag cement contains up to 70 per cent of finely ground, granulated blast-furnace slag, anonmetallic product consisting essentially of silicates and alumino-silicates of calcium. Slag brings with it theadvantage of the energy invested in the slag making. Grinding slag for cement replacement takes only 25 per cent ofthe energy needed to manufacture portland cement. Using slag cement to replace a portion of portland cement in aconcrete mixture is a useful method to make concrete better and more consistent. Portland blast-furnace slag cementhas a lighter colour, better concrete workability, easier finishability, higher compressive and flexural strength, lowerpermeability, improved resistance to aggressive chemicals and more consistent plastic and hardened consistency. PORTLAND POZZOLANA CEMENTPortland pozzolana cement is ordinary portland cement blended with pozzolanic materials (power-station fly ash,burnt clays, ash from burnt plant material or silicious earths), either together or separately. Portland clinker isground with gypsum and pozzolanic materials which, though they do not have cementing properties in themselves,combine chemically with portland cement in the presence of water to form extra strong cementing material whichresists wet cracking, thermal cracking and has a high degree of cohesion and workability in concrete and mortar.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  17. 17. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 15 02nd to 14th May 2011 LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE   Prof. Glory Joseph Division of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9745229596, E-mail: glorybaby@cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONProduction and use of lightweight concrete has received considerable interest in the construction field during the lasttwo decades. The technical, practical and economical benefits of high strength lightweight concrete have specialattractions for applications in high-rise buildings, offshore and marine structures, long span bridges etc. A decreaseddensity in the same strength level combined with high durability can lead to cost-effective engineering solutions forsuperstructure, foundation and pre-cast units. High strength lightweight concrete meeting the requirements ofconstruction industry can be produced by the use of lightweight aggregates (LWA) than other types of lightweightconcretes (aerated, no fines concrete etc.) because the strength of the concrete can be controlled to the required levelby varying the percentage volume or the type of aggregate. High strength concrete without increase in cementcontent can be achieved by using right proportion of mineral admixtures and chemical admixtures. The brittlefailure, which is more pronounced in high strength lightweight concrete, can be modified by introduction of fibers inthe matrix, which will improve the post peak behaviour. LIGTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETELightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) uses either natural or artificial lightweight aggregates with density rangesfrom 400 to 900 kg/m3. The natural materials used for producing artificial lightweight aggregates are clay, perlite,shale and slate and industrial byproducts are pulverized fuel ash, blast furnace slag, industrial waste, sludge etc.Lightweight concrete using artificial aggregates, produced from industrial byproducts makes it more sustainable andenvironment friendly. Pelletization and hardening of palletized aggregates are the two main processes in themanufacture of artificial aggregates. Most of the commercially available aggregates such as expanded clay or shale,and sintered fly ash aggregates use heat treatment of 1000 to 14000C. However depending on the materialcomposition of raw material, artificial aggregates with adequate engineering performance may be obtained by moistcuring of pelletized particles. The essential requirement of lightweight aggregate is its dense exterior shell with highinternal porosity.Because of high porosity and water absorption, the interaction of paste matrix and lightweight aggregate is differentfrom that of normal concrete. Porous surface of LWA improves the interfacial bond between the aggregate andcement paste by providing interlocking sites for the cement paste forming a dense and uniform interfacial zone.Enhanced hydration and internal moist curing due to reserve water available in the aggregate pores makes LWACless sensitive to curing. In structural lightweight concrete elastic modulus of aggregate is similar to that of the matrixresulting in significantly lower stress concentrations at the aggregate matrix interface and less micro cracking.Absence of micro-cracks in the concrete is the reason for the low permeability and excellent durability oflightweight concrete.REFERENCES[1] Bijen, J.M.J.M. (1986) Manufacturing processes of artificial lightweight aggregates from fly ash. The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, 8, 191-198.[2] Chi, J.M., R. Huang, C.C. Yang and J.J. Chang (2003) Effect of aggregate properties on the strength and stiffness of lightweight concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites, 25,197-205.[3] Zhang, M.H. and O.E. Gjorv (1991) Mechanical properties of high-strength lightweight concrete, ACI Materials Journal, 88(3), 240-247.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  18. 18. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 16 02nd to 14th May 2011 LATERIZED CONCRETE FOR FIRE PROTECTION Prof. George Mathew Division of Safety and Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9447726194, E-mail: george_m@cusat.ac.in ABSTRACTFire remains one of the most serious potential risks to buildings, especially for industrial structures made with steel.Most structural materials are affected when exposed to high temperature. One of the methods of protecting steelagainst fire is by encasing it with concrete (jacketing). Such concrete should perform its required function againstfire and generally strength is not a governing criterion. Performance of concrete exposed to fire is affected by factorslike the type of aggregate, cement, the temperature and duration of the fire, the rate of heating, size and shape ofstructural members, moisture content of concrete etc.. With the fast depleting state of natural resources like sand andaggregate, it is time to look for alternate materials for making concrete. Since performance is more important thanstrength when exposed to fire, concrete made using marginal materials could be effectively used for protecting steelagainst fire. One of the potential marginal materials that can be used in concrete is Laterite. Laterite is abundantlyavailable in many parts of the world.Laterite aggregate can be considered as one of the marginal materials. Concrete made with such materials will helpin sustaining the fast depleting natural resources like sand and aggregate. Control concrete specimen has been castwith natural sand as fine aggregate and crushed granite as coarse aggregate. Corresponding laterised concrete hasbeen cast by replacing sand and aggregate with weathered laterite all in aggregate. Specimens were heated to 200oC,400oC and 600oC and were cooled to room temperature by two methods - one by air cooling and the other by watercooling. The specimens were then tested to determine their compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus ofelasticity. The surface cracking behavior and colour change of specimens were also observed after cooling underboth the methods. Based on the test results, it could be concluded that laterised concrete can be considered as analternate fire protection material to cement concrete.REFERENCES[1] E. G. Butcher and A. C. Parnell, Designing for Fire Safety, John Wiley and Sons, Great Briton, 1983.[2] F. F. Udoeyo, U. H. Iron and O.O. Odim, Strength Performance of Laterised Concrete, Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier 20 (2006) 1047-1062.[3] S. Chandrakaran, Characteristic Behavior of Lateritic Concrete, Journal of Institution of Engineers, 77 (1996) 129-132.[4] M. A.Salu, Long Term deformations of Laterised Concrete short columns, Journal of Building and Environment, 38 (2003) 469-477.[5] J. A.Osunade, The influence of Coarse Aggregate and Reinforcement on the anchorage bond strength of Laterised Concrete. Journal of Building and Environment, 37 (2002) 727-732.[6] J.A.Osunade, Effect of replacement of Lateritic soils with Granite fines on the Compressive and Tensile strengths of Laterised Concrete. Journal of Building and Environment, 37 (2002) 491-496.[7] M. A. Salu and L.A.Balogun, Shrinkage Deformations of Laterised Concrete, Journal of Building and Environment, 34 (1999) 165-173.[8] F.F. Udoeyo, R.Brooks, P.Udo-Inyang and C. Iuji, Residual Compressive Strength of Laterized Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures, Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology (2) 3 (2010) 262-267.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  19. 19. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 17 02nd to 14th May 2011 SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION Prof. Deepa G. Nair Division of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9846249839, E-mail: deepagnair@cusat.ac.in ABSTRACTThe use of sustainable building materials and construction helps to conserve natural resources and protect theenvironment for present and future generations. Some of the theme areas one should look into in sustainableconstruction process are given below - Carbon Credits - Carbon Dioxide Sequestration - Rating of sustainable materials. - Embodied energy from production. - Energy requirements for transport and use. - Energy management during construction. - Energy management during use of the buildings and infrastructures. - Greenhouse gas reduction. - Life cycle analysis. - Making construction materials durable. - Maintaining quality and durability while achieving sustainability. - Maintenance and repair technologies for sustainability of buildings and infrastructure. - Mass balance - sources and final destinations of materials. - Recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) and energy savings - Use of recycled or recyclable by-products in constructionLeadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) is an internationally recognized green building certificationsystem, providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategiesintended to improve performance in metrics such as energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction,improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts. For asustainable practice of construction, sustainable sites, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources andinnovation and design process are to be considered.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  20. 20. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 18 02nd to 14th May 2011 FRP APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING  Prof. S. Ramadass Division of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9446925748, E-mail: csramadass@cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONFiber reinforced polymer(FRP) composite materials have developed into economically and structurally viableconstruction materials for buildings and bridges over last 20 years. FRP composite materials used in structuralengineering typically consist of glass, carbon, or aramid fibers encased in a matrix of epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester,or phenolic thermo setting resins that have fibre concentrations greater than 30% by volume. They have been usedin structural engineering in a variety of forms which are briefly discussed in this topic. VARIOUS FORMS OF FRP PRODUCTS • FRP reinforcements for concrete structural members • FRP tendons for pre-stressed concrete members • FRP strengthening systems(strips, sheets and fabrics) for retrofitting of reinforced concrete structural members • FRP profiles (I section, L sections, tube, channels sections etc) for trussesOverview, raw materials, manufacturing methods, selected FRP manufacturers, properties and design basis and thepublished design guides, codes of practices and specifications for FRP composites in structural engineering, keyconference series and archival journals for FRP reinforcements in concrete structural members, FRP tendons in pre-stressed concrete members, FRP strengthening systems for shear and flexure and FRP profiles are briefly covered. CONCLUSIONSOver the last decade, there has been significant growth in the use of FRP composite materials as constructionmaterials in structural engineering. Now at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the structural engineeringcommunity is about to centre a stage in which structural design with FRP composites is poised to become a routineas structural design with classical structural materials such as masonry, wood , steel and concrete.REFERENCES[1] L.C. Bank, Composites for construction: Structural design with FRP materials, John Wiely & Sons Inc., NJ, 551p, 2006[2] FRP-strengthened RC structures, J. G. Teng, John Wiley and Sons, 2002, 245 pages[3] Reinforced concrete design with FRP composites, H.V.S Ganga Rao, N.Taly,P.V.Vijay, CRC press 2006,282 pagesSchool of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  21. 21. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 19 02nd to 14th May 2011 FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE  Prof. Job Thomas Division of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9846545824, E-mail: job_thomas@cusat.ac.in ABSTRACTConcrete is strong in compression and weak in tension. Addition of steel fibres in concrete mitigates the effects ofpoor tensile capacity of concrete. The strength and deformability of concrete increases with the increase in steelfibre content. The fibres bridging across the crack effectively resist the opening up of crack in concrete. Themechanics based model proposed by Naaman for representing the behavior of fibre reinforced concrete has beendiscussed. The major advantages and application of fibre reinforced concrete are presented.  REFERENCES[1] Thomas J., Fracture properties of concrete containing flat plastic fibres, Journal of Structural engineering, IUP, April, 2010.[2] Thomas, J. and Prakash, V.S., Strength and behaviour of plastic fibre reinforced concrete, Journal of Structural engineering, SERC, March, 1999School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala
  22. 22. Proceedings of ISTE-STTP on Modern Materials and Methods in Engineering 20 02nd to 14th May 2011 EARTHQUAKE PROOFING METHODS IN SKYSCRAPERS  Prof. Job Thomas Division of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, CUSAT Mob.: 9846545824, E-mail: job_thomas@cusat.ac.in INTRODUCTIONAn earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earths crust and is associated with seismic waves.Three seismic waves striking on a building structure is classified into three, namely, P-wave, S-wave and surfacewaves. The P-waves are compression or push-pull waves moving in the vertical direction. The S-waves are lateralwaves moving in the vertical direction. Surface waves are lateral waves moving in the horizontal direction. Thestructure vibrates when subject to the sequential ground movement due to P-, S- and surface waves. The earthquakeproofing methods in skyscrapers are base isolation, bracing and active mass dampers.   BASE ISOLATION The base of the building is isolated from the ground. For base isolation from horizontal vibrations, ElastomericIsolator , Sliders and Rotating Ball Bearing isolator are used. Proving dampers made up of steel or lead at thecolumn base is another approach to isolate the building from vertical vibrations. BRACING In bracing, oil dampers or metal friction dampers are connected in X- form in the rectangular framing. Thesedampers resist the lateral sway of the structure. ACTIVE MASS DAMPERS The active mass dampers are also known as tuned mass dampers. The active mass located in the building ismobilized with a control device to oppose the lateral movement of the building. CONCLUSION Base isolation and bracing systems are simple technique of earthquake proofing. The active masses controlled by thecomplex algorithm can also be utilized for the earthquake proofing of high-rise buildingsREFERENCES[1] Agarwal P., Shrikhande M., Earthquake resistant design of structures, Prentice-Hall of India, 2006.[2] Meirovitch L., Elements of vibration analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1986[3] Paz M., Structural dynamics, CBS Publishers, 1987.School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochi – 682 022, Kerala

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